Mąkskaga (Ho-Chunk) White Breast
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Mąkskaga (Ho-Chunk) White Breast (abt. 1795 - abt. 1866)

Mąkskaga "Stone Man" White Breast formerly Ho-Chunk
Born about in Wisconsin, Northwest Territory, United Statesmap
Ancestors ancestors
Son of and [mother unknown]
Husband of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Descendants descendants
Died about at about age 71 [location unknown]
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Profile last modified | Created 23 Sep 2019
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Mąkskaga (Ho-Chunk) White Breast is a part of Wisconsin history.
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Mąkskaga was Ho-Chunk.
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Mąkskaga (Ho-Chunk) White Breast is Notable.




His name was Mą́kskaga, "White Breasts," from mą́k, "chest, breast"; ska, "white"; and -ga, a definite article suffix used in personal names. He was also known as "Stone Man," which is Įnįwąkšika in HoChunk.[1] Įnįwąkšika is from įnį, "stone, rock"; wąkšik, "human, man, Indian"; and -ka, a definite article suffix used in personal names. Both of these names are from the Bear Clan.


Chief White Breast = Mą́kskaga — a War Chief and member of the Bear Clan. His father was named Kee-zuntsh-ga [Kizų́čka], "Soft-Shelled Turtle," and had a village at Lake Koshkonong. Kizų́čka's father was Ma-sho-pa-ka [Mąčopaga], meaning "Grizzly Bear Head." White Breast had a brother called Na-xee-zheb-ga [perhaps, Naxi, "Fourth Born," and Sepka, "Black"]. White Breast's wife was named Hopink-ah [Hopįga, "Good Voice"], and at least two daughters, Onck-say-onc-ah [probably for Haksagā, "Third Born Female"], and No-waw-chock-wink-ah [Nąwáčakwįka, "Fortress Woman"]. His first son was named, Mau-na-suntsh-ga [Mąnąksųčka], "Shakes the Earth by the Force of His Step"; his second son bore the name, Shounk-mau-no-nee-ga [Šųgᵋmąnųnįga], "Lost Dog" (probably a nickname); his third son was called, Mau-chgoo-[w]a-shiste-ga [Mąčguwąšiška], "Breaks the Band [Bow] with the Force of His Feet." The male names seem to be those found in the Bear Clan, which does not supply village chiefs, but in this case we may conclude that he was the War Chief of the villages named.[2]


His grandson, Ely Rasdall, told Jipson[3] that “White Breast was a member of the bear clan, and that he was considered a great warrior, and at various times prior to the Black Hawk War, he led four war parties and never lost a man; that he was one of the leading scouts during the Black Hawk War."


In 1829, he had two villages, one as shown above on Sugar Creek where the town of Brodhead is now located (42.618540, -89.376291), and a second at the mouth of the Sugar River. The former village was called, Na-hoo-rah-roo-hah-rah [Nąhų́ra Ruhara], "Sturgeon Spawn."

Later, in 1835, with Little Priest, he had a village on the Wisconsin River. Both of his daughters married Abel Rasdall. The photograph of White Breast was made by R. A. Lewis in 1865, when a number of Hočąk chiefs had traveled east for treaty negotiations.[4]


Ely Rasdell told Jipson,[5] "He died in Minnesota just as the Winnebagoes were being removed from that state.” This is not quite right, since the Winnebago were removed in 1863, and we have Lewis' photo of him from 1865. This probably means that he died around 1866.



  1. Lurie, 69, #99.
  2. quoted from Dieterle, citing Waggoner, 22b; Jipson, Story, 234-235; Jipson, Villages, 127.
  3. Story, 235.
  4. quoted from Dieterle, citing Waggoner, 22b; Jipson, Story, 234-235; Jipson, Villages, 127.
  5. Story, 235.


  • Richard L. Dieterle, Commentary to Jipson, "Winnebago Villages and Chieftain of the Lower Rock River Region," stable URL.
  • Nancy Oestreich Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Journal of the Wisconsin Indians Research Institute, 2, #1 (June, 1966): 50-73.
  • Linda M. Waggoner (ed.), “Neither White Men Nor Indians: Affidavits from the Winnebago Mixed-blood Claim Commissions, Prairie Du Chien, Wisconsin, 1838-1839” (Roseville, Minnesota: Park Genealogical Books, 2002). Extracted from Territorial Papers of the United States, Wisconsin, 1836-1848. M236. “Special Files of the Office of Indian Affairs,” 1836-46. “Special File 161” (Roll 41). “Special File 190” (Roll 42). National Archives, Washington D.C., Documents on Microfilm, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (Record Group 75).
  • Norton William Jipson, "Winnebago Villages and Chieftain of the Lower Rock River Region," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 2, #3 (July, 1923): 125-139.
  • Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923). This is an unpublished typescript.


Thank you Richard Dieterle for the research into and creation of this profile. See his (pre-rename) contributions to this profile.

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