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Richard Ingle (abt. 1609 - abt. 1653)

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Richard Ingle
Born about in London, Englandmap [uncertain]
Son of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
[sibling(s) unknown]
[spouse(s) unknown]
[children unknown]
Died about in Province of Marylandmap
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Profile last modified 14 Jan 2019 | Created 14 Nov 2016
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Richard Ingle (1609–1653) was an English colonial seaman and tobacco trader in the American colonies who took over the government of the colony of Maryland in 1645. [1]

1609 Birth

Most of Ingle's background is unknown. He was born in England, possibly in London, around 1609 into a Protestant family that schooled him.

Trader and Ship Captain

He became a trader and ship captain. Ingle transported goods of Maryland traders from England and back and became a prominent tobacco trader. [1]

He was master and part owner of the Reformation, a ship which arrived in Maryland in Jan. 1643/4 on a trading voyage. [2]

Troubles with Maryland

When the English Civil War broke out, Ingle sided with the Puritans. He fell out with the Catholic leaders of Maryland, and when the royalist governor Leonard Calvert seized his ship, he escaped. [1]

Ingle returned in February 1645 with the ship Reformation and attacked the Maryland colony in the name of Parliament. He attacked the settlement of St. Mary's and imprisoned leaders of the colony. Calvert, the royalist proprietary governor, fled to Virginia. [1]

Ingle took control of the Maryland government.[1] Under Ingle's leadership, his men looted property of wealthy Roman Catholic settlers. Ingle claimed that he had a letter of marque to cruise the waters of Shesapeake (Chesapeake Bay) and the permission of a new government in England. Local settlers regarded him as a pirate. He put two Jesuit priests to chains and transported them back to England. The events are known as the "Claiborne and Ingle's rebellion". [1]

Possible Execution

Governor Calvert returned in August 1646 and reestablished his control. Though most of his men were granted amnesty, Ingle was specifically exempted from it and executed. [1][3]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Richard Ingle. Wikipedia. Accessed Dec 22, 2015. Recommended Bibliography:
    • Edward Ingle - Captain Richard Ingle, the Maryland Pirate and Rebel (Baltimore 1884)
    • Timothy B. Riordan - Plundering Time: Maryland and the English Civil War, 1645-1646 (Baltimore 2004)
  2. Maryland Historical Magazine (The Society, Baltimore, 1906) Vol. 1, Page 125-40
  3. There is a dispute on Wikipedia as to whether Richard Ingle was actually executed by the Province of Maryland. (June 2011)

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