Аnne (Kiev) Киевская

Анна Ярославна (Kiev) Киевская (abt. 1036 - 1075)

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Анна Ярославна (Аnne) "Anna Yaroslavna, Agnesa, Reine de France" Киевская formerly Kiev aka of Kiev
Born about in Кыѥвъ, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧmap [uncertain]
Ancestors ancestors
Wife of — married in Reims, Francemap
Descendants descendants
Died in Francemap
Profile last modified | Created 14 Apr 2010 | Last significant change: 6 Dec 2018
11:40: Amy Utting edited the Biography for Аnne (Kiev) Киевская. (Fixed italics and formatting in French biography.) [Thank Amy for this]
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Contents

Biography

Early Life and Marriage

Anne of Kiev was born Anna Yaroslavna (also called "Agnes" or "Anna of Rus") between 1024 and 1036 in the Kievan Rus', the daughter of Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev, and Ingegerd Olofsdottir of Sweden.[1] She was not the only one of her siblings to ascend to the role of monarch; her sister Anastasia became Queen of Hungary following her marriage to King Andrew I, and her other sister Elizaveta became Queen of Norway through her marriage to King Harald III. Meanwhile, her brothers Vladimir and Iziaslav both ascended to the title of Prince of Novgorod (the secondary title held by their father), and her other brothers Sviatoslav and Vsevolod both came to inherit the title of Grand Prince of Kiev following their father's death. Her brother Vyacheslav became the Prince of Smolensk, and Igor became Prince of Volynia.

Anne was well educated in her youth; she was literate, which was rare among women—even royal Princesses—at the time. She was also knowledgeable in politics, which contributed to her active participation in the governing of France following her marriage.

After the death of his first wife Matilda, King Henry I of France was searching for another bride among the European royal courts. Due to the papal laws of consanguinity (a law which forbade the marriage of a couple who were blood relatives within four degrees),[2] Henry could not find a marriage suitable within the courts, and so in 1049 he sent an ambassador to Kiev. Anne accompanied this ambassador back to France. Although there was no political advantage in the marriage, as Kiev was too far away to be of any territorial gain, the marriage was considered to be suitable because of Anne's societal status, because she was not related to Henry, and the fact that as she came from a fertile family with many siblings meant that she was likely to be able to produce heirs.

Anne and Henry married on 19 May 1051 at the Cathedral of Reims,[3] and the ceremony was followed immediately by her crowning as Queen of France.

Queen of France and Regency

Anne actively participated in the governing of France. She was knowledgeable in politics; she accompanied her husband on his inspection travels around France, and was appointed a member of the royal council. Many French documents were signed by Anne as "Anna the Queen" (Old East Slavic: Ана Ръина, "Anna Regina"), and Henry's decrees frequently bore the inscription "In the presence of Queen Anna" and "With the consent of my wife Anna".

She was known for being very pious,[4] participating actively in grants to the Church and acting as the protector of churches and convents in her role as queen. At one point, Pope Nicholas II—surprised by Anne's political abilities—praised her in a letter:

"Honorable lady, the fame of your virtues has reached our ears, and, with great joy, we hear that you are performing your royal duties at this very Christian state with commendable zeal and brilliant mind."

After nine years of marriage, Henry passed away on 4 August 1060. Anne and Henry's eight-year-old son Philip I succeeded to the throne; in accordance with Henry's will and as a member of the royal council, Anne acted as Regent of France during his minority, making her the first Queen of France to do so. She was greatly involved in state affairs, accompanying Philip on his inspections throughout France and being mentioned in eleven state documents during the first year of Philip's rule alone. By 1605, Anne was no longer present at court; as this was the year Philip turned thirteen—the age that the King of France was traditionally considered to be capable of ruling without a regent—her rule would have therefore ended at this time.

Later Life and Death

In 1065, Anne founded the Saint Vincent Abbey in Senlis[4] and lived there until 1074,[5] at which time she returned to court. She passed away the following year in 1075.

Legacy

Anne is often cited as introducting to the Western European royal families the Greek name "Philip" by imparting it on her eldest son.[6] As the mother of Philip I, all subsequent French kings succeeding her husband were her descendants.

Children

Anne was the mother of Henry's four children:

  1. Philip I, born 23 May, 1052 at Champagne-et-Fontaine.[7] He reigned as King of France from 1059—1108, and became the father of Louis VI by his first wife, Bertha of Holland, who he later repudiated in favour of Bertrade de Monfort.[7]
  2. Emma, born about 1054 in Reims, Champagne. Emma passed away between 1109 and 1114 in France.
  3. Robert, born before June 1054 and died young, about 1063.[8]
  4. Hugh I, born in 1057. Through the rule of jure uxoris, Hugh became Count of Vermandois in right of his wife Adelaide, who succeeded her father suo jure (in her own right) as Countess of Vermandois. Hugh joined the minor Crusade of 1101, becoming wounded in battle with the Turks led by Kijili Arslan I at the second Battle of Heraclea and dying of his wounds in Tarsus in October of that year.[9]

Biographie

Enfance et Mariage

Anne de Kiev est née Anna Yaroslavna (aussi appelée "Agnès" ou "Anne de Rus") entre 1024 et 1036 dans le Kievan Rus', fille de Yaroslav le Sage, Grand prince de Kiev et Ingegerd Olofsdottir de Suède. Elle n'était pas la seule de ses frères et sœurs à assumer le rôle de monarque; sa sœur Anastasia est devenue reine de Hongrie à la suite de son mariage au Roi André I, et son autre sœur Elizaveta est devenue reine de Norvège par son mariage au Roi Harald III. En même temps, ses frères Vladimir et Iziaslav ont tous deux accédé au titre de prince de Novgorod (le titre secondaire de leur père), et ses autres frères Sviatoslav et Vsevolod ont hérité du titre de Grand Prince de Kiev suite au décès de leur père. Son frère Vyacheslav est devenu le prince de Smolensk et Igor est devenu le prince de Volynie. Anne était bien éduquée dans sa jeunesse; elle était alphabète, ce qui était rare chez les femmes - même les princesses royales - à cette époque. Elle se connaissait également en politique, ce qui a contribué à sa participation active au gouvernement de la France après son mariage.

Après la mort de sa première épouse Matilda, le Roi Henri I des Francs cherchait une autre épouse parmi les cours royales européennes. En raison des lois papales de consanguinité (une loi interdisant le mariage d’un couple apparenté par le sang dans un rayon de quatre degrés), [2] Henri ne pouvait pas trouver un mariage convenable devant la cour. Il envoya donc un ambassadeur à Kiev en 1049. Anne accompagna cet ambassadeur lors de son retour en France. Bien que le mariage ne présentait aucun avantage politique, Kiev étant trop éloigné pour bénéficier d’un avantage territorial, le mariage était considéré comme convenable en raison du statut social d’Anne, et du fait qu’elle n’ait aucun lien de parenté avec Henri; le fait qu’elle vienne d’une famille fertile avec de nombreux frères et sœurs signifiait aussi qu’elle était susceptible de produire des héritiers. Anne et Henri se sont mariés le 19 mai 1051 à la cathédrale de Reims. [3] La cérémonie était immédiatement suivie de son couronnement en tant que reine de France.

Reine de France et Régence

Anne a participé activement au gouvernement de la France. Elle connaissait bien la politique; elle a accompagné son mari lors de ses visites d'inspection dans toute la France et a été nommée membre du conseil royal. Anne a signé de nombreux documents français sous le titre "Anna la Reine" (Vieux russe: Ана Ръина, "Anna Regina"), et les décrets d'Henry portaient fréquemment l'inscription "En présence de la reine Anna" et "Avec le consentement de ma femme Anna".

Elle était connue comme une femme très pieuse, [4] et participait activement aux subventions à l’église en se présentant comme protectrice des églises et des couvents dans son rôle de reine. À une occasion, le Pape Nicolas II — surpris par les capacités politiques d'Anne — la loua dans une lettre:

"Honorable dame, la gloire de vos vertus est parvenue à nos oreilles et, avec une grande joie, nous entendons dire que vous accomplissez vos tâches royales dans cet État très chrétien avec un zèle louable et un esprit brillant."

Après neuf ans de mariage, Henri est décédé le 4 août 1060. Le fils d'Anne et d’Henri Philippe I succéda au trône; conformément au testament d’Henri et en tant que membre du conseil royal, Anne exerça les fonctions de régente de France pendant sa minorité; elle était alors la première reine de France à faire cela. Elle était très impliquée dans les affaires d’État, accompagnant Philippe lors de ses inspections dans toute la France, et mentionnée dans onze documents d’État au cours de la première année du règne de Philippe. En 1605, Anne n'était plus présente à la cour. Comme c'était l'année des treize ans de Philippe — l'âge auquel le roi de France était traditionnellement considéré comme capable de gouverner sans régent — le règne d’Anna aurait donc pris fin à ce moment-là.

Vie ultérieure et mort

En 1065, Anne fonda l'abbaye de Saint-Vincent à Senlis[4] et y habita jusqu'en 1074, [5] lorsqu’elle est retournée à la cour. Elle est décédée l'année suivante en 1075.

Héritage

Anne est souvent citée comme ayant introduit dans les familles royales d'Europe occidentale le nom grec "Philippe" en le donnant à son fils aîné. [6] En tant que mère de Philippe I, tous les rois de France qui ont succédé à son mari étaient ses descendants.

Enfants

Anne était la mère des quatre enfants de Henri I:

  1. Philippe I est né le 23 mai 1052 à Champagne-et-Fontaine. [7] Il régna en tant que Roi des Francs de 1059 à 1108 et devint le père de Louis VI de sa première épouse, Berthe de Hollande, qu'il a ensuite répudiée en faveur de Bertrade de Monfort. [7]
  2. Emma, née vers 1054 à Reims, en Champagne. Emma est décédée entre 1109 et 1114 en France.
  3. Robert, né avant juin 1054, mourut jeune vers 1063. [8]
  4. Hugues I, né en 1057. En vertu du règne de "jure uxoris", Hugues devint comte de Vermandois du titre de sa femme Adélaïde, qui a succédé à son père 'suo jure' (de son propre droit) en tant que comtesse de Vermandois. Hugues rejoignit la croisade mineure de 1101 et fut blessé au combat contre les Turcs commandés par Kijili Arslan I lors de la deuxième bataille d'Héraclée. Il est mort de ses blessures à Tarse en octobre de la même année.[9]

Research Notes

Birth Date and Location

There does not to be any certain proof of Anne's date of birth. The Wikipedia entry for Anne records her birth as being within the range of 1024 and 1036. The Society for Medieval Genealogy records her birth as occuring in 1036, though this is done without sources. Sources that the SfMG records for Anne's general information include:

  • Marriage to Henry: Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 10, MGH SS IX, p. 388.
    • Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1052, MGH SS XXIII, p. 789.

The large majority of well-researched websites place Anne's date of birth at around 1036. Meanwhile, Anne's birth location is uncertain. Her father lived in Veliky Novgorod (Russian: Новгород) up until he relocated to Kiev (Old East Slavic: Кыѥвъ, Russian: Киев) in 1036. As Anne is presumed to have been born between 1024 and 1036, it is far more likely that she was born in Veliky Novgorod, however there is no evidence to support this claim.

Confusion with Anastasia

This profile has previously confused Anne for her sister, Anastasia. While Anne married King Henry I of France, Anastasia married King Andrew I of Hungary. They were separate, and should not be conflated in the future.

Sources

  1. Yaroslav the Wise in Norse Tradition, Samuel Hazzard Cross, Speculum, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Apr., 1929), 181-182.
  2. 2.0 2.1 G. Duby, France in the Middle Ages, 987–1460, trans. J. Vale (Oxford, 1991), p. 117
  3. 3.0 3.1 Megan McLaughlin (2010). Sex, Gender, and Episcopal Authority in an Age of Reform, 1000-1122, Cambridge University Press.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Bogomoletz, Wladimir V. French History, Volume 19, Issue 3, 1 September 2005, Pages 299–323.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wikipedia contributors, "St. Vincent Abbey, Senlis", Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, St. Vincent Abbey, Senlis (accessed December 1, 2018).
  6. 6.0 6.1 Raffensperger, Christian (2012). Reimagining Europe: Kievan Rus' in the Medieval World. Harvard University Press.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Bradbury, Jim (2007). The Capetians: The History of a Dynasty. Bloomsbury Publishing.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Kerrebrouck, Patrick Van, Les Capetiens 987-1328, Tome II in Nouvelle Histoire Genealogique de L'Auguste Maison de France, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France, 2000. p. 66 & notes, p. 70.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Brown, Reginald Allen (1984). The Normans. The Boydell Press.
  • Wikipedia contributors, "Anne of Kiev," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Anne of Kiev (accessed December 1, 2018).


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Images: 1
Anne de France Image 1
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Collaboration

On 6 Dec 2018 at 11:24 GMT C. Mackinnon wrote:

Is her second marriage going to be included?

Medlands: Henri de France

On 2 Feb 2017 at 16:01 GMT Mona (Dickson) Jensen wrote:

Richardsons' Royal Ancestry says that in addition to Henry I she married Raoul III in 1062 [Vexin-5, RA vol V p 268].

On 26 Jan 2017 at 09:19 GMT C (Sälgö) S wrote:

.

On 24 Jan 2017 at 22:27 GMT David Hughey Ph.D. wrote:

Once you understand the alphabet it's not too hard to a quick deciphering of the name. It would be more difficult if it were written in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Malayan, or Indonesian.

On 4 Jan 2017 at 15:55 GMT Allan Stuart wrote:

I think I need new specs. Ones that can auto translate

On 4 Jan 2017 at 15:38 GMT James LaLone wrote:

On 20 Oct 2011 at 19:16 GMT Aran Stubbs wrote:

Maiden name is "of Kiev".



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