Antoinette  Landry

Antoinette Landry (1618 - aft. 1693)

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Antoinette Landry
Born in Francemap
Daughter of and [mother unknown]
Wife of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Wife of — married about in Port-Royal, Acadiemap
Descendants descendants
Died after in Port-Royal, Acadiemap [uncertain]
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Contents

Biographie

(English version below)

Au cours des trois premières décennies de 1600, la colonisation agricole française en Acadie n'a pas à se développer. Bien que la terre était très fertile, un ingrédient essentiel manquait : des femmes et la stabilité de la vie familiale.[1] Les femmes pionnières françaises comme Antoinette Landry, connu sous le nom "Mothers of Acadia",[2] seraient inverser ces échecs précédents. Leur succès s'explique par leur courage et leur capacité " à cuisiner et à coudre, la récolte et la houe, et de fournir du réconfort et de l'affection de la maison".[1]

Antoinette Landry est née en France vers 1618[3] Ses parents ne sont pas connus. (Voir la section de discussion.) Quand elle avait 14 ans, le traité de Saint-Germain-en-Laye cédait l'Acadie à la France et les tentatives de colonization ont débuté une fois de plus par Razilly et d'Aulnay. Antoinette, son frère René (l'aîné), et sa sœur Perrine ont été parmi ceux qui ont fait leur chemin en Acadie [4].

Vers 1642, Antoinette a attiré l'attention d'Antoine Bourg. [5] Ils se sont mariés à Port-Royal (Annapolis Royal, Nouvelle-Écosse , Canada). [citation needed] Entre 1643 et 1666, Antoinette a donné naissance à 11 enfants : François , Marie , Jean , Bernard , Martin , Jeanne , Renée , Huguette , Jeanne , Abraham , et Marguerite [4] Son dernier bébé est né quand elle avait 49 ans !

La famille s'est installée à Port-Royal. En 1671,[6] 4 arpents[7] de leurs terres ont été cultivés. Ils ont également eu 12 bêtes à cornes et 8 brebis. Antoinette et sa famille auraient probablement vécu dans une maison construite en bois , d'argile et de paille , avec un grand espace commun , zones de couchage cloisonnés, et un grenier. La base du foyer aurait projeté à l'extérieur de la maison, offrant un peu de chaleur pour les animaux.[8]

La ferme familiale fut probablement situé 7,7 km à l'est de l'emplacement des Melansons sur la rive nord de la rivière Dauphin (Annapolis).[9] Selon les rapports des fonctionnaires à travers le 17ème siècle,[1][10][11] la terre était très fertile et il y avait une abondance de produits frais . En 1699, Villebon a écrit:

"Il est plus de 60 ans depuis Port-Royal a été fondée et le travail de défrichage de la terre et les marais a commencé. Ces derniers ont, à l'heure actuelle, été très productive, produisant chaque année une quantité de céréales, comme le maïs, le blé, le seigle, l'avoine, les pois et non seulement pour le maintien des familles qui y vivent, mais pour la vente et le transport à d'autre régions du pays.
Lin et chanvre, aussi, se développent très bien, et certains des colons de cette région utilisent uniquement le linge, faite par eux-mêmes, à des fins domestiques. La laine des moutons qu'ils soulèvent est très bonne et les vêtements portés par la majorité des hommes et des femmes est faite.
Port-Royal est une petite Normandie pour les pommes ... [Plusieurs] variétés de pommier se trouvent à Port-Royal, et les poires rousses. Il existe d'autres variétés de poires et cerises ... Il y a une abondance de légumes pour la nourriture ... le chou, les betteraves, les oignons, les carottes, la ciboulette, les échalotes, navets, panais, et toutes sortes de salades, ils poussent parfaitement et ne sont pas chers. Petits pois fines ... bœuf ... Les moutons sont très gros ... cochon de lait ... Poules, coqs, chapons, oies apprivoisées poulettes, ... œufs, beurre ... Ce sont des choses qui peuvent être obtenus à partir de leur alimentation. Ils sont chasseurs ... lièvre et perdrix sont très nombreux ... il y a aussi des oiseaux sauvages ".[11]

"Beacoup était disponible: rien sans le travail. "[12] Les femmes comme Antoinette ont plusieurs rôles:[13]

"Les soins des animaux était parfois un effort commun et le soin des poules, des canards, des oies et a été généralement laissée aux femmes. Leurs tâches comprennent également la fourniture de trois repas par jour, sans eau courante et les feux ouverts plutôt que les poêles... les Acadiens étaient particulièrement friands de soupe épaisse, sur la base de navets, choux, oignons et aromatisé avec du porc ... en dehors de la fourniture de repas ... et la prise en charge immédiate de la très jeune, l'une des tâches quotidiennes les plus importantes pour les femmes était le maintien d'un environnement sain pour la famille. Beaucoup de travail a été impliqué dans le respect des vêtements et linge de maison propre, avec du savon, parfois importé, mais le plus souvent fabriqués à partir de la cendre de bois, et de graisses animales.
Il y avait la main-d'œuvre saisonnière dans le jardin et cuisine: la récolte de fruits et légumes, la conservation des aliments pour l'hiver ... tissage, la filature, le tricotage, la couture et le raccommodage avaient à faire à un moment où les heures de la journée ont été étirés seulement par des bougies et des lampes à huile".[13]

Bien qu'Antoinette aurait été seul responsable des premières années de l'éducation des enfants, elle aurait partagé le rôle avec son mari quand les enfants étaient plus âgés[13]. Ils aurait tous deux surveillé les travaux de leurs enfants aînés qui comprenait s'occuper de leurs jeunes frères et sœurs ainsi que le travail de la ferme. Antoinette et Antoine auraient également aidé les enfants à acquérir beaucoup de connaissances pratiques et traditionnelles.[14] Ils leur apprennent aussi à faire valoir leurs droits à l’autorité constituée. Vers 1687 Gargas, un bureaucrate plaintif, qui se heurte non seulement avec ses supérieurs, mais aussi les colons,[13], appela l'un des descendants d' Antoinette "l'un des habitants les plus rebelles et indépendants de l'Acadie ... [possédant] plus de relations que presque quelqu'un d'autre à Port -Royal".[12][15]


L'Église catholique romaine aurait été une partie importante de leur vie :

"La carte 1686 montre une grande croix, l'église paroissiale (n°2), le presbytère, le cimetière clos (n°4), et un grand jardin formel avec une croix dans un coin . Décrit par l'abbé de Saint-Valier comme "assez jolie et relativement bien équipé , " l'église a un clocher surmonté d' un coq ... les paroissiens de monter et descendre la rivière se sont réunis à Port-Royal le dimanche et les jours de fête à la messe célébrée par le Père Petit , assisté de dix ou douze jeunes hommes de la région de robes rouges et surplis . Petit enseigné le catéchisme aux jeunes filles à l'église tandis que Pierre Chenet Dubreuil, un Parisien de quarante ans, a donné des leçons aux garçons dans le presbytère ... en 1685, Saint- Vallier a envoyé une sœur de la Congrégation de Notre-Dame de enseigner aux filles acadiennes et, en 1686, un jeune prêtre supplican abbé Geoffrey ... filles construites »et les écoles de garçons à ses propres frais. Saint- Vallier espère que [l’école de la sœur] serait un lieu de rassemblement pour les femmes et les jeunes filles acadiennes, et que certains d'entre eux d'apprendre à lire et écrire suffisamment bien pour assumer les fonctions de maîtresse d'école".[10]

Le canot d'écorce de bouleau (acquis de la Mi'kmaq ) était un mode de transport essentiel pour la plupart de l'année , ainsi que des raquettes en hiver. Visiteur Lamothe Cadillac a fait remarquer que les hommes et les femmes utilisaient des canots et " étaient assez courageux dans l'eau".[13]

Entre 1687 et 1693, Antoinette a perdu sa bien-aimée Antoine. Ce délai n'était pas seulement difficile personnellement, mais aussi politiquement avec le début de la guerre du roi William (1689-1697) avec la France. La famille d'Antoinette aurait senti ses effets mai 1690 lorsque Sir William Phipps[16] prise de Port -Royal, détruit l’église, pillé le règlement, et contraint les habitants à prêter un serment d’allégeance à la couronne d’Angleterre. Charles La Tourasse, un ancien sergent de la garnison française, a été nommé au poste de commandant anglais et leader d'un conseil pour maintenir la paix et d'administrer la justice.[17] Phipps a quitté Port -Royal dans seulement 12 jours après son arrivée. Avant la fin de l’été, marin de deux navires pillé Port-Royal et incendié et pillé entre 28 et 35 maisons et habitations, y compris l'église paroissiale. Il y avait un autre raid en 1693.[10]

Contrairement à certains Acadiens, qui ont été convaincus de passer par le raid et l'attrait des terrains disponibles dans les nouveaux villages, les Bourgs séjourné à Port -Royal à travers les années 1690. Antoinette avait le confort de sa famille et sa ferme d'origine dans ses dernières années. En 1693, 75 ans Antoinette vivait à la ferme avec son plus jeune fils d'Abraham et de sa famille. Son fils Bernard avait une ferme à proximité. Antoinette est morte quelque temps après 1693[18] à Port-Royal.[citation needed]

Comme l'une des "mères de l'Acadie" et que matriarche de la famille acadienne Bourg, Antoinette Landry laisse un héritage important. Le village de Bourg à la ferme d'origine a prospéré à Port-Royal. D'autres descendants finalement déménagé à Beaubassin (Amherst NS), des Mines (Hansport NS), Cobeguit (Truro NS) et l'île Saint -Jean (Île-du-Prince-Édouard).[19] Les filles et les petites-filles d'Antoinette marièrent dans les grandes[19] familles de LeBlanc, Boudrot, Richard, Comeau, Melanson, Thériot, Daigre, Belliveau, Allain, Breau, Babineau, Aucoin, Dugas, Brun, Guilbeau, Granger, Broussard, et Fougère.[4]

Biography

(version française ci-dessus)

In the first three decades of 1600, French agricultural settlement in Acadia failed to develop. Although the land was very fertile, an essential ingredient was missing: women and the stability of family life.[1] French pioneer women like Antoinette Landry, known as the "Mothers of Acadia",[2] would reverse these previous failures with their fortitude and ability ” to cook and sew, harvest and hoe, and provide solace and affection of home”.[1]

Antoinette Landry was born in France around 1618[3] Her parents are not known. (See discussion section.) By the time she was 14, the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye ceded Acadia to France and settlement attempts were started once more by Razilly and D’Aulnay. Antoinette, her brother René (the elder), and her sister Perrine were among those who made their way to Acadia.[4]

Around 1642, Antoinette caught the eye of Antoine Bourg.[5] They were married in Port Royal (Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada).[citation needed]. Between 1643 and 1666, Antoinette gave birth to 11 children: François, Marie, Jean, Bernard, Martin, Jeanne, Renée, Huguette, Jeanne, Abraham, and Marguerite.[4] Her last baby was born when she was 49 years of age!

The family had settled in Port-Royal. In 1671,[6] 4 arpents[7] of their land holdings were cultivated. They also had 12 cattle and 8 sheep. Antoinette and her family would likely have lived in a house built of wood, clay, and straw, with a large common space, partitioned sleeping areas, and a loft. The base of the hearth would have projected to the exterior of the house, providing some warmth for the animals.[8]

The family homestead was probably located 7.7 km east of the Melanson settlement on the north bank of the Dauphin (Annapolis) River.[9] According to the reports of officials throughout the 1600s,[1][10][11] the land was very fertile and there was an abundance of fresh food. In 1699, Villebon wrote:

“It is more than 60 years since Port Royal was founded and the work of clearing the land and the marshes began. The latter have, up to the present time, been very productive, yielding each year a quantity of grain, such as corn, wheat, rye, peas and oats, not only for the maintenance of families living there but for sale and transportation to other parts of the country.
Flax and hemp, also, grow extremely well, and some of the settlers of that region use only the linen, made by themselves, for domestic purposes. The wool of the sheep they raise is very good and the clothing worn by the majority of the men and women is made of it.
Port Royal is a little Normandy for apples... [Several] varieties of apple tree are found at Port Royal, and russet pears. There are other varieties of pears, and cherries… There is an abundance of vegetables for food... cabbage, beets, onions, carrots, chives, shallots, turnips, parsnip, and all sorts of salads; they grow perfectly and are not expensive. Fine green peas… Beef…The sheep are very large… suckling pig… Hens, cocks, capons, pullets, tame geese... Eggs, butter... These are the things which can be obtained from them for food. They are hunters... hare and partridge are very numerous ...there are also wild fowl."[11]

"Much was available: nothing without labour".[12] Women like Antoinette had several roles:[13]

"The care of animals was sometimes a joint effort and the care of hens, ducks, and geese was usually left to women. Their tasks also included the provision of three meals a day, with no running water and open fires rather than stoves... the Acadians were particularly fond of thick soup, based on turnips, cabbage, onions and flavoured with pork.... Apart from the provision of meals... and the immediate care of the very young, one of the most important daily tasks for women was the maintenance of a healthy environment for the family. A great deal of work was involved in keeping the clothing and household linens clean, with soap, sometimes imported, but more often made from wood ash, and animal fat. There was the seasonal labour in the garden and kitchens: harvesting fruits and vegetables, preserving food for the winter... weaving, spinning, knitting, sewing and mending had to be done at a time when the daylight hours were stretched only by candles and oil lamps".[13]

While Antoinette would be solely responsible for the early years of child raising, she would have shared the role with her husband when the children were older.[13] They both would have overseen their elder children's chores which included caring for their younger siblings as well as working on the farm. Antoinette and Antoine would also have helped the children to acquire a great deal of practical and traditional knowledge.[14] They also taught them to assert their rights with constituted authority. Around 1687 Gargas, a querulous bureaucrat, who clashed not only with his superiors, but also the settlers,[13] called one of Antoinette's offspring "one of the most rebellious and independent inhabitants of Acadie... [possessing] more relations than almost anyone else in Port-Royal".[12][15]

The Roman Catholic Church would have been an important part of their life:

"The 1686 map shows a large cross, parish church (no. 2), presbytery, enclosed cemetery (no. 4), and a large formal garden with a cross at one corner. Described by Abbé Saint-Valier as "pretty enough and reasonably equipped," the church had a spire topped by a rooster... Parishioners from up and down the river gathered at Port-Royal on Sundays and feast days to hear mass celebrated by Father Petit, assisted by ten or twelve local young men in red gowns and surplices. Petit taught catechism to girls at the church while Pierre Chenet Dubreuil, a forty year old Parisien, gave lessons to boys in the presbytery... In 1685 Saint-Vallier sent a sister of the Congrégation de Notre-Dame to teach Acadian girls and, in 1686, a young supplican priest Abbé Geoffrey... built girls' and boys' schools at his own expense. Saint-Vallier hoped that [the sister's school] would be a gathering place for Acadian women and girls, and that some of them would learn to read and write well enough to assume the duties of schoolmistress."[10]

The birch bark canoe (acquired from the Mi'kmaq) was an essential mode of transportation for most of the year, as well as snowshoes in winter. Visitor Lamothe Cadillac remarked that both men and women used canoes and "were quite fearless in the water".[13]

Between 1687 and 1693, Antoinette lost her beloved Antoine. That time period was not only difficult personally, but also politically with the start of King William's War (1689-1697) with France. Antoinette's family would have felt its effects in May 1690 when Sir William Phipps[16] captured Port Royal, destroyed the church, plundered the settlement, and forced the inhabitants to swear an oath of allegiance to the English crown. Charles La Tourasse, a former sergeant of the French garrison, was appointed to serve as English commandant and leader of a council to keep the peace and to administer justice.[17] Phipps left Port-Royal within only 12 days of his arrival. Before the end of the summer, seaman from two ships looted Port-Royal and burned and looted between 28 and 35 homes and habitations including the parish church. There was another raid in 1693.[10]

Unlike some Acadians, who were convinced to move by the raid and the lure of available land in the newer villages, the Bourgs stayed in Port-Royal through the 1690s. Antoinette had the comfort of her family and her original homestead in her last years. In 1693, 75 year old Antoinette was living at the homestead with her youngest son Abraham and his family. Her son Bernard had a farm nearby. Antoinette died sometime after 1693[18] at Port-Royal.[citation needed]

As one of the recognized Mothers of Acadia and as matriarch of the Acadian Bourg family, she leaves an important legacy. The Bourg village at the original homestead prospered in Port Royal. Other descendants eventually moved to Beaubassin (Amherst NS), Mines (Hansport NS), Cobeguit (Truro NS) and Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island).[19] Antoinette's daughters and granddaughters married into the large[19] families of LeBlanc, Boudrot, Richard, Comeau, Melanson, Thériot, Daigre, Belliveau, Allain, Breau, Babineau, Aucoin, Dugas, Brun, Guilbeau, Granger, Broussard, and Fougère.[4]

Discussion

Parentage. Her parentage is much-disputed with no conclusive evidence. One theory proposes Étienne Landry and Catherine Goulet as her parents. A common myth is that Jean Claude Landry (whose name was actually just Jean Claude) and Marie Salle were Antoinette's parents. There is an explanation of this myth here.

Note: Please do not add parents for Antoinette Landry. It is unknown who her parents were, so unless some new records come to light, we should refrain from guessing. Unnamed Father Landry should be kept as Antoinette's father, to connect her to her siblings.

DNA. The Mothers of Acadia Maternal DNA project is conducting ongoing research to verify their origins. In 2010, Stephen White reported Antoinette Landry had an H haplogroup. I don't know the details re how many of her descendants were tested to support this report. Lucie Leblanc Constantino reported one result here. Ongoing test results are also reported here. As of February 2016, 13 descendants have reported an H haplogroup, indicating European origins. Birth date: About 1618 according to 1671 census, and 1606 according to the 1686 census, or 1617 according to the 1693 census. Death date: Died between 1693 & 1698 census'. Marriage date: Before 1643, Acadie.

Timeline

b1605 First Nations Peoples occupy the region around the Te'wapskik (Mi'kmaq name for Dauphin/Annapolis River) for thousands of years using it as an overland route[10]
1605 French found first permanent European settlement in North America, north of St. Augustin Florida, and build the Port-Royal Habitation.[10]
1613 Virginia English Admiral burns the Port-Royal Habitation, starting a 150 year battle between the French and English in the area. The French continue to maintain a presence[10]
c1618 Born, Antoinette in France
1629 Scots establish a settlement further upriver near present day Fort Anne[10]
1632 Treaty Saint-Germain-en-Laye cedes Acadia to France; Razilly brings ~300 elite men[20]
1636 D'Aulnay brings the first French families to settle permanently[19][10]
c1642 Marriage to Antoine Bourg
c1643 Birth of son François Bourg
c1645 Birth of daughter Marie Bourg
c1646 Birth of son Jean Bourg
c1649 Birth of son Bernard Bourg
c1650 Birth of son Martin Bourg
c1653 Birth of daughter Jeanne Bourg
1654 British capture Port-Royal; French settlement ceases[21]
c1655 Birth of daughter Renée Bourg
c1657 Birth of daughter Huguette Bourg
c1659 Birth of daughter Jeanne Bourg
c1662 Birth of son Abraham Bourg
c1667 Birth of daughter Marguerite Bourg
1667-70 Treaty of Breda cedes Acadia to the French; settlement resumes[22]
1671 Residence, Port-Royal
1678 Residence, Port-Royal
1686 Residence, Port-Royal
1687 War of the League of Augsburg (King William’s War) starts between England and France[13]
1690 Phipps captures and sacks Port-Royal, coerces inhabitants' oaths of allegiance to English Crown, sets up local Peacekeeping Council and leaves within 12 days.[16][23][17] Seaman from two ships later loot and burn between 28 and 35 homes/habitations including the parish church.[10]
1693 Port-Royal raid with looting and burning.[10]
1693 Residence, Port-Royal
a1693 Died, in Port Royal, Acadia

Born 1618 Loudun, Vienne, Poitou-Charentes, France.

Died 1686 Port Royal, Acadia, Nova Scotia, Canada. Age: 67-68.

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Clark, Andrew Hill, Acadia: The Geography of Early Nova Scotia to 1760. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968, p 85-6 (1606/7 Lescarbot's description of productive farming and husbandry on the shores of present-day Annapolis Basin; p 87 (arpent of land); p 88-89 (role of women in the success of agriculture).
  2. 2.0 2.1 According to Lucie LeBlanc Constantino, there is a list of “Mothers of Acadian people” preserved on large yellowed paper in the Maritime Archives (Ministry of the Colonies), in Paris.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Based on her age in the 1671 census. This is also supported by the note correcting her age in the 1686 census, though I'm not sure what the source of that note is.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 White, Stephen A., Patrice Gallant, and Hector-J Hébert. Dictionnaire Généalogique Des Familles Acadiennes. Moncton, N.-B.: Centre D'études Acadiennes, Université De Moncton, 1999, Print, p 914, 915, 221, 222.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Marriage date is based on the fact that their first child, François, was born around 1643.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Charles Trahan's translations adding land holdings to 1671 Census
  7. 7.0 7.1 Statistics Canada defines an arpent as 0.845 acres. According to Clark (see reference page 87), "The arpent was a basic French unit of land measurement, both linear and areal, but its size at the time is uncertain. In length, 200 feet may be a rough equivalent for an arpent in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; it was later standardized to 192 feet. An areal arpent may have been something less than an acre (the usual equivalent was .845 acres) although it has been given the equivalent of as much as an acre and a half in some twentieth century definitions."
  8. 8.0 8.1 Daigle, Jean. ‘Un pays qui n’est pas fait’, p61-77. In Phillip A. Buckner and John G. Reid. The Atlantic Region to Confederation. A History. University of Toronto Press, 1994,; p65 (Native and French relations); p 70 (seigneury); p75 (health); 75-76 (population growth, housing).
  9. 9.0 9.1 In 1707, sons Abraham and Bernard were farming there. When Antoinette was widowed she lived with her youngest son Abraham and his family. See map: Au Coeur de l'Acadie, Acadian Settlement on the Annapolis River, 1707 Map, Parks Canada
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 Dunn, Brenda. A History of Port Royal / Annapolis Royal 1605-1800. Nimbus Publishing, p vii,ix,1-12 (early European settlement); p13 (1629 Food abundance Scottish settlement); p32 (Church and School 1686));p 40,43 (1693 PR raid); p44-45 (1697 Treaty of Ryswick); p52-53(1702 Queen Anne’s War); p61-62 (Blockade of PR); p 71-73(1707 Attack on PR); p82-85(1710 Siege of PR).
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Webster, John Clarence. Acadia at the end of the Seventeenth Century. Letters, Journals, and Memoirs of Joseph Robineau de Villebon, Commandant in Acadia 1690-1700. Saint John NB: The New Brunswick Museum, 1934. p 128 (Port Royal 1699 agricultural produce; clothing wool and linen)
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Griffiths, Naomi E.S. The Contexts of Acadian History 1786-1784. Montreal: McGill University Press for Center for Acadian Studies Mount Allison University, p 31 (dispute between Gargas and a Bourg) p 56 (Diereville); p 60 (travel, cooking, preserving, farming, husbandry; health).
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 Griffiths, Naomi E.S., From migrant to Acadian : a North-American border people, 1604-1755, Montreal (Québec), McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005, p 143-144(Gargas' clashes with authorities and settlers); p147-151 (King William’s War); p 176-177 (women's and children's roles); p 180 (canoe transport); p 267-268 (oaths of allegiance)
  14. 14.0 14.1 Chiasson, Anselme. ‘Traditions and Oral Literature in Acadia’. In Jean Daigle (ed.) The Acadians of the Maritimes. Moncton NB: University of Moncton Centre d’études acadiennes, 1982. p 477-512. p 488 (children);
  15. 15.0 15.1 I am assuming that the Bourg mentioned by Gargas in his dispute over a canoe was an offspring and not Antoinette's husband Antoine. Antoine died after the 1686 census and would have been close to 80 when Gargas wrote his account of Acadie in 1687-88. Need to follow up reference: "Sojourn of Gargas in Acadie, 1687-8," In William Inglis Morse, Acadiensis Nova, 1:168-9, London 1935.>
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 C.P.Stacey, “PHIPS, SIR WILLIAM,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 1, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003, accessed November 20, 2013
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 C.Bruce Fergusson,“LA TOURASSE, CHARLES,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 1, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003, accessed November 20, 2013
  18. 18.0 18.1 Based on the fact that she was listed in the 1693 census but not in the 1698 or 1700 census.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 Massignon, Geneviève. "Les parlers français d'Acadie, enquête linguistique", Librairie Klincksieck, Paris, 1962, 2 tomes, p32 first French families in Acadia; p49(Bourg family); p42-68(size of families).
  20. George MacBeath, Biography – RAZILLY, ISAAC DE – Volume I (1000-1700) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed November 20
  21. William I. Roberts, 3rd, “SEDGWICK, ROBERT,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 1, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed November 20, 2013
  22. In collaboration, “MORILLON DU BOURG,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 1, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed November 20, 2013
  23. Biography of William Phipps
  • 1671 Acadian Census at Port Royal: Antoine BOURC, 62, wife Antoinette LANDRY 53; Children (4 married): Marie 26, Francois 27, Jehan 24, Bernard 22; (not married) Martin 21, Jeanne 18, Renee 16, Huguette 14, Jeanne 12, Abraham 9, Marguerite 4; cattle 12, sheep 8.
  • 1678 Acadian Census at Port Royal: Anth(oin)e Bourg & Thoinette Landry / 3 acres; 6 cattle; 1 gun / 1 boy 10-1660 [sic](Abraham); 1 girl 11-1667 (Marguerite).
  • 1686 Acadian Census at Port Royal: Antoine BOURC 95, Antoine LANDRY 80; child: Marguerite 18. (A note in the records says Antoine was 77 and Antoinette was 68.)
  • 1693 Acadian Census at Port Royal: Anthoinette LANDRY widow (of Anthoine BOURG) 76, Abraham BOURG her son 31, Marie BRUN his wife 35, Jean Baptiste their son 9, Marguerite 7, Claude 5, Pierre 4, Marie 2; 12 cattle, 20 sheep, 8 hogs, 26 arpents, 1 gun.
  • francogene.com: Sources: Sources are for Antoine

Bourg (Bourque) & Antoinette Landry & Falmily: Dictionnaire genealogique des familles acadiennes (Stephen A. White); Dictionnaire des Acadiens d' Archange Godbout; Dictionnaire genealogique de L' Ancienne Acadie; Recensement 1671.



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DNA Connections
It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Antoinette by comparing test results with other carriers of her mitochondrial DNA. However, there are no known mtDNA test-takers in her direct maternal line. It is likely that these autosomal DNA test-takers will share DNA with Antoinette:

Have you taken a DNA test for genealogy? If so, login to add it. If not, see our friends at Family Tree DNA.



Images: 6
Recensement de l'Acadie de 1671 Image 7
Recensement de l'Acadie de 1671 Image 7

Before 1642 Antoinette Landry Arrives in Acadia From France
Before 1642 Antoinette Landry Arrives in Acadia From France

Reproduction of an Acadian Home at Port-Royal Museum
Reproduction of an Acadian Home at Port-Royal Museum

Reproduction of a Mid-1600s Hearth of An Acadian Home
Reproduction of a Mid-1600s Hearth of An Acadian Home

Antoinette Landry Image 5
Antoinette Landry Image 5

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Collaboration

On 12 Nov 2017 at 13:57 GMT Jeannette (Martin) Saladino wrote:

I came upon the discussion(s) in the Acadian Project re: Antoinette Landry and find she is my seventh great grandmother on my Paternal side. As I do not have the Y DNA of my father (no sons and he never had his DNA tested) and there are no direct males in the Martin line that I know of ... However, I checked on "Relationship to Me" here on WikiTree and Antoinette is my 7th great grandmother. The surprise to me is that she is connected to me through my paternal ancestry! Would be no surprise at all to me if she was directly related to me on my maternal side of the tree - many Landry's on my maternal tree!

Thank you for the research,

Jeannette

On 28 Dec 2016 at 04:57 GMT Paul Berry wrote:

To the best of my knowledge, based on my research, Antoinette Landry would be on my direct female line, though my mother Dorothy Lavigne. I have yet to pay for an MtDNA test.

On 6 Aug 2016 at 20:35 GMT John Atkinson wrote:

Landry-2401 and Landry-17 appear to represent the same person because: Same name for husband and daughter, birth dates are slightly different but there are no sources on Landry-2401 to indicate whether this is correct or just a guess. Please merge these 2 profiles.

On 24 Jan 2015 at 16:05 GMT Van Landry wrote:

Landry-1446 and Landry-17 appear to represent the same person because: it's the same person married to Antoine Bourg. Plus, she has a wonderful profile/biography on the page that already exists.

On 7 Dec 2014 at 15:20 GMT Paula J wrote:

Image:Profile_Photo_s-268.jpgDecember 7, 2014

On 6 Dec 2014 at 23:49 GMT Paula J wrote:

Fabulous profile!!!

On 6 Jul 2014 at 20:00 GMT Eowyn Langholf wrote:

Excellent profile - great work!!

On 4 Jul 2014 at 03:00 GMT Matt Pryber wrote:

Congrats to those that put so much time and effort into this profile.

She is also part of the Global Family Reunion 28 degrees

On 3 Jul 2014 at 16:26 GMT Darlene (Scott) Kerr wrote:

Well done! It's good reading and an interesting history lesson on an area I knew little about. Thank you.

On 3 Jul 2014 at 14:27 GMT Michele Bergin wrote:

Congratulations on your well deserved winning of profile of the week.



Antoinette is 22 degrees from AJ Jacobs, 19 degrees from Isaac Kidd, 15 degrees from Greg Slade and 18 degrees from Queen Elizabeth II Windsor on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

L  >  Landry  >  Antoinette Landry