A detailed biography of Sir Andrew Judde was published by Vere-Hodge in 1953. This followed a short biography published in 1827, one by Wadmore in 1881 which was updated in 1902, and one by Lambard in 1931. A summary biography is also provided on the website of the Tonbridge History Society .
Andrew Judde was the son of John Judde of Tonbridge, Kent, and Margaret Chiche. Andrew's year of birth is unknown but is presumed to be in the period 1490-1492.
In his father's will made on 02 Feb 1492/1493 and proved on 08 Sep 1493, Andrew was bequeathed lands and tenements which his father had purchased from Robert Crudde and John Crudde of Rusthall. The will indicates that he was the third and youngest son of John Judde, his elder brothers being Thomas and John. He also had three sisters, Susan, Elizabeth and Joanna.
Andrew Judde married three times, his first wife being Mary Murfyn (daughter of Thomas Murfyn, a former Lord Mayor of London); his second wife was Agnes/Annys (surname unknown); and third wife was Mary (Mathew), the widow of Thomas Langton.
Andrew Judde was noted as the son in law of Thomas Murfyn in the will of the latter made in September 1523. Which of Thomas Murfyn’s daughters married Andrew Judde is not mentioned in the will but Mary Murfyn was noted as the mother of Andrew Judde’s son, Richard Judde. This aligns with the memorial inscription for Sir Andrew Judde indicating a first wife named Mary who bore four sons and a daughter.
It is assumed that Mary (Murfyn) Judde died around 1540 as in 1542 at the Feast of Corpus Christi "Maister Andrewe Judde Alderman then new electe maister of the craft' presided over the admission of new members and at the top of the list of 'New susters' was Agnes Judde. It is assumed that this Agnes Judde was the second wife of Andrew Judde, recorded as Annys on the memorial to Sir Andrew Judde, and as Agnes in his will.
Presumably, Agnes/Annys was the wife of Andrew Judde referred to in the will of Dame Elizabeth Hollys, the will made on 17 Feb 1543/1544 and proved on 28 Mar 1544. Dame Elizabeth made a bequest as follows: "My cousin maister Andrewe Judde Alderman x li, And to my cousin his wiffe my best gowne of blacke furred with martonnes". The nature of the familial relationship between Agnes and Dame Elizabeth (Scopeham) Hollys is unclear at this time.
The Diary of Henry Machyn described the burial of a wife of Sir Andrew Judde (in his Mayoral year) on the 19th Nov 1550 in the parish of St Helen Bishopsgate, City of London. While the wife’s name is not mentioned it would seem certain that it was the burial of his second wife, Agnes/Annys, as Andrew Judde’s will referred to a wife Agnes who had been buried at St Helen's, Bishopsgate, London, and Andrew Judde married his third wife (who survived him) only two months after the burial of his second wife, the Wriothesley Chronicle recording that on 07 Feb 1550/1551, Sir Andrew married the widow of Thomas Langton, she being the daughter of Thomas Mathew of Colchester.
The memorial to Sir Andrew Judde (see below) refers to fours sons and a daughter by his first wife and a daughter by his third wife. Two sons, John and Richard, were noted in their father's will. Both sons followed him into the Company of Skinners. Two other sons are depicted as children in the memorial and hence it is assumed that they died before reaching adulthood.
The daughter from his first marriage was Alice, who married Thomas ('Customer') Smythe.
The daughter of Sir Andrew Judde from his third marriage was Martha who married Robert Golding. Dame Mary Judde (Sir Andrew's third wife) bequeathed to her daughter Martha Goldinge, wife of Robert, "one neaste of gilte gobletts with a cover which were Sir Andrewe Judds". In the will of Sir Andrew's eldest daughter, Alice (Judde) Smythe, her will made on 10 Jul 1592 and proved 11 May 1598, she made a bequest to her sister Martha Goldinge and her two children. It was suggested by Fisher that the daughter of Sir Andrew Judde and his third wife was an Elizabeth who married Sir William Morgan of Pencoed, but this is incorrect, Elizabeth being the daughter of Sir Andrew's third wife, Mary, but by her second husband, Thomas Langton.
In 1509, Judde was apprenticed to John Buknell, a Skinner and Merchant of the Staple of Calais. “Andrewe Judde, the son of John Judde, late of Tunbrygge, in the Counte of Kent, gentylman, dysceasyd, hath put hymself apprentyce to John Buknell citezen and skynner of London, and M’chaunte of the stapyll of Calais, to lerne the crafte that the same John Buknell useth and to dwell wt hym from the fest of the Annunciation of Or Lady the Vurgyn in the xxiiith yere of the reigne of King Henry VIIth unto the ende and trme of viii yeres”.
On the 23 Mar 1517, Andrew Judde was named as paying a duty on a cargo of wool shipped to Calais.
In the will of his old Master, John Buknell, the will made on 08 Oct 1520 and proved on 13 Nov 1520 the Testator bequeathed one half of his estate to “Andrewe Judde marchante of the staple of Calais” for the ordering and keeping of the Testator’s son, William Buknell, until William was 21 years of age. Andrew Judde was a co-Executor of the will.
As an increasingly important figure in the Company of Skinners, Judde became one of the named grantees of the Company in 1526. Grantees had been named since 1437 when King Henry VI had granted the company their third charter which allowed the company to purchase land.
By 1533 Andrew Judde had risen to the position of Master of the Company of Skinners, a post appointed annually. In all he was Master of the Skinners’ Company on six occasions and also Mayor of the Staple [Calais] in both 1552 and 1558.
Sir Andrew Judde was the founder of the Judd school of Tonbridge in 1553.
In 1553 Judde was caught up in the politics of the succession following the death of Edward VI, the Duke of Northumberland requiring the most prominent citizens of London to sign a document legitimising Lady Jane Grey as successor rather than Mary Tudor.
Sir Andrew Judde was recorded as being present at the defence of London Bridge during the Wyatt rebellion of 1554. “Wyatt and a few with him went further as farre as the drawebridge; on the further side whereof he saw the Lorde Admirall, the Lord Maiour, Sir Andrew Judde, and one or two other in consultation for ordering of the bridge, whereunto he gave diligent care a good tyme”.
In September 1555 at Calais, Sir Andrew Judde presented King Philip of Spain with a purse containing a thousand marks in gold.
Sir Andrew was a leading figure in the development of trade with Russia. Of four ships sent to Russia in 1557, the 'Primrose' of 240 tons belonged to Andrew Judde, William Chester, Anthony Hickman and Edward Castelin, and the 'John Evangelist' belonged to Judde and Chester.
Sir Andrew Judde and his son in law, Thomas 'Customer' Smythe, were 2 of 22 members of the Russia Company who promoted the Guinea voyage of 1558, there being 34 merchants involved in total.
Sir Andrew was Mayor of the Staple of Calais when it fell to the French in January 1557/1558, no doubt suffering significant financial losses as a consequence.
A date of death for Sir Andrew of 04 Sep 1558 has been suggested but no contemporary source has yet been identified to corroborate this date. His date of burial, however, was recorded: On "the xiv day of September  was buried sir Andrew Jud, skinner, merchant of Muscovy, and late mayor of London".
Sir Andrew Judde was buried at St Helen Bishopsgate in the City of London (see below for details of his memorial).
Sir Andrew Judde was granted arms on 03 Mar 1551/1552 and they are displayed on his memorial:
A fess raguly between three boars heads couped (Judde); and
Three lions rampant within a bordure (Chiche).
The same arms can be found for the Judd School of Tonbridge.
Of a series of paintings produced by Brangwyn in the first decade of the 20th Century for the great hall in London of the worshipful Company of Skinners one is concerned with the founding of Tonbridge School and depicts Andrew Judde with other members of the Skinners.
A memorial to Sir Andrew Judde exists within the church of St Helen Bishopsgate in the City of London. It indicates he had four sons and a daughter by his first wife (Mary), no children by his second wife (Agnes/Annys) and a daughter by his third wife (Dame Mary). The epitaph reads:
TO RUSSIA AND MUSCOVA
TO SPAYNE GYNNY WITHOUTE FABLE
TRAVELD HE BY LAND AND SEA
BOTHE MAYRE OF LONDON AND STAPLE
THE COMMONWELTHE HE NORISHED
SO WORTHELIE IN ALL HIS DAIES
THAT ECH STATE FULL WELL HIM LOVED
TO HIS PERPETUALL PRAYES
THREE WYVES HE HAD ONE WAS MARY
FOWER SUNES ONE MAYDE HAD HE BY HER
ANNYS HAD NONE BY HIM TRVLY
BY DAME MARY HAD ONE DOWGHTER
THUS IN THE MONTH OF SEPTEMBER
A THOWSANDE FYVE HVNDRED FYFTEY
AND EYGHT, DIED THIS WORTHIE STAPLAR
WORSHIPYNGE HIS POSTERYTYE
Vere Hodge argues convincingly that despite the words in the epitaph, Andrew Judde was unlikely to have himself visited Spanish Guinea and Russia. The epitaph may in part reflect that it was probably created in the early 17th century rather than immediately after the decease of Sir Andrew. The memorial was probably commissioned by Sir Andrew Judde's daughter Alice (Judde) Smythe, or possibly her son, Sir Thomas Smythe, who was also a Skinner.
In his will made on 02 Sep 1558 and proved on 15 Oct 1558 he was recorded as Sir Androw Judde, Knight and Alderman of the Cittie of London. His will was to be buried in the parish church of St Helen Bishopsgate in the City of London near to the place where his late wife Agnes was buried. He instructed his Executors to erect a tomb or monument upon his grave [However, his eldest son and co-executor, John Judde, died shortly after his father which was probably the reason why it appears that no memorial was erected until many years after Sir Andrew's death].
Concerning his Manors, lands etc., he bequeathed to Dame Mary his wife in satisfaction of her jointure or dower his manors of Eshetesford otherwise called Asheford and Esture in Kent; his Manor of Barden in Hertfordshire; and his messuages, lands etc. in the town and parish of Barons [Barnes], Surrey; to hold for her natural life. After the decease of Dame Mary the manors of Eshetesford otherwise called Asheford and Esture in Kent and his Manor of Barden in Hertfordshire were to pass to his son and heir John Judde; while the messuages etc. in Barnes, Surrey were to pass to his son Richard Judde.
He also bequeathed to his son John Judde his Messuage, lands etc in Barden, Kent; his Messuage lands etc in the parish of Spenshurst alias Spelhurst in Kent known as Codds; lands in Bidborrowgh, Kent; the Manor of Downe in Kent and his other lands in Downe and ‘Cowdame’ [possibly Cudham near Downe] in Kent.
He stated that he had built a free Grammar School at Tunbridge, Kent, and for its continuance and maintenance he bequeathed to the Master and Wardens of “the fraternitie of Corpus Christi of the crafte or misterye of Skynners of the Cittie of London” his close of pasture called Sandhills in the parish of St Pancras in Middlesex; his Messuage etc in the Old Swan Alley in Thames Street in the parish of St Laurence Pountney in the City of London (occupied by Maurice Dyer); his Messuage etc in Gracechurch Street in the parish of All Hallows in the City of London (occupied by William Judde, Skinner [probably his nephew]); his Messuage in Gracechurch Street in the parish of All Hallows (occupied by Jackson, Shoemaker); his Messuage in Gracechurch Street in the parish of All Hallows (occupied by Thomas Smythe, Haberdasher [his son in law]); his Messuage in Gracechurch Street in the parish of All Hallows (occupied by Christopher Peper, Ironmonger); his Messuage in Gracechurch Street in the parish of All Hallows (occupied by Thomas Peterborowe); his Messuage in Gracechurch Street in the parish of St Peter Cornhill (occupied by Uxley, Grocer); his Messuage etc within the Close of St Helen in the City of London (occupied by the widow of Thomas Hall, Grocer); and his messuages etc in the parish of St Mary Axe.
He also bequeathed to the Master and Wardens of the Skinners an annuity of £10 per annum from his Messuage called the Bell in Gracechurch Street (the Bell was a playhouse Inn).
The will then addressed the supervision of the school including an annual visit to the school by the Master and Wardens and also the payments to be made to the Schoolmaster and Usher.
He also specified the sums of money and fuel to be given to the six poor men inhabiting his alms houses in the Close of St Helens in the City of London.
The residue of his lands etc. he bequeathed to his son Richard Judde.
Concerning all his goods, chattels etc., these were divided into three equal parts: the first part for his wife Dame Mary; the second part for his children as yet unadvanced (not named); and the third part to remain to himself for the performance of his legacies.
His Executors were named as his wife Dame Mary and his son and heir, John Judde.
An alternative summary of the will can be found elsewhere.
Given the number of wills for which Sir Andrew Judde was appointed as Executor or Overseer, he must have been recognised as a person of trust and intelligence.
Andrew Judde was a co-Executor of the will of his brother, Thomas Judde of Wykeford, Essex, the will made on 10 Mar 1533/1534 and proved on 12 May 1535.
Andrew Judde was named as an overseer of the will of his brother, John Judde. The will was made in 1527 and proved on 10 Apr 1537.
He was recorded in the will of his brother in law, Edward Murfyn, the will made on 03 Mar 1527 and proved in May 1528.
Andrew Judde was a co-Executor of the will of Sir William Hollys, Mercer of London, the will made on 25 Dec 1541 and proved on 18 Dec 1542.
In the will of Sir William's wife, Dame Elizabeth Hollys, the will made on 17 Feb 1543/1544 and proved on 28 Mar 1544 she willed that her executors, Andrew Judde and her brother Thomas Scopeham: "shall cause to be edified sett and made vj  alms houses for vj  pore aged folkes men or women or ells bothe to enhabite and dwell yn". Dame Elizabeth was also associated with the parish of St Helen, Bishopsgate, and that is where the alms houses were built. The almshouses were given further support some 50 years later via the will of Sir Andrew Judde's daughter, Dame Alice (Judde) Smythe. She willed that land should be acquired and placed in trust with the Company of Skinners and the income used "to the increasinge of the pentions of the sixe poore Allmshowses in greate St Helins parish founded by Sir Andrewe Judde my ffather".
Andrew Judde was a co-Executor of the will of Sir Richard Williams alias Cromwell, Gentleman of the King's Privy Chamber, the will made on 20 Jun 1545 and proved on 24 Nov 1546. This was a complex and lengthy commitment with a number of estates under the management of the Executors for up to fifteen years.
Andrew Judd, Alderman of London, was a co-Executor of the will of Robert Spring esq of Lavenham, Suffolk, the will made on 10 Oct 1547 and proved on 24 May 1549.
Sir Andrew Judde was an Overseer of the will of his nephew, Henry Judde, gentleman of London. The will was made on 04 Jan 1554 and proved 18 Jan 1554.
He was also an Overseer of the will of Sir John Gresham, his will proved in 1556.
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On 22 Oct 2018 at 14:35 GMT Beryl Meehan wrote:
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