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Cornelis (Houtman) de Houtman (1565 - 1599)

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Cornelis de Houtman formerly Houtman
Born in Netherlandsmap
Son of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
[sibling(s) unknown]
[spouse(s) unknown]
[children unknown]
Died in Netherlandsmap
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Profile last modified | Created 2 Dec 2016
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Categories: Nederlanders | Dutch Roots Project Needs Birth | Banten, Historic Indonesian Sultanate.

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Contents

Biographie

Biography

Cornelis de Houtman was a Dutch explorer who discovered a new sea route from Europe to Indonesia and who thus began the Dutch spice trade. The voyage was a symbolic victory for the Dutch, even though the voyage itself was a disaster. [1]

Birth

Cornelis de Houtman was born 2 April 1565. He was a brother of Frederick de Houtman. [1]

1592 Spy

In 1592 Cornelis de Houtman was sent by Amsterdam merchants to Lisbon to discover as much information on the Spice Islands as he could. Portugal and Spain, then united, had closed their ports to Dutch ships in 1585 in the context of the Eighty Years' War. Houtman spent about two years in Portugal; the Portuguese needed help and didn't realize that the Dutch represented a risk. When Houtman returned to the Netherlands he brought with him precious information about the seas and lands of the East: the coasts, the reefs and skerries, the sea currents, the winds, landmarks, local birds, friendly and enemy foes and about the strengths and weaknesses of the Portuguese.[1]

1594 The voyage

At the same time he returned to Amsterdam, Jan Huygen van Linschoten returned from India. The merchants determined that Bantam (Banten) provided the best opportunity to buy spices. In 1594 the two merchants founded the company 'compagnie van Verre' (meaning "the long-distance company"), and on April 2, 1595 four ships left Amsterdam: the Amsterdam, Hollandia, Mauritius and Duyfken.[1]

1596 Banten

On June 27, 1596 the ships finally arrived at Banten, a northwestern port in Java. Jan Huyghen van Linschoten had told them not to pass through the Malacca Strait, which was controlled by the Portuguese, but through Sunda Strait.[1]

De Houtman was introduced to the Sultan of Banten, who promptly entered into an optimistic treaty with the Dutch, writing "We are well content to have a permanent league of alliance and friendship with His Highness the Prince Maurice of Nassau, of the Netherlands and with you, gentlemen." [1]

The local Portuguese traders became very conspicuous when De Houtman did not buy any black pepper, and wanted to wait on the next harvest. Unfortunately, De Houtman was undiplomatic and insulting to the sultan, and was turned away for "rude behaviour", without being able to buy spices at all.[1]

Madura

The ships then sailed east to Madura, but were attacked by pirates on the way. In Madura, they were received peacefully, but De Houtman ordered his men to brutally attack and rape the civilian population in revenge for the unrelated earlier piracy. [2]

Bali and Return

The ships then sailed for Bali, and met with the island's king. They managed to obtain a few pots of peppercorns on February 26, 1597. Two of the crew members stayed on the island. At Bawean one of the ships, the Amsterdam was purposely set on fire, and the crew divided over the other three ships. When the sailors had enough of the exhausting voyage, it was decided not to go to the Moluccas and return to Holland. That evening another one of the skippers died. De Houtman was accused of poisoning him.[3]

Portuguese ships prevented them from taking on water and supplies at St. Helena. Out of the 249 man crew, only 87 returned, too weak to moor their ships themselves.

Repercussions

Though the trip was a humanitarian disaster and financially probably just broke even, it was a symbolic victory. It may be regarded as the start of the Dutch colonisation of Indonesia. Within five years, sixty-five more Dutch ships had sailed east to trade. Soon, the Dutch would fully take over the spice trade in and around the Indian Ocean. [1]

1599 Death

On his second trip to the East, for a different company, Cornelis de Houtman and his troops got into a confrontation in Aceh, because of his rude temperament, and soon there were fierce battles with the Acehnese Navy, led by Aceh's female admiral, Keumalahayati (Malahayati) who eventually managed to kill Cornelis de Houtman. [1]

Cornelis de Houtman died 1 September 1599 [1]

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Wikipedia. Cornelis de Houtman. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornelis_de_Houtman. Accessed December 1, 2016
  2. Winchester, Simon (2003). Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded, August 27, 1883. New York: HarperCollins. p. 17. ISBN 0-06-621285-5. Cited at Wikipedia. Cornelis de Houtman. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornelis_de_Houtman. Accessed December 1, 2016

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