Thomas Gardner
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Thomas Gardner (abt. 1592 - 1674)

Thomas Gardner aka Gardiner
Born about in Sherborne, Dorset, Englandmap [uncertain]
Son of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
[sibling(s) unknown]
Husband of — married 28 Apr 1617 in Sherborne, Dorset, Englandmap
Husband of — married about 1641 in Salem, Essex, Massachusetts Bay Colonymap
Descendants descendants
Died in Salem, Essex, Massachusetts Bay Colonymap
Profile last modified | Created 27 Sep 2010 | Last significant change: 2 May 2022
18:48: GeneJ X replied to a comment on the page for Thomas Gardner (abt.1592-1674) [Thank GeneJ for this | 2 thank-yous received]
This page has been accessed 12,592 times.
The Puritan Great Migration.
Thomas Gardner migrated to New England during the Puritan Great Migration (1620-1640).
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Contents

Biography

This profile is part of the Gardner Name Study.

Thomas Gardner was born about 1592 (deposed age 69 on 26 Nov 1661).[1][2] Anderson found Gardner's origins were unknown.[3]

Thomas Gardner married first by about 1614, a woman whose name is unknown; she died, probably in Salem, Massachusetts Bay, 1636, possibly following the birth of the her youngest child.[4]

Immigration

Robert Charles Anderson placed Thomas Gardner's immigration at 1624, settling first at Cape Ann, and removing to Salem by 1626.[5]

At Massachusetts Bay

"Mr. John Tylly and Mr. Thomas Gardner were employed as overseers of that whole business [at Cape Ann]; the first with reference to the fishing, the other with respect to the planting on the main land, at least for one year's time ... "[6]

With Roger Conant, Thomas Gardner removed from Cape May to Salem,[7] where his name appears among those who were church members in late 1636.[8] He was made a freeman 17 May 1637.[9]

Thomas Gardner was named deputy for Salem to the Massachusetts Bay General Court on 26 September 1637.[10]

Gardner served on Essex grand juries 25 February 1641, 27 January 1643/4, and July 1644.[11] He was also named to petit juries. Thomas was find for failing to appear for service on 29 June 1641;[12] but appeared and served some thirteen times between 1643/4 and 1658.[13] Further, Gardner served on four other juries between 1636 and 1640.[14]

Thomas Gardner was a Salem selectman, constable, fenceviewer, highway surveyor, and rater.

He operated an inn, for which he his license was issued and/or renewed many times 1660s for the sale of strong drink. In June 1667, the license was amended to allow him to sell only to "strangers" and not to townsmen.[15]

He died in Salem 29 Dec 1674,[16] "husband of Damaris."

Family

Thomas Gardner was married first to a woman whose name is not known. She is presumed to have been the mother of all his children.

He married 2 (probably) by 1639 Margaret ____, who joined the church at Salem 24 Mar 1639/40.[17] (See The American Genealogist 30:156 for discussion of yet-to-be-confirmed claims she was Margaret Friar.)

He married (3) Damaris (_____) Shattuck. She was "widow Shattock" when she joined the Salem Church 2 Jul 1641 [SChR 11]; she died Salem 28 November 1674,[18] one month before her husband. (See TAG 30:165-68 for discussion of this woman and her many connections to the Pope and Gardner families.)

"The wife of Thomas Gardner Sr" was fined for frequent absence from the public ordinances on Lord's days, along with a number of other Quakers, November Term 1660 [EQC 2:265]. This was merely the beginning of a long string of such fines and official harassment that eventually convinced several of the sons to move with their families away from Salem. Thomas Gardner Sr. is never named as having absented himself from public worship, and history is silent on his opinion on the matter."[19]

Thomas and _____ (_____) Gardner were the parents of nine children,

  1. Thomas Gardner, born about 1614 (adult in 1637); eldest son with a double share in his father's will; married (1) by 1643 Hannah Hapscott[?]; married (2) Elizabeth Horne, daughter of John Horne; died 1682.
  2. George Gardner, born about 1616 (adult in 1637); made free 27 December 1642; married (1) by 1644 Hannah ____; married (2) by 1654 Elizabeth (Freestone) Turner, baptized Horncastle, Lincolnshire, 17 October 1619, dau of Richard and Margery (Freestone) Freestone, and widow of Robert Turner, shoemaker, of Boston; married (3) after 1663 Elizabeth (Allen) Stone, widow of Rev. Samuel Stone. (For the identity of these three wives, Anderson followed the work of George E. McCracken [TAG 30:158-66].) Died 20 Aug 1679 in Kingston, Rhode Island.
  3. John Gardner, born about 1624 (died Nantucket 6 July 1706, aged 82); married 20 February 1653/4 Priscilla Grafton [NanVR, citing "William C. Folger genealogical records in the possession of the Nantucket Historical Association"; this marriage probably took place in Salem.] Known as Captain John Gardner. He died May 1706 in Nantucket and is buried in the old burial ground on "Forefather's Hill." The original gravestone is still in existence, the only original gravestone of any of the early settlers. At present, it is kept in the old Coffin House (horseshoe house). A granite stone stands in its place at the grave, upon which is inscribed: "Here lyes buried ye body of John Gardner, Esq., age 82, who died May 1706. This stone erected in 1881 replaces one removed for preservation, which marked this spot for 175 years." His will was dated 2 December 1705 and probated on 2 October 1706.
  4. Sarah Gardner, born about 1627; about 1650 as first of his three wives Benjamin Balch, son of John Balch. Sarah died 15 Apr 1686 in Massachusetts.
  5. Samuel Gardner, born about 1629 (aged 50 in 1680); married (1) before 1658 Mary White, daughter of John and Elizabeth (____) White; married (2) Salem, 2 August 1680 Elizabeth _____ Paine.
  6. Joseph Gardenr, born about 1630 (age 16 in 1645/6); married Ann Downing, daughter of Emmanuel Downing; she married (2) 6 June 1676 Simon Bradstreet. Samuel died about Oct 1689 in Essex, Massachusetts.
  7. Richard Gardner, born about 1621; died 23 first month (March) 1688 in Nantucket. [Anderson claims born 1636 having died 1724 age 92, BUT Anderson did not examine the sources cited in his source; it was Richard's wife who died in 1724; Nantucket VR clearly lists a 1688 death for Richard and a 1724 death for his wife.] He married about 1652 (probably in Salem) Sarah Shattuck, daughter of his stepmother Damaris (_____) (Shattuck) Gardner. [TAG 30:168]
  8. Miriam Gardner, born about 1636; married by 1657 as his first wife John Hill; he married (2) Salem 26 August 1664 Lydia Buffum. Miriam died before August 1664.
  9. Seeth Gardner, baptized Salem 25 December 1636 [SChR 16]; married (1) Joshua Conant, son of Roger Conant; married (2) 1 December 1659, John Grafton, son of Joseph Grafton. She died 17 April 1707.

Last Will & Testament

Thomas made his will on 7 December 1668; proved proved 29 March 1675.[20][21] Inventory was taken 4 January 1675 (see below for details). The will mentions,

  • my wife Damaris [still living at time he wrote the will, although she died one month before he did]
  • my six sons
  • my daughter Sara Balch
  • my daughter Seeth Grafton
  • my daughter Mirian Hills (and her daughters Miriam and Susanna Hill)
  • sons George and John Gardner
  • sons Samuel and Joseph Gardner
  • my son Thomas

His will reads (spelling is as shown in will):

"Weighing the uncertainty of man's life I doe therefore in the time of my health, make this my last will as followeth:
First, I leave unto my wife Damaris, all that estate shee brought with her according to dower agreement: likewise I give unto her eight pounds, by the year during her life, to be pd her by my six sonns out of that estate I shall leave with them, which eight pounds I give on this condition, that shee give up to them her right to the third pt of my housing and lands during her life.
2---I give to my daughter Sara Balch: fifteene pounds.
3---I give to my daughter Seeth Grafton fifteene pounds.
4---I give to my daughter Miriam Hills two daughters, Miriam Hill and Susanna Hill to each of them five pounds to be pd to them, when they shall accomplish the age of eighteen yeares, or at theire marriage.
I give unto my sons George & John Gardner that pt of my salt meddow, lying on the west side of Capt. George Corwin's meddow, which I value at twenty pounds.
I give unto my sonns Samuell and Joseph Gardner, the other pt of my salt meddow lying on the east side of Capt. Corwin's meddow, wch I do likewise value at twenty pounds.
My will is further that my houseing with the rest of my lands & goods & estate with the meddow before mentioned, shall be divided into seaven equall pts: which I doe give to my six sons, as followeth: first I give to my son Thomas two pts of ye seaven, he paying to his mother in law forty-six shillings by the yeare, during her life.
2nd. I give to my son George Gardner one pt of the seven, he paying to his mother in law 23 shill. by the yeare during her life.
3rd. I give to my son Richard ..." (as above; also John, Samuel and Joseph have similar bequests in the order named).
"I doe appoynt my sons George and Samuell to be the executors of this my will & doe desire my loveing friends Mr. Joseph Grafton Sen and Deacon Horne to be my overseers to see this my will performed."
Signed: Thomas Gardner, The 7:10:68
Wit: Robert Pease, Samuell Goldthrite.
"On the 29 March 1675: Robert Pease & Samuell Goldthrite came before the worshipfull Edward King Esq. and Maj. Hathorne Esq. & Hilliard Veren clearke of the court at Salem, being present & gave oath that the above written was assigned to & declared the last will and testament of ye sd Tho: Gardner & that there is no latter will of his that they know of. Attest Hilliard Veren clerk."

Estate

An inventory of the goods & estate of Thomas Gardner was taken 4 Jan 1675 by Hilliard Veren, Sr. and John Pickering and totalled £274 16s., including real estate valued at £201: "an old dwelling house with about 10 acres of land adjoining with the orchard, fences &c.," £31; ten acres of ground in the Northfield, £27; about 100 acres of upland and meadow, £100; about 20 acres of land lying in the woods, £3; and about 2 3/4 acres of salt marsh lying above the mill," £40. The inventory also included "2 old barrels of guns" valued at 5s.[22]

Following Thomas Gardner's probate, there was a suit filed by George and Samuel sued John Pudney of Salem over a farm the Pudney leased.[23]

Still later, 2 September 1678, George Gardner (now of Hartford) and Samuel Gardner of Salem, as executors Thomas Gardner's estate, sold "all that part of the estate that said Gardner died possessed of and which the said executors have power to sell ..." to John Swinnerton of Salem, physician.[24]

All of the above property with exception of the ten acre lot in the north field by land of Robert Stone was bought back by Samuel on 22 July 1678, with Thomas Gardner Sen'r his brother being one of the witnesses.

Research Notes

Estate. A prior version of this profile provided a reference for his estate of "According to County Court records, Case no. 54, March 1675."

Origins. There is no documented proof of his origins or parentage, including no proof that he was the son of Thomas Gardner and Elizabeth White.

Anderson found that Banks had stated without authority that Gardner might have come from Hurst, Martock parish, Somersetshire.[25]

Anderson further wrote, "An origin in the West County is certain, but the name is common and none of the suggestions made to date has a firm foundation." Also, "George McCracken suggested that the unusual name of the Gardner's last child, Seeth, was an indication that in previous generations there had been a marriage to someone with that surname.[26]

Wife or Wives. A post, "Marriage of Thomas and Margaret," sponsored by the society that bears his name, Thomas Gardner Society argues that information found in 2014 that may explain that Margaret Friar was the first wife of Thomas Gardner and the mother of all of his children, and that he only had one other wife, Demaris ____ (widow Shattock). The Thomas Gardner Society has decided to leave all of Thomas' children attached to Margaret, not to an unknown first wife, as was argued by Robert Charles Anderson in "The Great Migration Begins." The post indicates that Margaret's parents were Walter Friar and Grace Mullins and also states "...there is a record that may show Thomas' parents: Thomas Gardner and Christine Saule."

A research post by the society, Sherborne, Dorset, reports details about the discovered marriage of Thomas Gardiner and Margaret Frier on April 28, 1617 in Sherborne, Dorset, followed by baptisms of sons Thomas and George-- known to be the two oldest sons of the later Salem couple.

There is a 1591 Sherborne baptism of a Thomas Gardiner that would fit this Thomas and a 1598 baptism of Margaret Frier; unfortunately neither baptism lists the parents. That said, there is a Sherborne marriage record for a Walter Frier and Grace Mullins on 31 Jan 1591, a reasonable timeframe to be Margaret's parents.[27]Image linked to Margaret's profile and available at Family History Centers on-site[28]

Question: Can we confirm that this Sherborne family (Thomas and Margaret with sons Thomas and George) disappear from Sherborne records after 1624, known migration year of the Salem, Massachusetts family?

Sources

  1. Citing "EQC 2:320," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 733; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  2. George Francis Dow, Records and files of the Quarterly courts of Essex county, Massachusetts, 9 vols. (Salem, Mass. : Essex institute, 1911-19750, 2:320-321; digital images, Hathi Trust, on p. 321, testimony of Thomas Gardner, November 1661, aged about sixty-nine years.
  3. The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III. (Online database: AmericanAncestors.org, New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2010), (Originally Published as: New England Historic Genealogical Society. Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995). Volume III, pp 731-737 subscription needed
  4. Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 733; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors, also comments at p. 735 to reconcile the "household of seven" recognized by Salem land grand of 1637. This reconciliation is an important part of the basis by which Anderson concluded that Thomas Gardner's first wife, whose name is unknown, was deceased at the time of that land grant.
  5. Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 731; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  6. Alexander Young, Chronicles of the first planters of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, 1623-1636 (Boston, C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1846), 23; digital images, Hathi Trust.
  7. Alexander Young, Chronicles of the first planters of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, 1623-1636 (Boston, C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1846), 23n; digital images, Hathi Trust.
  8. Citing "SChR 5," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 731; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  9. Citing "MBCR 1:373," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 731; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  10. Citing "MBCR 1:204," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 731; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  11. Citing STR 1:120, EQC 1:33, 57, 62," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 731; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  12. Citing EQC 1:26," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 731; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  13. Reporting petit jury service, 27 January 1642/3, 28 January 1646, 28 January 1647/8, 26 January 1648/9, 26 June 1649, 24 June 1651 (foreman), 29 June 1652, 28 June 1653, 6 March 1653/4, 13 June 1655, 27 November 1655, 30 June 1657, and 29 June 1658, citing "STR 1:104, 146, 184, 186, 202, 216, EQC 1:44, 129, 153, 169, 29, 254, 283, 326, 408, 2:42, 71," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 731; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  14. Referring to service 26 August 1636, 27 June 1637 (foreman), 27 September 1639, and 29 January 1640[/1], citing "EQC 1:3, 6, 12, 24," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 731; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  15. Citing "EQC 3:339, 431, 4:36, 37, 161, 269, 397," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 731; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  16. "Massachusetts Deaths and Burials, 1795-1910," database, FamilySearch  : 10 February 2018), Thomas Gardner, 29 Dec 1674; citing Salem, Essex, Massachusetts, reference ; FHL microfilm 877,468.[1]
  17. Citing "SChR 8," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 733; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  18. "Massachusetts Deaths and Burials, 1795-1910," database, FamilySearch  : 10 February 2018), Thomas Gardner in entry for Damaris Gardner, 28 Nov 1674; citing Salem, Essex, Massachusetts, reference ; FHL microfilm 877,468.[2]
  19. The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III. (Online database: AmericanAncestors.org, New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2010), (Originally Published as: New England Historic Genealogical Society. Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995).Volume III, pp 735-736 subscription needed
  20. George Francis Dow, Records and files of the Quarterly courts of Essex county, Massachusetts, 9 vols. (Salem, Mass. : Essex institute, 1911-1975), 6:31; digital images, Hathi Trust
  21. George Francis Dow, The probate records of Essex County, Massachusetts, 3 vols. (Salem, Mass., Essex Institute, 1916-1920), 2:423-425 (Estate of Thomas Gardner of Salem); digital images, Hathi Trust.
  22. George Francis Dow, The probate records of Essex County, Massachusetts, 3 vols. (Salem, Mass., Essex Institute, 1916-1920), 2:423-425 (Estate of Thomas Gardner of Salem); digital images, Hathi Trust.
  23. Citing "EQC 5:356," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 733; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  24. Citing "ELR 5:3," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 733; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  25. Citing "Topo Dict 143," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 734; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  26. Citing TAG30:157," Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Volumes I-III, 3 vols., 1995, 731-737 (Thomas Gardner), at 734; digital images by subscription, AmericanAncestors.
  27. Dorset Online Parish Clerks (transcription) https://www.opcdorset.org/SherborneFiles/SherborneMars1560-1599.htm
  28. Bishop's transcripts for Sherborne, 1585-1880 FHL film 1239227 Items 8 - 15 https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/490967

See Also.

Acknowledgements

EditNotes

For images related to Sherborn, Dorset, see the Profile of Margaret Friar or Sherborne focus at Gardner Research.

... Note: these moved to a G2G: Edit notes: specific to updates for profile of Thomas Gardner

Again, Edit Notes will disappear once this Profile is sufficiently structured to meet the requirements set by WikiTree.

Edit Notes Created: Oct 2019; Last update: "29 Nov 2020"



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Buried in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Essex, Massachusetts.
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Comments: 44

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While updating the profile of George Peabody Gardner, Jr., (a Thomas Gardner descendant) I was perusing Dr. Frank’s 1933 update to his “Thomas Gardner, Planter” book, for sources and information. I was curious about the year of birth for Thomas that he estimated based on a deposition Thomas gave but after checking this profile for the umpteenth time, came away sorely disappointed.

Thomas was among the early founders of Salem and he and his sons were prominent as selectmen and jurymen. His descendants were some of the well-known families in Nantucket, Boston and elsewhere (I’m not related to this family except possibly peripherally through the Littles and Coffins–I have no ancestor bones to pick). I’ve worked on other descendants with particular interest in the Nantucket whaling captains like Capt. Edmund Gardner & Capt. George W. Gardner, Jr. (and Sr,) plus an interest in military profiles eg. Brig. Gen. Wm. M. Gardner & M.Sgt. Wm. Gardner, but these profiles don’t get 12,000 views.

Thomas deserves a coherent biography that follows most of the Wikitree standards and style-guide recommendations–not something that starts every sentence (and paragraph) with He… He… He… (I’m not laughing;).

I understand folks are busy… they’ve uploaded thousands of profiles via GEDCOM. WikiTree is a great platform with its collaborative single-tree approach but sometimes that leads to “mediocrity by committee” when no one person takes responsibility. There could be an update in the works (for 10 years?) but maybe someone can explain what, exactly, is being “protected.”

Exempli gratia :

Why start a biography with “From “Great Migration Begins”?” This is a secondary source. Why not start with “From Wikipedia”? It doesn’t require a subscription.

The rest looks like a cut-and-paste hack.

Starting with “He” was born about 1592. The citation is inline: [EQC 2:320] . This obviously refers to the Essex County Quarterly Court Records Vol. 2, page 320.

Thomas was deposed in 1661 because someone stole someone else’s colt. The entry is as follows:

Court records for 26 Nov 1661.
John Burton vs. John Porter, Sr., For taking up a young mare, branding her and keeping her in his possession without leave or consent, according to attachment, dated, 13:9:1661. Verdict for plaintiff, the colt to be his.
Job Swinerton, jr., and Thomas Gardner, jr., aged about seventeen years, deposed that they were desired by Thomas Gardner, sr., to take up a colt that was with his mare, which formerly he had sold to John Burton. They brought the colt home and John Burton owned it to be his. This colt was with the mare four or five months after she was sold. Mr. Gardner had seen it in the woods last summer and this summer. Sworn in court.
Thomas Gardner, aged about sixty-nine years, deposed that his colt, which Porter had branded with the letter “P” was the one he sold to John Burton. Sworn in court.

Notes:

  • In “ye ould” month numbering system, 9 = November.
  • Thomas Gardner, jr.,(born abt. 1644), was the GRANDSON of Thomas Gardner, sr., (born abt. 1592).
  • Thomas Gardner, sr.’s son Samll. Gardner was sitting on the “jury of trials“ at this time but I assume he recused himself from this case.
  • Records and Files of the Quarterly Courts of Essex County, Massachusetts, Volume II, 1656-1662 (Salem: The Essex Institute, 1912), 320, accessed 23 Apr 2022, https://archive.org/details/recordsfilesofqu02esse/page/320/mode/1up .

As far as “... origins unknown.” Not completely unknown, since we know he likely came from Great Britain. Whether it’s southern England where the company that brought him to New England was formed or Scotland is moot point. The scales are on England but the fact that he distilled alcohol in the new world rather than brewing ale might weigh on that.

What else? “He married…” Those can all be deleted since there are no provable marriage records for Thomas. He was married to “Damaris” as stated in his will but we don’t know when and she was the “mother in law” or stepmother of his children. Other marriages are speculative and can be included in Research Notes.

And I don’t think he was an “innkeeper” or a de facto governor.

posted by Robert Gardner
Robert, it's great that you are interested in improving the format and accuracy of this profile.

To answer your question about project protection, the only thing that does is prevent family members from being added or deleted (spouses, children, parents). That is usually done only when needed because there has been a history of people making unsupported changes based on no sources or weak sources. If you look at the "Changes" tab you can see a history of duplicate merge submissions that were cancelled, unsourced parents that were removed etc. This is probably why Thomas was "project protected".

Other than that, everyone on WikiTree who is pre-1700 certified can edit and improve the format, add sources, and improve other data fields. Of course, all this with proper sourcing per the pre-1700 guidelines. Thomas' profile could certainly use some improving; links could be provided to sources etc. His data section and biography narrative have fallen out of sync which does happen with a lot of cooks in the kitchen.

The PGM project curates well over 7,000 profiles with about 70 volunteer team members, only a few of those have the spare time to be regularly involved on a daily basis. I can't speak for non-PGM profile managers of course. The point is, there is always more work to be done than hands available and most of us spend a lot of time working on profiles who we are not related to just because we are trying to improve the shared tree. As you pointed out, it takes time to hand-craft a unique, well-written profile.

So with that said, any improvements you can make to Thomas Gardner in the spirit of WikiTree collaboration would be great. You are clearly already familar with this man and his family.

Regarding the text in the bio about his marriages, while different wording could be used and I don't want to argue writing style with you, it is accurate to say that he married multiple women even if not all primary records are found. As you noted, it is proven that he married Damaris, and some things are known about her. It is proven that he married previously and the TAG:30 article (https://americanancestors.org/DB283/i/11829/156/0) and Thomas Gardner society link include some information about this, so we do need to include that information somewhere under a "Marriage" topic. It's a challenge to balance a timeline-based narrative with one that makes it quick and easy for a viewer to answer the questions "who were his wives" and "who were his children" and to pull out key data when looking for duplicates or trying to see if family members are correct.

Thanks again for your interest in this profile and I look forward to seeing your contriubtions.

posted by Brad Stauf
Hi Robert and Brad,

Unless there are objections, I'll work this morning to add some of Anderson's source of the source to some of the genealogically significant items in the profile.

I doubt this will resolve all the concerns Robert raised, but will give it a go. --Gene

Edited to add: I have completed this brief work, though more verbatim passages may still exist, particularly in the child list.

posted by GeneJ X
edited by GeneJ X
Hi Robert,

I have updated much of the biography to incorporate Anderson's sources in the references notes attributed to him. In some cases, I pulled those references and included links to the records as a separate citation.

It would be wonderful if folks could pull all of those "source of the source" references and include them as inline citations. WikiTree has a listing that covers most of the sources Anderson cites. See "Sources used in the Great Migration series".

--Gene

posted by GeneJ X
I removed the recent edit adding the claim that Thomas Gardner was the de facto first Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony pending further discussion and consensus. No source was cited for the edit, but in the comments to his GMB entry, Anderson notes that Thomas Gardner & John Tylly were briefly employed as overseers of the Cape Anne plantation in 1624, Tylly with respect to fishing & Gardner with respect to planting, for the first year of that settlement. Anderson cites Young's First Planters 23 for this point, relevant page here. Young does not add much more than what Anderson says. According to GMB, Thomas Gardner was only at Cape Anne for two years, after which he resettled in Salem and became an innkeeper. My view is that this is not enough to describe him as the de facto first Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. If there are other sources which support the claim, we should discuss them. Either way, if we include this claim in the profile, I think it should go in the body of the Biography and not as a separate "Overview" section. Given the history of conflation, etc., with this profile, I think it is important to keep that Notice prominently at the top of the profile.

Here was the removed edit for reference:

Thomas Gardner's role included serving as an Overseer of the "old planters" party of the Dorchester Company. The Company landed in 1624 at Cape Ann. They formed a colony in the area of what is now Gloucester, Massachusetts. While he did not have an appointment as an official governor, his roles constituted the roles that a governor of a colony would have performed. As such, Gardner is considered by some to have been the first de facto Governor of Massachusetts. (As Gardner had authority over the first settlement that became the Massachusetts Bay Colony and which later also subsumed the Plymouth Colony)

posted by Scott McClain
I agree, Scott. I have found other cases as well where Wikipedia has a profile on someone that whose "notable" origins are weak in terms of sources that PGM would consider as reliable.
posted by S (Hill) Willson
It's been pointed out in response to my original comment that the official WikiTree standard for applying a notables sticker provides that "Having a Wikipedia entry automatically qualifies somebody as being Notable," and Thomas Gardener does (see Thomas Gardner (planter), so based on that a Notables sticker is appropriate. That guidance is here.

To be clear, I don't object to adding that sticker nor do I object to adding an explanation in his bio of why his role in the early settlement of Massachusetts is considered to be significant. It looks to me like that Wikipedia article is relying primarily on Frank Gardner, Thomas Gardner Planter and Some of his Descendants (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1907) (Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/thomasgardnerpl00gardgoog) as the source for this point, so we could add that as a source to the profile.

Having said that, I still think that characterizing him as the de facto first governor of Massachusetts is a stretch. I would suggest a more balanced presentation of these facts about him in the WikiTree profile.

posted by Scott McClain
edited by Scott McClain
The Notables Project page also states that they use Wikipedia standards for being notable. Frankly, Thomas Gardner does not meet Wikipedia standards and really should not have a Wikipedia page. If we were to include him we would have to add a couple thousand other profiles of men who served as selectmen of their towns and actively participated in the affairs of their town. To me, his career is very typical of many early Great Migration immigrants.

I will admit that I do have a pet peeve against the overuse of stickers. I feel they serve very little purpose and tend to just clutter up a profile.

posted by Joe Cochoit
I suggest that information be added to the profile regarding the importance of Thomas Gardner and that a notables sticker -
Notables Project
Thomas Gardner is Notable.
- be added to the profile since he is already managed by a project.

Here is language from his Wikipedia page that could be modified:

Thomas Gardner was an Overseer of the "old planters" party of the Dorchester Company who landed in 1624 at Cape Ann to form a colony at what is now known as Gloucester. Gardner is considered by some to have been the first Governor of Massachusetts, due to his being in authority in the first settlement that became the Massachusetts Bay Colony (into which was later subsumed the Plymouth Colony).

posted by Russell Butler
Is there a reliable source on Wikipedia for him being Governor? I didn't see it mentioned by Anderson, but perhaps I missed it.
posted by S (Hill) Willson
My reading is not that he was an official governor, but that he performed a governor like role.
posted by Russell Butler
FindAGrave lists a specific birth date has a specific baptism date of 30 Oct 1592 with an image of the parish register. Does someone want to take a look?

https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/24962425/thomas-gardner

posted by M Cole
Thank you for the notice about the edits at FindAGrave. This brings up the opportunity to point to what's being done with Thomas' Profile. We have been discussing these changes since 2014 when the records were first noticed to have been digitized. Also, someone changed 1591 to 1592 for October. The following two months still have 1591.

With regard to coordinating edits, there is a project on-going. See https://www.wikitree.com/g2g/1144201/edit-notes-specific-to-updates-for-profile-of-thomas-gardner.

With regard to general issues, see this G2G. I moved the comment about the burial site's disposition over there. https://www.wikitree.com/g2g/1129086/coordinating-coming-edits-the-thomas-gardner-gardner-page

posted by John M. Switlik
edited by John M. Switlik
Great to see so much collaboration going on....I glanced through the notes and didn't see anything related to this parish register. My assumption is that the conclusion is at this time there's not enough information to confirm the record as the right one for this Thomas Gardner.
posted by M Cole
The images are under Margaret's Profile. https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Fryer-892 Why? Because Thomas' is such a mess. We are working to clean it up.

There were 'Edit notes' which referenced these images: https://thomasgardnersociety.org/html/Research/Sherborne.html#images These notes are now at this G2G: https://www.wikitree.com/g2g/1144201/edit-notes-specific-to-updates-for-profile-of-thomas-gardner.

The approach was going to be to clean it up (remove most of these images) and then use Anderson's book as the basis with changes/notes based upon later research.

So, is this our Thomas and Margaret? Needs careful consideration. One person mentioned doing something for the NEHGR. Want to help with that?

Note: Edit notes on this Profile point to Margaret's Profile or Gardner Research wrt to images from Sherborne records.

posted by John M. Switlik
edited by John M. Switlik
For specific first steps suggested for updating this profile, interested parties please see this g2g post as well as the one that Cheryl posted below: https://www.wikitree.com/g2g/1144201/edit-notes-specific-to-updates-for-profile-of-thomas-gardner
posted by S (Hill) Willson
profile managers and others interested in this profile, please see g2g for particulars on this profile and to volunteer to improve it.

Follow this link: [1]

Cheryl PGM Leader

Adding Puritan Great Migration to son George
posted by Chris Hoyt
Thank you, [edit: corrected name :-] Chris: project account added to son George
posted by Cheryl (Aldrich) Skordahl
edited by Cheryl (Aldrich) Skordahl
Pending change. I would like to see us remove those images from Frank's book. There are good copies on-line (Google docs, archive.org, and Hathi Trust) which can be referenced here. Now, if the NEHGS would be so kind as to allow us to point to Anderson's book (... wish list ...).

Would not removing those images improve the look of the Profile? Also, if this is not an appropriate place for such a comment, please let me know.

posted by John M. Switlik
John, I'll add my 2 cents. I agree that when you can link to an off-site image like archive.org etc, there is no need to put up a local image and that's the way I do it on my family tree. The ones like parish registers that are not available to be linked is what I think are worthwhile. Respecting the need to attribute, obey copyright usage etc (which, yes, I've been scolded for previously).
posted by Brad Stauf
I was thinking the same thing. I support such a change.
posted by Jillaine Smith
I added the source for the 1591 Sherborne marriage of Walter Frier and Grace Mullins...and then realized that somebody did all this work on Margaret's profile, an image of the marriage is already there as well as an image of the marriage of this Thomas and Margaret. Oh well, it can't hurt to have the links here I suppose. I'll add a link to that latter marriage image on this profile as well.
posted by Brad Stauf
edited by Brad Stauf
Regarding the edit notes: could whoever added them please add a date so we know when they were added? Thanks.
posted by Jillaine Smith
I have Thomas, St as my 9th great-grandfather. Luckily for me this came with new information when I merged John Macy and Deborah Gardner [daughter of Richard Gardner] with another member's information. I will read everything thoroughly. All dates don't match what I have from my research but I rather think I should trust what you have because a lot of mine came from ancestry.co.uk... I never take some of their information at their say-so anyway. Only if I can see the original church parish records, etc will I use it. Thank you for what looks like a very thorough job! Much better than mine, I assure you!
Thomas is the 11th great grandfather of Janine
Thanks, John. Feel free to edit the profile directly.
posted by Jillaine Smith
Jillaine Smith. Yes. I will start a G2G related to the effort. Appreciate the opportunity to summarize what we (might) know as plenty of researchers have touched upon the subject.

For me, the work will be dedicated to first cousin Frank (MD and author) who got this started.

Caveat: My focus is advanced computational support for modern processes which include research. I am using an embed, improve method which can be effective. Actually, the 'wiki' approach was one of the chief attributes that made WikiTree so appealing to me. I will push this up my priority queue for the next few weeks.

posted by John M. Switlik
John Switlik, you seem closest to the most research done on this family. Would you be willing to update this profile based on that research? It includes changing the parents currently linked.
posted by Jillaine Smith
Are we confident in the birthplace we are currently publishing?
posted by Isaac Taylor
John, I have been reviewing the evidence given and I think the evidence is very good to establish the English origins of Thomas Gardner. The correct name of his wife Margaret, and the correct names of his sons baptized in the correct order is conclusive. Frankly, this should be published in the NEHGR.

This also says that Anderson's theory that there was an unknown first wife is incorrect I am frankly surprised at Anderson's supposition based on differing dates of admittance to the church - this was in fact extremely common.

posted by Joe Cochoit
Update. See Perley's walkabout and related posts (29 December 1674, A new twist) as we are a few days past the 344th of Thomas' death.
posted by John M. Switlik
Not buried in Harmony Grove Cemetery.

New view, lots of new research opportunities: The remains of Thomas? We do not know.

His stone was moved to Harmony Grove. Grandson Abel, son of son Samuel (ancestor), and his wife were of those whose stones were moved, as well.

It is unclear how many gravestone were moved, whose bodies may have been re-interned, or just how many graves were left to be scraped by the road work or to be covered over by the progress of building. More research is to be done. Dr. Frank talked to George Augustus Gardner about, and read the, notes that George had that had been written by Samuel Pickering Gardner (see Gardner Memorial - page 17).

posted by John M. Switlik
Frank A. Gardner, M.D., author of the Gardner books, editor of The Massachusetts Magazine, and more.

We have both his paternal and maternal tree filled in (profile focus) and are working on editing for format (sources, et al) plus completeness.

His maternal tree was accomplished by using his personal notes (ca 1907).

posted by John M. Switlik
Sherborne, Dorset study: post and details (including images from digitized records).

Original note that precipitated discussion about the records (which I just verified that I have, on our server).

posted by John M. Switlik
I just started a Profile for first cousin, Dr. Frank.

https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Gardner-11627

Right now, I point to his Gardner tree via an ahnentafel (sourced) on the profile. I have his handwritten lineage for his mother which I will be adding in the next week.

posted by John M. Switlik