Categories: Upper Clatford, Hampshire | Sea Venture, sailed June 18, 1609 | Mayflower Passengers | Mayflower Family Member | Colonial America | Massachusetts Bay Colonists | English Immigrants to America.
Recently, Caleb Johnson has given a few talks where he discussed circumstantial evidence that points to parents for Stephen. In the past, he had said there was none. To reflect that we are now connecting the parents that he is supporting, and have included sources from recent journals to reflect that, as well as the maiden name of his first wife, Mary.Brown-8212 13:42, 8 August 2014 (EDT)
Stephen Hopkins was born in England around 1580. One source says he was baptised on April 30, 1581, at All Saints Church, Upper Clatford, Hampshire.
- Of his parentage and early life of there appears little that is reliable. He doubtless had seen much of the rough part of life before he concluded to join the Leyden company and settle in the New World. He was an energetic, self reliant, and fearless man, and of good judgment in matters of business. The Pilgrims were, indeed, fortunate in having him with them in the settlement to pass judgment upon secular matters that might come up.
Upon the Sea Venture
- Mr. Hopkins was probably the man of that name hired as a minister's clerk aboard the "Sea Venture". "Sea Venture" of 300 tons, was one of a fleet of 7 ships and 2 pinnaces which started a voyage to Virginia on July 23, 1609. On the vessel were the "sturdy soldier" Sir Thomas Gates, Deputy Governor of the Virginia Colony, and "the old sea rover" Sir George Summers, Admiral of the Seas. The Captain was the famous Christopher Newport who had made many trips, including the first, between England and Virginia. When about 7 or 8 days sail from their destination, a terrible storm arose which lasted for several days. The "Sea Venture" became a wreck and on July 28, 1609, and was driven ashore on the Island of Bermuda (Somers Island) where the passengers and crew to the number of 150 men, women and children alighted by means of their small boats.
- There were no inhabitants there, probably because of Spanish slave hunters. Fortunately, there were a great number of birds on the island which became tamed and easily caught. There were also thousands of wild hogs on the island which were probably descendants of those left on the island by Oviedo in the year 151. There were also many turtles.
- It was not until May 21, 1610, that what was left of the passengers of the "Sea Venture" reached Virginia in a small boat which they had built in Bermuda. It is related that the voyagers found the Virginia Colony in a distressed condition. The buildings were going to waste. The scarcity of provisions increased daily. In a short time, hardly sixty of six hundred settlers survived and these were starving. Gates, Somners and Newport determined to abandon the settlement which would have been accomplished except for the arrival of Lord Delaware with supplies from England.
- Hopkins could not have met Captain John Smith in Virginia because it was in October, 1609, that Smith, after being wounded by an explosion of gun powder, returned to England for surgical treatment. When Smith's health had been restored, he formed a partnership with certain London merchants with the idea of obtaining some profits for the the Plymouth Company from its American grant. This led to his expedition to the New England Coast in 1614 and his unsuccessful attempt to send over two other vessels later. Hopkins must have been in a position where he could meet Smith had he desired to do so.
- During the sojourn Hopkins undertook to persuade others that it was no breach of honesty, conscience nor religion to decline from the obedience to the Governor since the authority ceased when the wreck was committed. His arguments prevailed little and he was placed under guard, brought before the company in manacles and the Governor passed the sentence of a Martial Court upon him such as belongs to mutiny and rebellion. But so penitent he was and made so much moane...that the whole company besought the Governor and never left him until we had got his pardon.
- This contemporary account of events is included in William Strachey's record of the voyage and the wreck of the Sea Vventure, which also notes that while Hopkins was ultra religious he was contentious and defiant of authority and had enough learning to undertake to wrest leadership from others.
- Although there is no complete list of the shipwrecked party who eventually reached Jamestown in the 2 pinnaces Patience and Deliverance built on the islands, Hopkins did not remain on the Somers Islands and conclusion is that the recalcitrant came docilely to Virginia despite his known wish to return to England. In view of his past disturbances the authorities could not have been loath to part with him and it is reasonable to suppose that he was allowed to return to England on one of the first ships and thus passed out of the history of Virginia.
- One reason why the historians believed the Stephen Hopkins of the "Sea Venture" and the Stephen Hopkins of the "Mayflower" are the same person is because of the knowledge of America which Hopkins had. When the Pilgrims were on their first exploring party and Bradford had been caught in an Indian trap made by a noose attached to a bent tree. Hopkins explained that it was an Indian trap for deer. He was sent with Standish to try to interview strange Indians. When Samoset came to Plymouth, he stayed overnight in the house of Hopkins, probably because Hopkins knew more about Indians than the others. It was Hopkins who went in early July 1621, with Winslow to confirm the treaty with Massasoit and to strengthen amicable relations between settlers and the Indians. When a messenger came from Cononcius bringing the snake skin full of arrows, Hopkins was able to glean from the Indian what it meant. It seems probable that Hopkins was selected by Weston to accompany the Pilgrims because of his previous experiences in Virginia.
Back In England
- Mr. Hopkins obtained passage on a vessel back to England, and was back in his home country again. Upon returning in the fall of 1615 or 1616, he found that his wife, Mary, had died. (Some theories maintain it was of the plague, though this is seemingly not concrete.) The home in England of Stephen Hopkins was just outside of London Wall on the high road entering the city at Aldgate in the vicinity of Heneage House. In this neighborhood lived John Carver and William Bradford of the Mayflower Company; Robert Cushman, the London agent for the Pilgrims; and Edward Southworth, who later came to New England. He may have also had another residence at Hursley, Southhampton, England, as this is where his wife, Mary's probate was executed upon her death.
- Stephen's friend, William Shakespeare, it is purported, hearing of his friend's story, wrote the play, “The Tempest.” It depicted Stephen as the character Stephano. The play was performed before King James I and his royal court at Whiteball on Hallomas Night or All Saints Day, November 1, 1610. It was revitalized to decorate for the wedding festivities of Princess Elizabeth in 1613 and was incidentally the last play performed in London in 1642 when the Puritan Party closed play houses until restoration from the Stuarts in 1660.
- Hopkins was invited to return to America aboard the Mayflower with his second wife, Elizabeth, and children, Constance (Constanta), Giles, and Damaris. Hopkins' family was the largest aboard, and a fourth child, Oceanus, was born on the ship during the voyage. At the time of the voyage, he was considered a tanner or leather maker, but later was a merchant and planter.
- He apparently boarded the Mayflower in London with his family about the end of June, 1620. Upon the the arrival of the Speedwell at Southampton from Holland about July 2nd, he found the Mayflower there, having arrived with her passengers from London. They sailed from Southampton August 5, but by reason of the claimed poor condition of the Speedwell, they put in at Dartmouth. After some repairs, they put to sea again, but after they had got 'above 100 leagues without the Lands End', the master of the Speedwell complained that his ship was very leaky, and after consultation, both ships put into Plymouth. Here it was decided that the Speedwell should not proceed. Some of the passengers returned to London, and the rest sailed on the Mayflower on the 6th of September.The ship, though headed for Virginia, lost its way, and ended up landing in the Provincetown Harbor the 11th of November.
- Mr. Hopkins was one of only twelve other passengers to be given the title Mr.-which at the time meant Master (later Mister, and lost much of its original meaning) and was reserved for men of high societal standing. This is also reiterated by the fact that he brought along two servants, Edward Leister and Edward Doty.
Defending His Identity
- Hopkins of the Sea Venture and Hopkins of the Mayflower answer a common description. Moreover, Stephen Hopkins was not of the Pilgrim group, but is mentioned as a stranger' and one of three of London on board. He was a man of mark and evidently of learning and experience for when Captain Myles Standish made his first exploratory trip from the Mayflower, upon arrival in the new world, Hopkins was appointed with Bradford and Tilley to attend the party to give counsel and advice - ' this, despite the fact that he had displayed his contentious nature upon arrival, declaring, as he had on the Somers Islands, that none had power to command since the expedition bound for Virginia had landed in New England instead where Virginia had no jurisdiction. Hopkins' ability to identify to the exploring party, which he accompanied, a deer trap, a contraption which had puzzled the others, indicates previous experience in the new world. The scribes of the period recorded that the party came upon a limb of a tree bent curiously over a bow and that Stephen Hopkins sayd it had beene to catch some Deere.
- On the 6th of December Stephen Hopkins, in the company of 17 other men, Capt. Standish at the head, started on a second voyage of discovery, with the shallop, which lasted 5 or 6 days, during which they had an encounter with the Indians. They entered Plymouth bay and landed on the 11th of December.
- That Stephen Hopkins was a man of more than ordinary force of character and influence is shown by the part he played in the early history of the colony. In Howard and Crocker's 'Popular History of New England,' we read
- No one can ponder the annals of the early settlement of New England without being profoundly impressed with the rare excellency of the material that went into its foundation. Consider the names of such primitive Pilgrims as Carver, Bradford, Brewster, Standish, Winslow, Alden, Warren, Hopkins, and others.”
- And Moore, in his 'Lives of the Colonial Governors,' says,
- ”Of the Pilgrims who remained in 1634, Stephen Hopkins, Miles Standish, and John Alden were the most prominent individuals. Hopkins was the one of the principle magistrates...Stephen Hopkins was not only one of the first men among the Pilgrims, but he had extraordinary fortune in being concerned with many of the first things that happened to the colonists, whether for good or for evil. Thus, he was one of the signers of the first Declaration of Independence in the New World-the famous Compact, drawn up and signed in the cabin of the Mayflower, November twenty-first, 1620; it has been called 'the nucleus around which everything else clustered-unquestionably the foundation of all the superstructures of government which have since been reared in these United States.'
- He was a member of the first expedition that left the ship to find a place for landing:
- ten of our men were appointed who were of themselves willing to undertake it
- There is much additional evidence to show that Stephen Hopkins bulked large in the early life of the Plymouth Colony. He heads a list of person chosen to arrange for trade with outsiders-a sort of incipient chamber of commerce; he is added to the Governor and Assistants in 1637 as an assessor to raise a fund for sending aid to the Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut colonies in the impending Indian War; and in the same year he and his two sons, Giles and Caleb, are among the forty-two who volunteered their services as soldiers to aid these same colonies-a fact noteworthy contrast with the statement of three carpet knights: that they will “goe if they be prest.” We find him repeatedly mentioned as an appraiser of estates, administrator, guardian, juryman (foreman, apparently), etc.
:::The Mayflower Compact In the Name of God, Amen. We whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, etc. Having undertaken, for the Glory of God and advancement of the Christian Faith and Honour of our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the First Colony in the Northern Parts of Virginia, do by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and one of another, Covenant and Combine ourselves together into a Civil Body Politic, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue herof to enact, constitute and frame such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Act, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be though most meet and convenient for the general good of the Colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cape Cod, the 11th of November, in the year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland, the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini 1620.
:The Pilgrims: Isaac Allerton; William Bradford; William Brewster; John Carver; James Chilton; Francis Cooke; Humility Cooper; John Crackstone; Moses Fletcher; Edward Fuller; Samuel Fuller; William Holbeck; John Hooke; Desire Minter; Degory Priest; Thomas Rogers; Edward tilley; Thomas Tinker; John Turner; Thomas Williams; Edward Winslow
:The Adventurers: John Billington; Richard Britteridge; Peter Browne; William Butten; Robert Carter; Edward Doty; Francis Eaton; Stephen Hopkins; John Howland; John Langmore; William Latham; Edward Leister; Christopher Martin; the More children: Richard, Ellen, Mary and Jasper; William Mullins; Solomon Prower; John Rigdale; Henry Samsomn; George Soule; Elias Story; John Tilley; Richard Warren; Gilbert Winslow
Not known with certainty, but probably a Pilgrim: William White
Not known with certainty, but probably Adventurers: Richard Clarke; Edmund Margesson; Edward Thompson; Roger Wilder; John Goodman
- In Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth, Mass., there is a painting by Henry Sargent, a Boston artist, a member of the family to which the celebrated John Singer Sargent belongs. Among the figures there appearing on the canvas is a group representing Stephen Hopkins, his wife, and four children.
- Mr. Hopkins' two servants, Edwards Doty and Leister, had what was the first dual on record in New England. He was not without kindness of heart, as appears from his petitioning for the release of his servants from cruel punishment (June 18, 1621, Doty and Litster fought a duel with sword and dagger. Both were wounded, one in the hand and the other in the thigh. They were sentenced by the whole company to have their heads and feet tied together and so to lie for 24 hours without meat or drink, 'but within an hour, because of their great pains, at their own & their master's humble request, upon promise of better carriage, they are released by the governor.')'
- Upon arrival in America, Stephen became Indian Ambassador of the Plymouth Colony. While serving his post, Hopkins befriended and invited the famous Native American, Squanto, to live in his home. He went with Governor Winslow and Squanto on the first embassy sent to the Massasoit to conclude a treaty. It was in Hopkins' home that the first ever Indian treaties were signed. As Indian Ambassador, Stephen Hopkins participated in the arrangement and planning of the first Thanksgiving.
- Mr. Hopkins was originally married to a woman named Mary. Her last name is unknown, but we know she died of the plague while Stephen was in Bermuda. She bore him three children, Elizabeth, Constance, and Giles. He later remarried Elizabeth Fisher at St. Mary's, Whitechapel, London, on, and together they had Damaris, Oceanus (named so because of being born at sea), Caleb, Deborah, a second Damaris following the death of their first daughter of the same name, Ruth, and Elizabeth.
Of Land and Possessions
- Stephen's first residence at Plymouth was on the slope from the highway to the beach, not far from Plymouth Rock. He built a house at Yarmouth, but returned to Plymouth later and gave Yarmouth to his son, Giles, who remained there.
- In 1638 he “liberty was granted” him to “erect a house at Mattacheese and cutt hay there this yeare to winter his cattle-provided, that it be not to withdraw him from the town of Plymouth.” He was too valuable a citizen to lose.
- He seems to have been fairly prosperous, withal; for toward the close of his life we find him purchasing a share in a vessel of 40 or 50 tons, valued at two hundred pounds sterling.
- In 1623 Stephen Hopkins receive 6 acres in the division of lands, his allotment lying on 'the South side of the brook to the woodward opposite to the' lots 'on the South side of the brooke to the baywards.' Between him and John Howland were the lands of 'Hobamak,' an Indian.
- May 22, 1627, it was decided that the cows and goats belonging to the company should be divided and kept for 10 years at the care and expense of those to whom they were allotted, and that the old stock and half the increase should remain for common use to be divided at the end of the term 'or otherwise as ocation falleth out.' The other half of the increase was to belong to the allotted.
- The 7th lot fell to Stephen Hopkins and his company, which besides himself consisted of his wife Elizabeth, his children Giles, Caleb, and Deborah, Nicholas and Constance Snow, William and Frances Palmer, William Palmer, Jr., John Billington, Sr., Hellen Billington and Francis Billington. To this lot fell a black weaning calf and the calf of this yeare to come of the black Cow, wch fell to John Shaw & his Companie.' The company was to have no interest in these 2 calves, but only half their increase. This lot also received 2 she goats, which goats they posses on the like terms which others doe their cattell.' 'Damaris Hopkins was the 13th in Samuel Fuller's or the 8th company. This company received a red heifer and 2 shee goats.
- In 1627, before the division of the cattle, an agreement was made by which William Bradford, Capt. Miles Standish and Isaac Allerton and such as they should join with them were among other things to discharge the colony of all debts due by it and to have for 6 years the trade of the colony. Among the 27 who signed this agreement on the part of the colonists, the name of Stephen Hopkins stands second, following that of William Brewster.
- Jan. 2, 1631/2, he was appointed one of the assessors of taxes.
- In 1633 Stephen Hopkins is named in a list of the freemen of Plymouth.
- In 1633 he was assessed to pay a tax of L1 7s., only 5 persons being assessed at a greater sum, of whom Isaac Allerton was to pay L3 11s. and Gov. Edward Winslow, L2 5s.
- July 1, 1633, it was ordered that at or before the last of the next August Stephen Hopkins divide with 6 others the medow ground in the bay equally, according to the proporcon of shares formerly devided to the purchasers. It was also provided that he mow where he did the last year.
- Oct. 24, 1633, Mr. Stephen Hopkins with Mr. John Doane took an inventory of the kins was appointed with Mr. John Doane to take an inventory of the goods and chattels of Godbert Godbertson and Zarah, his wife, deceased.
Ingenuity in the Colonies
- Mr. Hopkins opened the first bar, built the first port of ships and erected the first trading post in American History. He was engaged in trade, selling liquors and various other articles. He was charged at times with abuse of his traffic in liquors and with selling liquors and other articles at excessive rates, according to the views of the period, but he never lost the confidence of the leading men.
- Later in his life, Hopkins became assistant governor for the state of Massachusetts. He was chosen for this position three years in succession, 1632-5. Jan. 1, 1632/3, he was chosen one of the council for the ensuing year, Edward Winslow being chosen governor. Jan. 10 of the same year he was a member of a court that tried a servant who had run away. The servant was privately whipped before the court.
'Jan. 2, 1633/4, he and John Jenny were the appraisers of the estate of Samuel Fuller, the elder, which included about 30 books.
'Oct. 1, 1634, he was appointed the first of a committee to treat with the existing partners as to the future management of the trade.
'Oct. 2, 1634, he and Robert Hicks took the inventory of the goods of Stephen Deans.
'June 7, 1636, John Tisdale, yeoman, brought an action of battery against Mr. Hopkins, assistant to the government, by whom he alleged he was dangerously wounded. Hopkins was fined L5 sterling to the use of the King, whose peace he had broken, wch he ought after a special manner to have kept, and was adjudged to pay 40s. to the plaintiff.
'Jan. 1, 1634/5, he was chosen an assistant, and entered upon his office the 3d of March.
'Jan. 5, 1635/6, he was chosen assistant, and took the oath March 1.
'March 14, 1635/6, he was authorized to mow the marsh between Thomas Clarke and George Sowle, and it was ordered that he and Clarke have the marsh up the river as formerly.
'Nov. 7, 1636, a way between his land and that of Thomas Pope, Richard Clough and Richard Wright, 'at the fishing point, neer Slowly Field,' is mentioned.
'In a list of freemen, dated March 7, 1636/7, he is styled gentleman.
'Stephen Hopkins was an assistant Jan. 3, 1636/7. On the same date he was made one of a committee to arrange an agreement with those that have the trade in theire hands and report to the court.
'March 7, 1636/7, it was ordered that those who then had the trade of beaver, corn and beads, etc., with the Indians should hold it until the beginning of June, and in the meantime a committee was appointed, of which Mr. Hopkins was one, to consider propositions and ways so as the said trade may be still continued to the benefit of the collony.
'March 20, 1636/7, action was taken as to the use of the hay grounds and Mr. Hopkins was made one of a committee to view those grounds between the Eel river and the town of Plymouth, that each man might be assigned a proper portion. He and Thomas Clark were given the hay ground they had the past year.
'May 10, 1637, a jury impaneled for the purpose rendered a verdict (which was delivered to the General Court July 7, 1637) laying out highways to the Eel river from Plymouth, which mentions Mr. Hopkins' house, one of the ways passing it on the west.
'June 7, 1637, he with the governor and assistants and other persons formed a committee to consider how the trade in beaver, etc., (which was likely to go into decay) might be upheld.
'On the same date the committee of which Mr. Hopkins was a member reported that the expenses of the Pequot service would amount to L200, of which L100 was to be paid by Plymouth and L50 each by Duxbury and Scituate.
'Among the names of those entered June 7, 1637, who willingly offered themselves to assist the people of Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut in their warrs against the Pequin Indians, in reveng of the innocent blood of the English wch the sd Pequins have barbarously shed, and refuse to give satisfaccon for, were Mr. Stephen Hopkins and his 2 sons Caleb and Giles. The soldiers who volunteered for the Pequot war were, however, not required to take the field.
'On the same date Mr. Hopkins for the town of Plymouth was 1 of 2 men who, together with the governor and assistants, were to form a board to assess the inhabitants for the expenses of that war.
'July 17, 1637, Stephen Hopkins sold for L60 lawful money of England, to be paid 1/2 on May 1, 1638, and 1/2 Sept. 29, 1638, to George Boare of Scituate his message, houses, tenements and outhouses at the Broken wharf towards the Eel river, together with the 6 shares of land thereunto belonging, containing 120 acres.
October 2, 1637, he was appointed 1 of a committee for the town of Plymouth to act with the governor and assistants and committee from Eel river, Jones river and Duxbury in agreeing upon an equal course in the division of about 500 acres of meadow between the Eel river and South river.
Death and Will
- Among the earliest wills probated at Plymouth, MA was that of Stephen Hopkins, 6 June 1644 - August 1644, directing that he be buried near his deceased wife, naming son Caleb, 'heir apparent,' mentioning other children and naming Captain Myles Standish as overseer of the will. The will was witnessed by Governor Bradford and Captin Standish.
- The last Will and Testament of Mr. Stephen Hopkins exhibited upon the Oathes of mr Willm Bradford and Captaine Miles Standish at the generall Court holden at Plymouth the xxth of August Anno dm 1644 as it followeth in these wordes vizt.
The sixt of June 1644 I Stephen Hopkins of Plymouth in New England being weake yet in good and prfect memory blessed be God yet considering the fraile estate of all men I do ordaine and make this to be my last will and testament in manner and forme following and first I do committ my body to the earth from whence it was taken, and my soule to the Lord who gave it, my body to b eburyed as neare as convenyently may be to my wyfe Deceased And first my will is that out of my whole estate my funerall expences be discharged secondly that out of the remayneing part of my said estate that all my lawfull Debts be payd thirdly I do bequeath by this my will to my sonn Giles Hopkins my great Bull wch is now in the hands of Mris Warren. Also I do give to Stephen Hopkins my sonn Giles his sonne twenty shillings in Mris Warrens hands for the hire of the said Bull Also I give and bequeath to my daughter Constanc Snow the wyfe of Nicholas Snow my mare also I give unto my daughter Deborah Hopkins the brodhorned black cowe and her calf and half the Cowe called Motley Also I doe give and bequeath unto my daughter Damaris Hopkins the Cowe called Damaris heiffer and the white faced calf and half the cowe called Mottley Also I give to my daughter Ruth the Cowe called Red Cole and her calfe and a Bull at Yarmouth wch is in the keepeing of Giles Hopkins wch is an yeare and advantage old and half the curld Cowe Also I give and bequeath to my daughter Elizabeth the Cowe called Smykins and her calf and thother half of the Curld Cowe wth Ruth and an yearelinge heiffer wth out a tayle in the keeping of Gyles Hopkins at Yarmouth Also I do give and bequeath unto my foure daughters that is to say Deborah Hopkins Damaris Hopkins Ruth Hopkins and Elizabeth Hopkins all the mooveable goods the wch do belong to my house as linnen wollen beds bedcloathes pott kettles pewter or whatsoevr are moveable belonging to my said house of what kynd soever and not named by their prticular names all wch said mooveables to be equally devided amongst my said daughters foure silver spoones that is to say to eich of them one, And in case any of my said daughters should be taken away by death before they be marryed that then the part of their division to be equally devided amongst the Survivors. I do also by this my will make Caleb Hopkins my sonn and heire apparent giveing and bequeathing unto my said sonn aforesaid all my Right title and interrest to my house and lands at Plymouth wth all the Right title and interrest wch doth might or of Right doth or may hereafter belong unto mee, as also I give unto my saide heire all such land wch of Right is Rightly due unto me and not at prsent in my reall possession wch belongs unto me by right of my first comeing into this land or by any other due Right, as by such freedome or otherwise giveing unto my said heire my full & whole and entire Right in all divisions allottments appoyntments or distributions whatsoever to all or any pt of the said lande at any tyme or tymes so to be disposed Also I do give moreover unto my foresaid heire one paire or yooke of oxen and the hyer of them wch are in the hands of Richard Church as may appeare by bill under his hand Also I do give unto my said heire Caleb Hopkins all my debts wch are now oweing unto me, or at the day of my death may be oweing unto mee either by booke bill or bills or any other way rightfully due unto mee ffurthermore my will is that my daughters aforesaid shall have free recourse to my house in Plymouth upon any occation there to abide and remayne for such tyme as any of them shall thinke meete and convenyent & they single persons And for the faythfull prformance of this my will I do make and ordayne my aforesaid sonn and heire Caleb Hopkins my true and lawfull Executor ffurther I do by this my will appoynt and make my said sonn and Captaine Miles Standish joyntly supervisors of this my will according to the true meaneing of the same that is to say that my Executor & supervisor shall make the severall divisions parts or porcons legacies or whatsoever doth appertaine to the fullfilling of this my will It is also my will that my Executr & Supervisor shall advise devise and dispose by the best wayes & meanes they cann for the disposeing in marriage or other wise for the best advancnt of the estate of the forenamed Deborah Damaris Ruth and Elizabeth Hopkins Thus trusting in the Lord my will shalbe truly prformed according to the true meaneing of the same I committ the whole Disposeing hereof to the Lord that hee may direct you herein June 6th 1644 Witnesses hereof By me Steven Hopkins Myles Standish William Bradford
Disputed Parentage and Marriage
- It has been claimed for more than seventy years that Stephen Hopkins, a passenger on the Mayflower in 1620, was born at Wortley, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, England. Additionally, it has been claimed that his first wife was Constance Dudley, though this claim was made without any supporting evidence. This article will show that Stephen Hopkins was, in fact, from an entirely different part of England, and will disprove the long-standing Constance Dudley myth. Additionally, evidence will be presented supporting the conclusion that Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower was indeed the same man as the Stephen Hopkins who sailed for Jamestown, Virginia, on the Sea Venture in 1609 and was wrecked in Bermuda, as has long been speculated.
- Since the Wotton-under-edge origin of Stephen Hopkins has been so widely accepted, it will be necessary to review how this theory came about. In 1929 Charles Edward Banks first published the suggestion that Stephen Hopkins might be from a Hopkins family he had located at Wortley, Wotton-under-Edge (Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the pilgrim Fathers...(New York, 1929(, 61-64 at 63-64; hereafter cited as Banks, English Ancestry.)) He based his suggestion on the fact that the name Stephen occurred within the fmaily, and presented his findings simply as possible clues. The much less careful George F. Willison in his popularized but frequently inaccurate book, Sants and Strangers, took Bank's few clues as absolute proof, and stated outright that Stephen Hopkins was from Wotton-under-Edge (George F. Willison, Saints and Strangers...(New York, 1945), 441.).
Ralph D. Phillips furthered the theory in his "Hopkins Family of Wortley, Gloucestershire: Possible Ancestry of Stephen Hopkins" published in TAG for April 1963. He proposed that the unnamed child of a Stephen Hopkins baptized at Wooton-under-Edge on 29 October 1581 might have been named Stephen (since that was the father's name), and thus was possibly the Mayflower passenger. Two Stephen Hopkinses were then located in a 1608 Wortley "Men and Armour" list. (Ralph D. Phillips, "Hopkins Family of Wortley, Gloucestershier: Possible Ancestry of Stephen Hopkins," TAG 39 (1963): 95-97.) Phillips did not comment upon the fact that this Hopkins family carried the names of Robert, Thomas, George, Edward, Gillian, Joan, Alice, and Agnes - names which do not occur among the Mayflower passenger's children or grandchildren. Hence, the identification of Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower with the Gloucestershire family depends entirely upon chronology and the name Stephen. Nonetheless, the theory became widely accepted.
In 1972 Margaret Hodges contributed greatly to its promotion by making the speculative Wotton-under-Edge origin the keystone to her biography, Hopkins of the Mayflower: Portrait of a Dissenter. She claims in her book that Stephen Hopkins was born [sic] on 29 October 1581 at Wortley, married Constance Dudley, was living in Wortley in 1608 (the "Men and Armour" list), and had children William and Stephen along with constance and Giles. (Margaret Hodges, Hopkins of the Mayflower: Portrait of a Dissenter (New York, 1972), 7, 12-13, 66-67, 142; hereafter cited as Hodges, Hopkins.
The alleged son William is based on Wotton-under-Edge records and does not need further comment since the Wortley origin will be disproven. The alleged son, Stephen, however, should be mentioned. Hodges claims that Stephen, son of Stephen Hopkins, the Mayflower passenger, was baptized at St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, London, on 22 December 1609. (Hodges, Hopkins, 142.) This baptism actually occurred on 3 December 1609 at St. Catherine Coleman, London (not 22 December t St. Stephen's, Coleman Street). This child was buried at St. Katherine Coleman on 19 February 1609/10, and John, son of Stephen Hopkins, was baptized there on 14 April 1611 (St. Katherine Coleman, London, parish register [Family History Library (FHL), Salt Lake City, film #560,022, item 1]. The mistake in the date of the 1609 baptism and in attributing it to st. Stephen's, Coleman Street, apparently originated in Banks, English Ancestry, 61.) This second baptism eliminates the possibility that this is the correct family, for, as will be shown below, when the second child was conceived in 1610, the Mayflower passenger was in Virginia. The name Stephen Hopkins is fairly common, and I encountered no fewer than twelve individuals with this name living in England during the early 1600s, including four who were living in London.
The origin of the Constance Dudley myth is harder to explain, since there has never been any evidence to support it. It receives mention in Hodges' book, and even as recently as November 1997 an article in the Mayflower Quarterly accepts the Wortley origin as fact and adds that "it is the general consensus that she Constance Dudley] was his wife," though "what seems to be in question is her relationship" to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. (Even the Internet web pages of the Plimoth Plantation Museum (http://www.plimoth.org/hopkins.htm) have been tainted with this myth, claiming Stephen Hopkins was born [sic] at Wortley on 29 October 1581, and that his forst wife "may have been named Constance." In the midst of all this, it is well to note that the best moderen genealogy of this family, by John D. Austin, FASG, in the Mayflower Families Through Five Generations series, mentions the claimed Gloucestershire origin as only a possibility and states that "no authority has been found for the oft-repeated identification of her [Stephen's first wife] as Constance Dudley." (Mayflower Familes Through Five Generations, 15 vols. to date (Plymouth, 1975- ), hereafter cited as Mayflower Fams. 5Gs., 6: Stephen HOpkins, by JOhn D. Austin, 2nd ed. (Plymouth, 1995), 3-4, 7. Caution is also expreddes in other careful works, including Mary Walton Ferris, Dawes-Gates Ancestral Lines, 2 vols, (n.p., 1931-43), 2:443 n.; Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City, 1986), 309; and Robert Charles Anderson, The Great MIgration Begins: Immigrants to New England, 1620-1633, 3 cols. (Boston, 1995), 2-998 (hereafter cited as Anderson, Great Migration Begins). See also Robert S. Wakefield, "Restling Brewster: An Old Hoax Resurfaces and Other Mayflower Family Fables," The Mayflower Descendant [MD] 43(1993): 13-14, ag 14,; and Alicia Crane Williams, review of Hodges, Hopkins of the Mayflower, MD 43:88.)
Now it is time to set the record straight and present documented evidence that Stephen Hopkins was not from Wortley, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, but instead from Hursley, Hampshire, England. The parish registers of Hursley, searched and photocopied by Leslie Mahler at my request, contain the following baptismal entries, literally transcribed from the original Latin with my own translation appearing below: (Hursley, Hampshire, parish register [FHL film #1,041,201].
(1604) decimo tercio die maij Elizabetha filia Stephani Hopkyns fuit baptizata [13th day of May, Elizabeth daughter of Stephen HOpkins was baptized]
(1606) undecimo die Maij Constancia filia Steph Hopkyns fuit baptizata [11th day of May, Constance daughter of Steph(en) Hopkins was baptized]
(1607/8) tricesima die Januarij Egiduis Filius Stephani Hopkyns fuit baptizatus [30th day of January, Giles (Egidius is the Latin form of the English name Giles) son of Stephen Hopkins was baptized.]
The following burial record was also discovered, entered in English:
(1613) Mary Hopkines the wife of Steeven Hopkines was buried the ix day of May. Governor William Bradford, in the Mayflower passenter liste he wrote in the spring of 1651, (George Ernest Bowman shows that it was written between 24 Feb. 1650/1 and 24 March 1651, which Bowman shifts to New Style: 6 March 1651 and 3 April 1651 ("The Date of Governor Bradford's Passenger List," MD 1: 161-63) recorded the following: Mr. Steven Hopkins, and Elizabeth, his wife, and 2 children, called Giles and Constanta, a daughter, both by a former wfe; and 2 more by this wife, caled Damaris and Oceanus; the last was borne at sea; and 2 servants, called Edward Doty and Edward Lister. (William Bradford, History of Plymouth Plantation, 1620-1647, ed. Worthington Chauncey Ford, 2 vols. (Boston, 1912), 2:400; herafter cited as Bradford, History of Plymouth.
And in his "decreasings and increasings," written about the same time, Bradford stated that:
Mr Hopkins and his wife are now both dead, but they lived above 20 years in this place, and had one sone and 4 doughters borne here. Ther sone became a seaman and dyed at Barbadoes; one daughter dyed here, and 2 are maried; one of them hath 2 children; and one is yet to mary. So their increas which still survive are 5. But his sone Giles is maried and hath 4 children. His doughter Constanta is also maried and hath 12 children, all of them living, and one of them maried. (Bradford, istory of Plymouth, 2:406-7.).
Bradford's comments accord exactly with these parish register records. Stephen and Mary Hopkins of Hursley, Hampshire, were the parents of Elizabeth, Constance, and Giles. It should also be noted that both Constance and Giles named their first daughter Mary.
At my request, the Hampshire Record Office undertook a search for Hopkins probate records and uncovered only one at Hursley - an administration on the estate of Mary Hopkins in 1613. Her estate inventory was dated 10 May 1613, and administration was granted on 12 May 1613 to "Roberto Lyte [vir] gard de hursly" and "Thome Syms vir supra[vi]sor pauper'" during the minority of "Constance, Elize[beth] et Egidij" (in that order). (Estate of Mary Hopkins 1613, Hampshire Record Office, Winchester, 1613 AD/046.) The inventory follows (the lineation of the heading and of the Latin statement of probate is indicated by slashes (/): An inventory of the goods and Chattells of /Mary Hopkins of Hursley in the Countie of / South[amp]ton widowe deceased taken [interlined: & prized] the tenth day / of may 1613 as followeth vizt. Imprimis certen Beames in the garden & wood in the back side ....ixs It(e)m the ymplem(en)ts in the Be(..)ehouse .........................vjs It[e]m certen things in the kitchin.......................................iijs It[e]m in the hall one table, one Cupboorde & certen other things...vjs It[e]m in the buttry six small vessells & some other small things......vjs It[e]m brasse and pewter..................................................xxijs It[e]m in the Chamber over the shop two beds, one bable & a forme wth some other small things....xxjs It[e]m in the Chamber over the hall one fetherbed & 3 Chests & one box....xs It[e]m Lynnen & wearing apparrell.......................................xijs It[e]m in the shop one shopborde & a plank............................xijd It[e]m the Lease of the house wherin she Late dwelled...............xijs It[e]m in ready mony & in debts by specialitie & wthout specialitie...xvijd xijs S[umm] total[is].............................................................xxvd xjs Gregory his mark [star] horwood William toot Rychard Wolle (Note: in the above inventory, the 's' at the end of the value of the item is for shilling and the 'd' is for something else. I do not know what the 'j' means. **map**) Commissa fuit Admi: bonorum at Callorum' / Marie Hopkins nuper de Hursley vid defunc[tae] / Roberto Lyte [vir] gard de hursly et / Thome Syms vir supra[vi]sor p[er] pauper' / [---] [---] de par[---] duran minor / Constance, Elize[beth] et Egidij liberor / d[i]c[t]i deft duodecimo die maij / Anno Dni 1613 de bene &c p[er]sonalir jur &c / salve iur cuiuscumq salvaq postestate &c.
There are several important observations to be made about this inventory. One is the reference to the shop and the "shopborde" (what we would call a counter), (Shop-board: "A counter or table upon which a tradesman's business is transacted or upon which his goods are exposed to sale" )Oxford English Dictionary). which tells us that Mary and presumably her husband Stephen were shopkeepers. In addition, Mary is stated as having the lease on her dwelling at the time of her death, which may be a clue to her identity. MOst striking, however, is that the estate inventory calls Mary Hopkins a widow, although her burial record calls her "wife," not widow. It would have been very unusual for an administration to have been granted ton the estate of a woman whose husband was living (i.e., a feme covert), and Stephen was not dead, as he came on the Mayflower in 1620 with his children Constance and Giles. The solution to this odd puzzle is found in the facts that Stephen and Mary Hopkins stopped having children in 1608, and that there was a Stephen Hopkins aboard the Sea Venture which left for Virginia in 1609. If Mary's husband Stephen was in virginia in 1613 and his condition was unknown, the court or the parish might well have found it expedient to assume he was dead in order to make the property available for his children's support. And that assumption was not an unlikely one: MOrtality rates at Jamestown were extremely high.
Circumstantial evidence has always pointed to the likelihood that Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower was the same man as Stephen Hopkins of the Sea Venture, (Rev. B. F. deCosta, "Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower," The New England Historical and Genealogical Register [NEHGR] 33(1879): 300-5. This identification is accepted in Virginia M. Meyer, and John Frederick Dorman, eds., Adventurers of Purse and Person, Virginia, 1607-1624/5, 3rd ed. (n.p., 1987), 374-75.) and even as early as 1768 Thomas Hutchinson was speculating that the two men might be one and the same. (Thomas Hutchinson, The History of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts-Bay, ed. Lawrence Shaw Mayo, 3 vols. (Cambridge, MA, 1936). 2:353) These parish register entries and probate records provide the first historical documentation to support this belief.
The voyage of the Sea Venture in 1609 would be one for the history bookds. Wrecked by a hurricane in the "Isle of Devils" (i.e., the Bermudas, the one hundred fifty castaways survived for ten months on the abundant sea turtles, flightless birds, shellfish, and wild hogs. After about six months, Stephen Hopkins began to challenge the authority of the governor, and went as far as to organize a mutiny. (William Thorndale points out that Strachey identifies Humfrey Reede and Samuel Sharpe as the two men to whom Hopkins broached the mutiny; given the tendency of "countrymen," as the word was used then, to associate with each other, we may have a clue to Reede's and Sharpe's origins.) What happened next, as Stephen was sentenced to death, is described by fellow Sea Venture passenger William Strachey:
...therin did one Stephen Hopkins commence the first act or overture [of mutiny]: A fellow who had much knowledge of Scriptures, and could reason well therein, whom our Minister therefore chose to be his Clarke, to reade the Psalmes, and Chapters upon Sondays...it pleased the Govenour to let this his factious offence to have a publique affront, and contestation by these two witnesses before the whole Company, who (at the toling of a Bell) assemble before a Corps du guard, where the PRisoner was brought forth in manacles, and both accused, and suffered to make at large to every particular, his answere; which was onely full of sorrow and teares, pleading simplicity, and deniall. But hee being onely found, at this time, both th eCaptaine, and the follower of this Mutinie, and generally held worthy to satisfie the punishment of his offence, with the sacrifice of his life, our Governour passed the sentence of a Martiall Court upon him, such as belongs to Mutinie and Rebellion. But so penitent hee was, and made so much moane, alleadging the ruine of his Wife and Children in this his trespasse, as it wrought in th ehearts of all the better sorts of the Company, who therefore with humble intreaties, and earnest supplications, went unto our Governor, whom they besought...and never left him untill we had got his pardon."
The castaways would eventually managed to work together to complete construction of two ships, which they used to sail to Jamestown, Virginia, the next year. (The basic story of the Sea Venture is related in Avery Kolb, "The Tempest," American Heritage 34 no. 3(1983): 26-35.) Strachey's account would shortly thereafter come into the hands of William Shakespear, and it became partly responsible for inspiring his play The Tempest, which was first performed in November 1611. The Tempest relates the story of a shipwrecked group stranded on an enchanted island. A side plot includes a drunken and mutinous butler, whom Shakespeare named Stephano.
There are a number of indications that Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower had had previous contact with American Indians. Mourt's Relation (1622) tells us that Hopkins was a member of an exploring expedition on Cape Cod in November 1620. The group "came to a tree where a young sprit [i.e., sapling] was bowen down over a bow, and some acorns strewed underneath. Stephen Hopkins said it had been to catch some deer." (Dwight B. Heath, ed., A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth: Mourt's Relation (New Yorik, 1963). 23 (hereafter cited as Heath, Mourt's Relation); Da Costa, "Stephen Hopkins," NEHGR 33:304.) The same cource says that in March 1620/1, the Pilgrims lodged the Indian Samoset with Hopkins. (Heath, Mourt's Relation, 52.) and Bradford states that in July 1621, Edward Winslow and Hopkins were sent with Squanto to visit Massasoit. (Bradford, History of Plymouth, 1:219.) Thereafter he undertook such missions frequently. (Anderson, Great Migration Begins, 2:989) The English evidence the presence of a Stephen Hopkins in Virginia, the indication that shortly after landing the Mayflower man was able to recognize an Indian deer trap, and his being made one of the colony's representatives to deal with the natives, all support the conclusion that the Mayflower passanger and the man who was earlier in Virginia were identical. And, while it does not prove the connection, theman we now know led a mutiny in Bermuda managed to get into trouble with the Plymouth authorities several times in the 1630s, despite his high social standing. (Anderson, Great Migration Begins, 2:989.) On one of these occasions, we learn the sort of retail business Hopkins may have had when he was in Hampshire: On 4 September 638, "Mr Steephen Hopkins" was fined "for selling wine, beere, strong waters, and nutmeggs at excessiue rates." (Nathaniel B. Shurtleff and David Pulsifer, eds., Records of the Colony of New Plymouth, in New England, 12 vols. in 10 [Boston, 1855-61], 1:97; hereafter cited as Shurtleff and Pulsifer, Plymouth Colony Records.)
Now that Stephen Hopkin's claimed origin in Gloucestershire has been disposed of, the Hursley records given above provide most of the information known about his immediate family in England. However, a letter written by William Bradford on 8 September 1623 and brought to my attention by John C. Brandon shows that Stephen Hopkins had a brother in England who provided nails to the Pilgrims:
About Hobkins and his men [Edward Dity and Edward Leister] we are come to this isew. the men we retain in the generall according to his resignation and equietie of the thinge. and about that recconing of .20 ode pounds, we have brought it to this pass, he is to have. 6. li. payed by you there, and the rest to be quite, it is for nails and such other things as we have had of his brother here for the companies use, and upon promise of paymente by us, we desire you will accordingly doe it."
Paul C. Reed was brought in at this point to conduct a thorough search of Hampshire records for information on Stephen Hopkins or his wife Mary's ancestry. Unfortunately, the search failed to turn up any conclusive proof on either count. The Hopkins families of Hampshire are found in three main regions: Andover and surrounding parishes, Isle of Wight, and Hursley-Winchester. The parish registers of Hursley, unfortunately, do not begin until January 1599/1600, and there is no mention of Hopkinses in the eleven wills surviving from the Peculiar Court of Hursley, 1566-1705; no wills in this court survive between 1599 and 1682. Hursley wills in the Consistory Court of Winchester and the Perogative Court of Canterbury from this period were also read without finding any mention of Hopkinses; there are no Hursley wills in the indexes of the Archdeaconry Court of Winchester from 1590 through 1613. Some significant clues were discovered, however, and are briefly summarized below.
Hursley had one manor at the time, Merdon; and Stephen Hopkins is mentioned in these records on "** 19.. may 6 James I (1608) as one of the men who were penalized or fined. (Merdon manorial court rolls [FHl film #1,471,826].) The records are not clear as to why he was penalized. The name Giles was somewhat uncommon in the area. There were three men of that name in the 1598 lay subsidy of Hursley: Giles Hobby, Giles Kinge, and Giles Machilde; (Douglas F. Vick, Central Hampshire Lay Subsidy Assessments, 15588-1602 (Farnham, Hants., n.d); Hereafter cited as Vick, Central Hands. Subsidies.) no connections have yet been found to Stephen HOpkins or his wife Mary.
The name Constance was extremely rare in Hampshire, and only one occurrance of the name was found during the course of this research: the marriage of William Hopkins to Constance Marline at St. Swithin-over-Kingsgate, Winchester, Hampshire, on 16 april 1591. (St. Swithin-over-Kingsgate, Winchester, Hampshire, parish register [FHL, filem #1,041,221]) The Soke of Winchester borders Hursley. The lay subsidies of Winchester list a John Hopkins in 1586, 1589, and 1590. (Vick, Central Hants, Subsidies, 29-30.) On 4 October 1593, administrtion on the estate of John Hopkyngs of Winchester was granted to the widow Elizabeth, Wm Hopkines posting bond; the inventory had been taken on the previous 10 September. (Winchester administrations [FHL film #197,336].) It seems probable that William Hopkins was the son of John Hopkins of Winchester and that he was the William who married Constance Marline. Stephen Hopkins of Hursley and Plymouth may also be a son of John, though no direct evidence for this relationship has been found. Listed in the lay subsidies in 1589 and 1590 is Rainold Marlin, who may have been the father of the Constance Marline who married William Hopkins. (Vick, Central Hants. Subsidies, 29-30)
A Stephen Hopkins was named as a son in the 1636 will of Thomas Hopkins of Blashford in the parish of Ellingham on the Isle of Wight. (Archdeaconry Court of Winchester, original wills [FHL film #186,925].) No records were found that could tie this Stephen Hopkins to the Mayflower pilgrim.
One additional clue deserves mention. On 20 September 1614, a letter was written to sir Thomas Dale, Marshal of the Colony of Virginia, requesting that he "send home by the next ship Eliezer Hopkins." (Alexander Brown, comp., The Genisis of the United States: A Narrative of the Movements in England Which Resulted in the Plantation of North America by Englishmen..., 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass., 1890), 2:736.) It seems possible that Eliezer Hopkins of Jamestown in 1614 was related to stephen.
This article has shown that Stephen Hopkins was actually from Hursley, Hampshire, England, and that his first wife was named Mary. The baptisms of Constance and Giles have been revealed, and the additional child Elizabeth has been here identified for the first time. Evidence has been provided to document the long-standing belief that Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower was the same man as Stephen Hopkins of the Sea Venture. And lastly the results of Paul C. Reed's search of the Hampshire records have been presented, which provide some solid clues for future researchers.
SUMMARY Stephen Hopkins was born probably in Hampshire, England, say 1578; the possibility that he was a son of John Hopkins of the city of Winchester merits further investigation. He died in Plymouth, now Massachusetts, between 6 June 1644, when he executed his will, and 17 july 1644, when the inventory of his estate was taken (see below). He married first, by 13 May 1604 (baptism of a child), MARY ---, who was buried at Hursley, Hampshire, on 9 May 1613. He married secondly, at St. Mary Matfellon, Whitechapel, Middlesex, on 19 Febryary 1617/8, ELIZABETH FISHER, (Banks, English Ancestry, 61. Given Bank's confusion between the London parishes of St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, and St. Katherine Coleman, and his providing an erroneous date (22 Dec. 1609 rather than 3 Dec.), it might be worthwhile to reconfirm this entry.) who died in Plymouth in the arly 1640s, since Bradford stated that both STephen Hopkins and his wife had "lived above 20 years in this place." (Bradford, History of Plymouth, 2:406. Mayflower Fams. 5Gs., 6:7, states that she died after 4 Feb. 1638/9. We have not been able to find a primary source that she was alive on this specific date. 4 Feb. 1638/9 is the date of the Plymouth court session that weighed the situationof Stephen Hopkin's pregnant servant, Dorothy Temple; Stephen's wife is not mentioned (Shurtleff and Pulsifer, Plymouth Colony Records, 1:111-13)). She was certainly dead when her husband executed his will.
"Steuen Hobkins" received six acres in the 1623 division of land, indicating five people in his household (since Stephen should have had an extra share). (Shurtleff and Pulsifer, Plymouth Colony Records, 12:4; Robert S. Wakefield, "The 1623 Plymouth Land Division," Mayflower Quart. 40(1974):7-13, 55-59, at 10.) In the Division of Cattle, 22 May 1627, the seventh lot "fell to Stephen Hopkins & his companie Joyned to him"; wife Elizabeth Hopkins, Gyles Hopkins, Caleb Hopkins, Debora Hopkins, Nickolas Snow, Constance Snow, Wil[l]iam Pallmer, Frances Pallmer, Wil[l]iam Palmer Jr., John Billington Sr., Hellen Billington, and Francis Billington. (Shurtleff and Pulsifer, Plymouth Colony Records, 12:11.)
Stephen Hopkins, "being weake, executed his will on 5 June 1644. He asked to be "buryed as neare as convenyently may be to my wyfe Deceased," and mentioned his son Giles; Giles's son Stephen; daughter Constanc[e] Snow, wife of Nicholas Snow; daughter deborah Hopkins; daughter Damaris Hopkins; daughter Ruth; daughter Elizabeth; and Caleb Hopkins, "my sonn and heire apparent." The inventory was taken on 17 July 1644, and the will was proved on 20 August 1644. Verbatim transcripts of both the will and inventory are readily available. (George Ernest Bowman, "The Will and Inventory of Stephen Hopkins," MD 2(1900): 12-17; C. H. Simmons Jr., ed., Plymouth Colony Records, 1 (Camden, Maine, 1996): 129-33 (hereafter sited as Simmons, Plymouth Colony Records.)
The portions of the estate for the daughters Debora, Damaris, Ruth, and Elizabeth were divided "equally by Capt Myles STandish [and] Caleb Hopkins their brother" at a date not given, and an agreement was reached on 30 9th month [Nov.] 1644 between Capt. Myles Standish and Caleb Hopkins with Richard Sparrow that Sparrow would have "Elizabeth Hopkins as his owne child untill the tyme of her marryage or untill shee be nineteene years of age," noting "the weaknes of the Child and her inabillytie top[e]rforme such service as may acquite their charge in bringing of her up and that shee bee not too much oppressed now in her childhood wth hard labour...." On 15 8th month [Oct.] 1644, Richard Sparrow acknowledged receiving "the half of a Cow from Capt MIles Standish wch is Ruth Hopkins," and on 19 May 1647, Myles Standish acknowledged receiving "two young steers in full Satisfaction for halfe a Cow which was Ruth hopkins which Richard Sparrow bought of me..." (George Ernest Bowman, "The Portions of Stephen HOpkins' Daughters, and the Estate of Elizabeth Hopkins," MD 4(1902): 114=19, at 114-17; Simmons, Plymouth Colony Records, 1:137-39.)
The "Cattle that goeth under the Name of Elizabeth hopkinses" were valued on 29 7th month [Sept.] 1659, and an inventory of her estate was taken on 6 October 1659. On 5 October, the court ordered that, "incase Elizabeth hopkins Doe Come Noe more," the cattle be awarded to Gyles Hopkins, and that he not "[d]emaund of, or molest...Andrew Ringe or Jacob Cooke in the peacable enjoyment of that which they have of the estate of Elizabeth hopkins." (Bowman, "...Estate of Elizabeth Hopkins," MD 4:118-19)
Children of Stephen and Mary (---) Hopkins, all baptized at Hursley. (For further details on the children of both marriages, see Mayflower Fams. 5Gs., 6:7-14, and Anderson, Great Migration Begins, 2:986-89; we have followed Anderson's "say" birth years, except for Caleb, whose birth yar Anderson places as "say 1624." Researchers should also consult George Ernest Bowman's discussion of the Hopkins children ("The Mayflower Genealogies: Stephen Hopkins and His Descendents," MD 5:47-53.)
i. Elizabeth Hopkins, bp. 13 May 1604, living in 1613 when she was mentioned in her mother's estate records; no further record found. ii. Constance Hopkins, bp. 11 May 1606; m. Nicholas Snow, by 22 May 1627, when they appeared in Stephen Hopkins' "Companie" in the division of cattle. iii. Giles Hopkins, bp 30 Jan. 1607/8; m. Plymouth, 9 Oct. 1639, Catherine Wheldon. (Shurtleff and Pulsifer, Plymouth Colony Records, 1:134. For the Wheldens, see Maclean W. McLean, "John and Mary (Folland) Whelden of Yarmouth, Mass.," TAG 48(1972):4-11, 81-88; McLean accepts Catherine (Whelden) Hopkins as a daughter of Gabriel Whelden of Yarmouth, Lynn, and Malden, Mass., but points out that explicit evidence for this relationship has not been found (TAG 48:4-5).) iv. Damaris Hopkins, b. say 1618, d. before 22 May 1627 (division of cattle). Either Damaris or Oceanus must have d. before the 1623 land division, which indicates as Robert Wakefield has shown, that there were then five members in Stephen Hopkins' family. (Wakefield, "1623 Plymouth Land Division," Mayflower Quart. 40:8,10.) v. Oceanus Hopkins, b. on the Mayflower between 6 Sept. and 11 Nov. 1620 (Old Style), the dates that the shop was at sea, d. before 22 May 1627 (divisin of cattle) and possibly before the 1623 land division. vi. Caleb Hopkins, b. say 1623, living Plymouth, 30 Nov. 1644, when he signed an agreement with Richard Sparrow to rear his sister Elizabeth, d. Barbados, before spring 1651, when Bradford called him deceased. vii. Deborah Hopkins, b. Plymouth, say 1626; m. Plymouth, 23 April 1646, Andrew Ring (widow Mary). (Shurtleff and Pulsifer, Plymouth Colony Records, 2:98. For the Rings, see John Insley Coddington, "The Widow Mary Ring, of Plymouth, Mass., and Her Children," TAG 42(1966):193-205; and Anderson, Great Migration Begins, 3:1586-88.) viii. Damaris Hopkins (again), b. Plymouth, say 1628 (after May 1627 [division of cattle]); m. shortly after 10 June 1646 (antenuptial agreement), Jacob Cooke (Francis of the Mayflower). ("Plymouth Colony Deeds," MD2(1900):27-28. For this Cooke family, see Mayflower Families Through Five Generations, 12: Francis Cooke, by Ralph Van Wood Jr. (Camden, Maine, 1996); and Anderson, Great Migration Begins, 1:467-71.) ix. Ruth Hopkins, b. say 1630 (after 22 May 1627 [division of cattle]), d. unmarried after [30 nov.?] 1644 (distribution of father's estate) and before spring 1651 (since Elizabeth must be the unmarried sister mentioned by Bradford). x. Elizabeth Hopkins (again), b. say 1632 (after 22 May 1627 [division of cattle[). She had left Plymouth by 29 7m [Sept.] 1659, when the process of settling her estate began; the records, however, are careful not to state that she was dead. I would like to thank Leslie Mahler of San Jose, Calif., for searching and photocopying the Hopkins entries in the Hursley parish register and for assiting in locating Mary Hopkins' probate records; Paul C. Reed of Salt Lake City for extensive research in Hampshire records; John C. Brandon of Columbia, S.C. for providing significant bibliographical references; and Robert S. Wakefield, FASG, of Redwood City, Calif., John D. Austin Jr., FSG, of Queensbury, N.Y., Neil D. Thompson, FASG, of Salt Lake City, and William Thorndale of Salt Lake City for valuable comments.
COMMENTS: Caleb Johnson's discovery [ TAG 73:161-71] of the family of Stephen Hopkins in Hursley, Hampshire, eliminates at last the suggestion that Stephen Hopkins was son of Stephen Hopkins, a clothier, of Wortley, Wooten Underedge, Gloucestershire [ MF 6:3, citing "[t]he Wortley historian"].
Johnson's discovery also strengthens the argument that this was the same Stephen Hopkins who was the minister's clerk on the vessel Sea Venture which met with a hurricane in 1609 while on a voyage to Virginia [ TAG 73:165-66]. One of one hundred and fifty survivors marooned on a Bermuda, he fomented a mutiny and was sentenced to death, but "so penitent he was and made so much moan, alleging the ruin of his wife and children in this his trespass," that his friends procured a pardon from the Governor [ MF 6:3, citing William Strachey's account].
In his listing of the Mayflower passengers Bradford included "Mr. Stephen Hopkins and Elizabeth his wife, and two children called Giles and Constanta, a daughter, both by a former wife. And two more by this wife called Damaris and Oceanus; the last was born at sea. And two servants called Edward Doty and Edward Lester" [ Bradford 442]. Stephen Hopkins signed the Mayflower Compact. In his accounting of this family in 1651 Bradford reported that "Mr. Hopkins and his wife are now both dead, but they lived above twenty years in this place and had one son and four daughters born here. Their son became a seaman and died at Barbadoes, one daughter died here, and two are married; one of them hath two children, and one is yet to marry. So their increase which still survive are five. But his son Giles is married and hath four children. His daughter Constanta is also married and hath twelve children, all of them living, and one of them married" [ Bradford 445].
In June 1621 Steven Hopkins and Edward Winslow were chosen by the governor to approach Massasoit, and Hopkins repeated this duty as emissary frequently thereafter [ Young's Pilgrim Fathers 202, 204].
Despite his social standing and his early public service, Stephen Hopkins managed to run afoul of the authorities several times in the late 1630s. In June of 1636 while an Assistant, he was fined for battery of John Tisdale, whom he "dangerously wounded" [ PCR 1:41-42]. On 2 October 1637 he was fined for allowing drinking on the Lord's day and the playing of "shovell board" [ PCR 1:68] and on 2 January 1637/8 he was "presented for suffering excessive drinking in his house" [ PCR 1:75]. On 5 June 1638 he was "presented for selling beer for 2d. the quart, not worth 1d. a quart" [ PCR 1:87]; for this and other similar infractions he was on 4 September 1638 fined £5 [ PCR 1:97]. He dealt harshly with his pregnant servant Dorothy Temple and only the intercession of John Holmes freed him from being held in contempt of court [ PCR 1:111-13]. In December 1639 he was presented for selling a looking glass for 16d. when a similar glass could be bought in the Bay for 9d. [ PCR 1:137].
BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE: In 1992 John D. Austin published an excellent and extensive account of Stephen Hopkins and his descendants as the sixth volume in the Five Generations Project of the General Society of Mayflower Descendants [cited herein as MF 6].
In 1998 Caleb Johnson published his discovery of the baptismal place of the children of Stephen Hopkins by his first wife [ TAG 73:161-71].
'...The history of his family in England has not been determined but it appears that it was of respectable standing. It is known that he resided in London for some time and was probably a merchant with some means and a staunch `dissenter,' which kept him on the defensive with the authorities. Some writers claim that he was a grandson of Stephen Hopkins, Fellow and Professor in King's College in 1532 and Rector of Norfolk, England, in 1551, and that his parents were Nicholas Hopkins and Mary Poole, sister of Sir Giles Poole. The church register of St Mary's Matfellon (Whitechapel), ecords his marriage to Elizabeth Fisher on Feb. 19, 1617/18, which would place him in the parish on the high road entering the city of London at Aldgate. 'Hopkins died between June 6 and June 17, 1644. He made his will on June 6, 1644, the day his inventory was taken. It is recorded in the Plymouth Colony Records of Wills and Inventories. Caleb Hopkins was the principal beneficiary and administrator, although his wife, Elizabeth, and his son, Giles, as well as other members of his family shared in his estate in varying degrees. Miles Standish was the executor.' Parentage Date: 1963 Note: 'Charles E. Banks in 'The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers', 1929, pp. 61-64, in his account of Stephen Hopkins, gave reasons for thinking that the Mayflower passenger was identical with the man of this name who had been in Virginia in 1609, and that he was probably the Stephen Hopkins who married [for his second wife] Elizabeth Fisher on 19 Feb. 1617/18 at St. Mary Matfellon (Whitechapel) in London. He also called attention to the fact that a Stephen Hopkins was living in 1608 in the hamlet of Wortley in the parish of Wotton under Edge, co. Gloucester, where a nameless child of a Stephen Hopkins was baptized 29 Oct. 1581, about the right date for the birth of the Mayflower passenger. 'Mr. E.S. Lindley in 1950 gave a considerable account of this Hopkins family in 'Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society', vol. 69, pp. 111-126, in his detailed 'History of Wortley, in the PARISH OF Wotton-under-Edge' (vol.68, pp.16-90; vol. 69, pp.91-195), to which attention is hereby directed. He shows conclusively that this family in Wortley was known as both Seborne and Hopkins, the names being used interchangeably and sometimes with an alias.
'This branch of the family starts with a Stevean [Stephen] Seburne whose 1543 will named wife Jone, eldest son Robert, younger sons Thomas, John and another Robert, daughters Katharine and Jone; one of the supervisors was William Seburne, perhaps a brother. The manor survey the next year (1544) shows no Seburnes, but here their place is taken by Stephen Hopkins (perhaps the estate), Robert Hopkins (the eldest son), and William Hopkins(the supposed brother).
'Apparently the next in this line was Robert Hopkyns of Wortley whose 1589 will named sons William, George, Thomas, Richard and steven, and daughter Alse; one of the overseers was William Hopkins of Wortley, perhaps the supposed brother of his father. This is believed to be the Robert Hopkyns who was presented as tythingman, a position which his grandson Edward held in 1633. 'It seems likely that it was Robert's eldest son William whose will in 1596 calls him William Hopkins alias Seburne of Wortley, husbandman, and was proved in 1596 (Canterbury). It names wife Alice, children Edward (executor), John [b. 1574], Agnes [b. 1577], Gillyan [b.1579], Thomas [b.1581], and Elizabeth. It may be doubted that the eldest son Edward was the Edward Hopkins who obtained a marriage license i London in 1581 as suggested by Mr. Lindley, as the date is too early. He did marry late in life, in 1639, Elizabeth, widow of John Baker, and in 1541 signed his will as Edward Hopkins of Wortley, yeoman. It names only his wife Elizabeth and his sisters Elizabeth Hopkins and Agnes Fisher, so it is doubtful that he left issue and somewhat doubtful that his two brothers survived to leave issue. Records of the Court Baron in 1642 show that Edward's land passed to his widow Elizabeth, who married William Stones, and her death was reported in 1648. 'The heir to the copyhold lands of Edward appears to have been Robert Hopkins, described in 1649 as citizen and haberdasher of London when he bought from Samson Hopkins of Southam,. co. Warwick, gent., a messuage 'late in tenure or occupation of Edward Hopkins deceased and now in tenure of the said Robert Hopkins.' This Samson Hopkins did not belong to the Wortley family and his pedigree is well known for several generations. It will be noted that Robert was in possession at the date of the deed which was very shortly after the death of Edward's widow, and it is not known how Sampson Hopkins acquired an interest, but it could not have been by descent or heirship, and he may have been a lessee or mortgagee whose claim had to be satisfied.
'It does seem likely that Robert of London was a first cousin of Edward, for his will names his father as Stephen, and Edward did have an uncle Stephen, as appears from the wills above. Robert was buried at Hawkesbury (about two miles south of Wortley) in 1666 according to the parish register, which however does not mention his father Stephen. Robert's will (Canterbury) describes him as of Kilcote, names no children, and leaves his house, lands and residuary estate to his wife Elizabeth. Within a year she married Richard Thynne of Hawkesbury, great-grandson of the founder of Longleat, and founder of the family of the Marquess of Bath. Richard Thynne sold Wortley House in 1676. The significant item in Robert Hopkin's will is his request to be buried 'decently in the church of Hawkesbury at the end of the usual seate place of Stephen Hopkins my father deceased.'
As for the Stephen Hopkins who was son of Robert (d. 1589), probable father of Robert of London and possible father of Stephen of the Mayflower, the records cited by Mr. Lindley tell us little. In 1608 the list for Wortley of 'Men and Armour' lists nine men named Hopkins including Edward, husbandman; Stephen Hopkins with his sons John and William, all weavers; and another Stephen, a clothier. Mr. Lindley unfortunately gives little data from the Wotton registers, but he does mention that JOhn and William were twin sons of Stephen and indicates that they were baptized in 1579. He suggests that the other Stephen, the clothier, may have been the father of Robert of London, as he has not found mention of this Stephen elsewhere in Wortley records. Mr. Lindley seems to have been troubled by the fact that Stephen the weaver and his two sons were all three listed in 'Men and Armour' with the figure 20, which he took to be their age; but since every man in the list has either '20' or '40' after his name, these figures can hardly have been intended for the ages of those listed.
'Further research is definitely needed, but the above provides the background for those who think it likely that the Mayflower passenger belonged to the Wortley family. The social background would be about right. If Stephen was a brother of Robert of London, the haberdasher, he would be named for his father, Stephen the clothier, and there is good evidence that Stephen of the Mayflower had lived in London. Mr. Lindley's statement that Stephen was 'described as of Wotton' in the Mayflower passenger list is incorrect if he intended to refer to a contemporary list. The story of his career is told in Willison's 'Saints and Strangers' and elsewhere.
TENTATIVE PEDIGREE ------------------ Stephen ('Stevean') Seburne = Joan d. 1543 Thomas John Robert Joan Robert Hopkyns = d. 1589 George Thomas Richard Alse William Hopkins alias Seburne = Alice d. 1596 Edward b. ca. 1672, d.1641, m.1639 Elizabeth wid. Baker. She d. 1648 having m. (2) William Stones John b. 1574 Agnes b. 1577 m. --- Fisher Gillian b. 1579 Thomas b. 1581 Elizabeth Stephen Hopkins, clothier, in Men & Armour, 1608 Robert, haberdasher of London, held Wortley lands 1649, d. 1666, m. Elizabeth, who m. (2) Richard Thynne ? Stephen of the Mayflower, b. 1581 or a trifle later.' ibid. p.170-171.
'Stephen Hopkins - in the article, 'Hopkins Family of Wortley, Gloucestershire,' supra, 39:95-97, our purpose was to set forth what is actually known about this family, since positive statements have been made, but without actual evidence, that Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower was a member of this family. Although this theory was not endorsed in the article, it seemed possible, from such evidence as was then in hand, that Stephen might have been brother of Robert Hopkins, the London haberdasher, whose will showed that he was son of a Stephen Hopkins of the Gloucestershire family.
'I have now obtained records from England which show that this Robert was a generation younger than Stephen of the Mayflower, probably at least 25 years younger, and that makes it unlikely that they were brothers. It still remains possible if the father was twice married and had Robert by a younger wife when he was 55 or older. Since these records will have tobe considered in any future evaluation of the theory, I will present them briefly. 'The records of the Haberdashers' Company in London contain an entry in the Book of Bindings: Robert Hopkins son of Stephen Hopkins of the Parish of Hawkesberry in the County of Gloucester, Yeoman, places himself as apprentice to Thomas Tiler, Citizen and Haberdasher of London for 9 years from the Feast of All Saints, given on 7th November 1623. An entry in the Freedoms Book shows Robert Hopkins by Thomas Tyler in 1632. If 21 when freed, he was apprenticed at 12, and was born about 1611. I have also found his marriage: 17 Sept. 1663, Robert Hoopkins [sic.], Killcott, psh. Hawkesbury, gent., aged 50, and Elizabeth Sollers, of Bisley, aged 30. The ages, 50 and 30, are round figures, and so probably not exact, and we may surmise that Robert was 52. The marriage of his widow: 1 Oct. 1667, Richard Thynne, Hawkesbury, gent., 30, and Elizabeth Hopkins, w. [widow], no age given.
'It must not be forgotten that two men named Stephen Hopkins were listed in 1608 at Wortley: one a weaver with sons John and William (the sons twins and born in 1579); while the other was called a clothier. The latter may have been the father of Robert the haberdasher of London. The former remains a possibility for the father of Stephen of the Mayflower, but a possibility only.' Parentage Date: 1929 Note: 'The known and already published facts concerning this Pilgrim that are factors in his identification are his previous residence in London (Mourt's Relation) and the name of his wife, Elizabeth, stated to have been his second marriage (Bradford). The church register of St. Mary Matfellon (Whitechapel) records the marriage of Stephen Hopkins and Elizabeth Fisher, 19 February, 1617/`18, which complies with the necessary factors just quoted. This places Hopkins in the parish on the highroad entering London at Aldgate near which Bradford, Carver, Cushman and Southworth lived in or near Heneage House, Aldgate Ward, as already shown, and thus provides the atmosphere and propinquity required to establish this probability. The name of his first wife is not known but he may be the same Stephen Hopkins, a resident in the parish of St. Stephens, Coleman St., who had a son Stephen, baptized 22 December, 1609, possibly by this first marriage. All other Stephen Hopkinses found in London have been followed to a point where they could be eliminated from consideration as the Pilgrim. 'It seems possible to identify the Pilgrim, Stephen Hopkins, with one of his name who sailed for Virginia in the Sea Adventure which set sail 15 May, 1609, via Bermuda and was wrecked on the shore of that island. This earlier Hopkins, in an account of this voyage, is described as one 'who had much knowledge in the Scriptures and could reason well therein.' The chaplain of the party chose him to be his assistant 'to read the Psalmes and Chapters upon Sondayes' after they had become settled on the island. The narrator continues the story of this stranded company (which was originally bound for Virginia) and relates a mutiny among the passengers who were desirous to continue the voyage. This Stephen Hopkins was one of the ringleaders. Sir George Summers caused these mutineers to be arrested and tried. Hopkins with his associates was found guilty of rebellion, 'but so penitent hee was and made soe much moane alledging the ruine of his Wife and Children,' that upon the plea of the rest of the company the Governor pardoned him. After this a small bark was built and the company proceeded to Virginia. (Purchas. His Pilgrimes, Book ix, pt. 2; comp. Gen. Reg. xxxiii, 305.)
'The significance of this and its connection with Stephen Hopkins, the Pilgrim, will be apparent from what is recorded of him after arrival of the Mayflower at Plymouth. He was of the first exploring party sent out to seek a suitable place for habitation and while on this errand they came across a sight which was curious to them - a small tree bent over and attached to boughs and grasses woven together covering a deep pit. Hopkins at once informed them that it was a trap used by the Indians to catch deer. Knowledge of this sort was not the common property of residents of London but must have been acquired by previous residence among the Indians such as we know was the case with the Stephen Hopkins on the 1609 voyage. Doubtless he had seen the same device in Virginia. When Samoset came to Plymouth and welcomed the Pilgrims he was lodged overnight in Stephen Hopkins' house, doubtless because Hopkins could understand his language and converse with him. When the messenger of Canonicus brought the snake-skin full of arrows to Plymouth, Standish and Hopkins had charge of him (Standish in his capacity as military commander), and tried to get at the meaning of the message this snake symbolized. As Standish did not know the Indian language, Hopkins was chosen to learn from the Indian what it meant. In 1623 Hopkins accompanied Winslow on the mission to Massasoit just as he did in 1621, doubtless for the same purpose - his knowledge of the Indian tongue. These instances definitely confirm the view that Hopkins had been on this coast prior to his voyage on the Mayflower. It was always Hopkins when negotiations with the Indians were necessary and he could not have learned these things in London. It seems highly probable that Weston selected Hopkins to accompany the Pilgrims because of his previous knowledge of this coast.
'One clue remains to be considered - the rare name of Giles, his son. The compiler has only found one instance of it - that of a Giles Hopkins, a tiler of Bristol, living there in 1639, aged 44 years. It is to be remembered that Francis Eaton also came from Bristol. The Militia list for Gloucestershire, 1608, shows a family of weavers and clothiers in the hamlet of Wortley in the parish of Wotton under Edge (16 miles from Bristol) bearing the names of Stephen Hopkins and his sons. Unfortunately, the parish records of Wotton are imperfect for the years neccessary for identifying our Stephen as of this family, but sufficient exists to show the baptism of a son William to Stephen Hopkins, 19 July, 1607, after which the name disappears from the register. Theoretically, this gives opportunity for the removal of this Stephen to London in time to join the Sea Adventure on her voyage to Bermuda as above related. An imperfect entry in the Wotton register is the baptism of ---- Hopkins of Stephen Hopkins, 29 October, 1581, who was the fourth child and whose age would fit that of the Pilgrim. The record does not state whether a son or daughter, but as no child had been named Stephen for himself possibly this was the name of the child.'
For more on Stephen Hopkins, see "Here Shall I Die Ashore" by Caleb Johnson
While there have long been disputes about the number of Stephen Hopkins, his marriages, and family, it is my belief the the person represented here, as delineated in The Great Migration Begins, Anderson, is as close to fact as is going to be found. Others may have other opinions, and they are welcome to state their beliefs here. 
- Johnson, Caleb, Here Shall I Die Ashore, Xlibris, USA, 2007. http://tinyurl.com/Johnson-Book
- Mayflower Families Through Five Generations. Mayflower Society. General Society of Mayflower Descendants, Plymouth, MA, 2001
- Mayflower Marriages. Susan E. Roser . Genealogical Publishing Co. 1990
- History and Genealogy of the Hopkins Family in America; James Kimble Young, Jr.,; 1950.
- Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower and Some of His Descendants. Compiled by Timothy Hopkins of San Francisco. Prepared for Publication by Margaret Griffith, California Genealogical Society.
- "The Doty-Doten Family in America", by Ethan Allen Doty, 1897,
- Myricks of Westminster, The Abbreviation: Myricks of Westminster Author: Nadeau, Bernard E. Publication: author, St. Augustine, FL, 1976
- Mayflower Source Records . Roberts Publication: 1986
- Consolidated Library of Cape Cod History and Genealogy. Smith, Leonard H. Owl Books, Clearwater, FL, 1990
- A Munsey-Hopkins Genealogy, being the ancestry of Andrew Chauncey Munsey and Mary Jane Merritt Hopkins . Lowell, D.O.S. Boston, 1920
- Mayflower Families in Progress
- Adventurers of Purse and Person, Virginia 1607-1625. Jester, Annie Lash. Order of First Families of Virginia, Richmond, VA, 1956 / 1987
- English Ancestry and homes of the Pilgrim Fathers who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623. Banks, Charles Edward . The Grafton Press, New York, 1929 (rep - 1965)
- Library of Cape Cod History and Genealogy. C. W. Swift, Yarmouthport, MA
- Great Migration Begins - Immigrants to New England 1620-1633. Robert Charles Anderson . New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, MA, 1995
- New England Historical and Genealogical Register . Boston, MA
- American Genealogist.
- History of Barnstable County, MA 1620 – 1890. Simeon L. Deyo. H. W. Blake & Co., New York, 1890
- Founders of Early American Families - Emigrants from Europe 1607-1657. Colket, Meredith B . General Court of the Order of Founders and Patriots of America, Cleveland, OH, 1975
- Johnson, Caleb; "The True Origin of Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower"; v.73, no. 3, July 1998; pp. 161-171
- Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower and Descendants for Four Generations; pp.1-3
- Hopkins Family of Wortley, Gloucestershire-Possible ancestry of Stephen Hopkins'; Ralph D. Phillips; v.39,p.95-97;1963
- Page: http://members.aol.com/calebj/will_hopkins.html, 8 Mar 1997
- History and Genealogy of the Mayflower Planters, Vol. I
- Mayflower Marriages
- Mayflower Descendants and Their Marriages for Two Generations After the Landing
- Mayflower Deeds & Probates
- Mayflower Births & Deaths, Vol. I
- Register of the Society of Mayflower descendants in the District of Columbia, 1970 : in commemoration of the 350th anniversary
- Massachusetts Census, 1790-1890. Jackson, Ron V.
- Families Directly Descended from All the Royal Families in Europe (495 to 1932) & Mayflower Descendants.
- Library of Congress Photo Collection, 1840-2000
- Genealogy - Boston and Eastern Massachusetts. William Richard Cutter, A. M., Genealogy - Boston and Eastern Massachusetts (Lewis Historical Publishing Company, New York, 1908)
- Pilgrim Village Families Sketch: Stephen Hopkins by Robert Charles Anderson Stephen Hopkins web.archive.org
- Source: S179 John D. Austin, Mayflower Families Through 5 Generations, Stephen Hopkins, Vol. 6 (General Society of Mayflower Descendants, Plymouth, MA, 2001 [3rd printing] )
- Source: S311 Amos Otis, Genealogical Notes of Barnstable Families revised by C.F. Swift (Publication: c1861 (revised ?) )
- Source: S803 Web site
- Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006)
- "Mayflower Families Through Five Generations", Volume six, "Hopkins", Published by General Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1992.
- http://minerdescent.com/page/8/ - "The Miner Descent," has an excellent article on Stephen Hopkins and his unusual life plus possible connection to William Shakespeare's character "Stephano" in "The Tempest," said to be based on the Sea Venture's wreck of 1609 and Hopkins' conviction for mutiny. It says he was baptised on April 30, 1581, in Upper Clatford, Hampshire.
Additional References Contributed by Morag M:
• 1 Pilgrim Hopkins Heritage Society (On line) Atlantic Crossings Vol. 1 , Issue 1 pp. 1 and 4 • 2 www.PlymouthAncestors.org Genealogical Profile of Stephen Hopkins • 3 American Genealogist 73 (3) July 1998 pp161-171 • 4 American Genealogist 74 (4) Oct 2004 pp241-249 • 5 Johnson, Caleb, Here Shall I Die Ashore, Xlibris, USA, 2007 Appendix VI pp. 241-247
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- Source S1 Marie Stocking, compiler, The Stocking Ancestry and History of a Stocking Family (:, May 15, 1963)
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On 16 Nov 2016 at 21:00 GMT Doug Smith wrote:
National Geographic Movie (2015) about Mayflower that featured Stephen Hopkins
On 19 May 2016 at 01:33 GMT Jillaine Smith wrote:
On 10 May 2016 at 11:27 GMT Becky (Nally) Syphers wrote:
On 10 May 2016 at 11:21 GMT Ron Woodhouse wrote:
On 8 May 2016 at 00:31 GMT Tish Bucher wrote:
Under Back In England " . . . another residence at Hursley, Southhampton, Eng . . . where his wife, Mary's probate was executed. . . . "
But Hursley is in Hampshire co., not city of Southampton.
Beginning of graph says home "just outside of London Wall". Some might infer Mary died there. No indication she lived in London & when she died her children were assigned guardians who lived in Hursley, not London.
See Simon Neal's research on Mary's probable family at Mayflower Quarterly article (thanks V in NC): https://www.themayflowersociety.org/images/stories/quarterly/nov-june-2012/index.html#/22
Under Family: Says "we know she died of the plague". No, we don't know that.
On 18 Apr 2016 at 05:25 GMT Tish Bucher wrote:
What's the source that Hopkins was a friend of Wm Shakespeare as reported in the text?
What's the source that Mary died of the plague?
The portrait above of the seated man in the gold vest is a different S.Hopkins from [LOCATION] Providence, Rhode Island.
[DATE] That Stephen Hopkins (1707-1785) served as a chancellor for (now) Brown University (the large buidling in the background) after it was founded in 1764, signed the Declaration of Independance in 1775. It was painted in 1999 and hangs at Brown University. http://gaspee.org/StephenHopkins.htm
See the paining here also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hopkins_(politician)
There are no cartoons, drawings or paintings of Hopkins of the Mayflower.
On 14 Apr 2016 at 22:48 GMT Jillaine Smith wrote:
On 21 Feb 2016 at 22:22 GMT Bobbie (Madison) Hall wrote:
On 21 Feb 2016 at 21:24 GMT Anonymous (Bozoian) Anonymous wrote:
On 20 Feb 2016 at 03:51 GMT Terri (Ott) Viola wrote:
Stephen is 12 degrees from Kevin Bacon, 20 degrees from Charlotte Brontë, 16 degrees from Bob Keniston, 21 degrees from Ben Kingsley and 16 degrees from Queen Elizabeth II Windsor on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.