Godgifu  (Lincolnshire) of Mercia

Godgifu (Lincolnshire) of Mercia (abt. 0985 - aft. 1066)

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Godgifu "Lady Godiva" of Mercia formerly Lincolnshire
Born about in Mercia, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Sister of [half] and [half]
Wife of — married [date unknown] in Mercia Englandmap
Wife of — married before [location unknown]
Descendants descendants
Died after in Coventry, Warwickshire, Englandmap
Lincolnshire-6 created 4 Jun 2012 | Last modified | Last edit: 5 May 2017
08:53: Jack Day edited the Biography for Godgifu (Lincolnshire) of Mercia. (Added sourced biographical data) [Thank Jack for this]
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Contents

Disambiguation

The following persons named Godiva are different:

  • Lady Godiva of Mercia, born 985. The lady of the famous naked ride.
  • Godiva de Mercia, born 1076. Uncertain existence, born too late to be daughter of Robert of Normandy.

Biography

Name

Godiva, Countess of Mercia (/ɡəˈdaɪvə/; d.–1067), in Old English Godgifu [1]

Godiva's name occurs in charters and the Domesday survey, though the spelling varies. The Old English name Godgifu or Godgyfu meant "gift of God"; Godiva was the Latinised form. Since the name was a popular one, there are contemporaries of the same name. [2][3]

Birth and Parentage

Nothing certain is known of her origins. The distribution of Godgifu's known lands suggests that her family background lay in northwest Mercia, rather than the northeast midlands. Her substantial estates in Leicestershire, Warwickshire, Staffordshire, and Shropshire, some 60 hides of land or the equivalent, may have been her own inheritance, for John of Worcester says that Coventry Abbey, founded by Godgifu and her husband, was endowed out of their respective patrimonies.

Sibling

It is possible that Thorold, who appears in the Domesday Book as sheriff of Lincolnshire, was her brother. Her signature, Ego Godiva Comitissa diu istud desideravi [I, The Countess Godiva, have desired this for a long time], appears on a charter purportedly given by Thorold of Bucknall to the Benedictine monastery of Spalding. However, this charter is considered spurious by many historians. [4]

Marriage to Leofric

Before 1010 she married Leofric of Mercia.

Leofric was the Earl of Mercia who married Lady Godiva, as noted by an earlier thread. [5]

Godiva was the wife of Leofric, Earl of Mercia. [1]

If she is the same Godiva who appears in the history of Ely Abbey, the Liber Eliensis, written at the end of the 12th century, then she was a widow when Leofric married her. [1]

1043 Benefactor

Both Leofric and Godiva were generous benefactors to religious houses.

In 1043 Leofric founded and endowed a Benedictine monastery at Coventry [6] on the site of a nunnery destroyed by the Danes in 1016.

Writing in the 12th century, Roger of Wendover credits Godiva as the persuasive force behind this act. In the 1050s, her name is coupled with that of her husband on a grant of land to the monastery of St. Mary, Worcester and the endowment of the minster at Stow St Mary, Lincolnshire.[7][8][9]

She and her husband are commemorated as benefactors of other monasteries at Leominster, Chester, Much Wenlock, and Evesham.[10]

She gave Coventry a number of works in precious metal by the famous goldsmith Mannig and bequeathed a necklace valued at 100 marks of silver. [11]

Another necklace went to Evesham, to be hung around the figure of the Virgin accompanying the life-size gold and silver rood she and her husband gave, and St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London received a gold-fringed chasuble.[12]

She and her husband were among the most munificent of the several large Anglo-Saxon donors of the last decades before the Norman Conquest; the early Norman bishops made short work of their gifts, carrying them off to Normandy or melting them down for bullion. [13]

The manor of Woolhope in Herefordshire, along with four others, was given to the cathedral at Hereford before the Norman Conquest by the benefactresses Wulviva and Godiva – usually held to be this Godiva and her sister. The church there has a 20th-century stained glass window representing them.[14]

Death and Burial

Although Godgifu is recorded as a pre-conquest landholder in Domesday Book, this need not mean she was living in 1066, let alone that she survived the conquest; but Hemming's statement that the lost Worcester lands passed straight to her grandsons without mention of their father, Ælfgar, who probably died in 1062, might imply that Godgifu outlived her son. In the thirteenth century her death was commemorated on 10 September and was believed to have occurred in 1067, which seems plausible. There is no reason to doubt that she was buried with her husband at Coventry, despite the assertion of the Evesham chronicle that she lay in Holy Trinity, Evesham.[15]

Godgifu died after 1054/57. [16]

After Leofric's death in 1057, his widow lived on until sometime between the Norman Conquest of 1066 and 1086. She is mentioned in the Domesday survey as one of the few Anglo-Saxons and the only woman to remain a major landholder shortly after the conquest. By the time of this great survey in 1086, Godiva had died, but her former lands are listed, although now held by others. [17] Thus, Godiva apparently died between 1066 and 1086.[3]

The place where Godiva was buried has been a matter of debate. According to the Chronicon Abbatiae de Evesham, or Evesham Chronicle, she was buried at the Church of the Blessed Trinity at Evesham, which is no longer standing. According to the account in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, "There is no reason to doubt that she was buried with her husband at Coventry, despite the assertion of the Evesham chronicle that she lay in Holy Trinity, Evesham." [3]

Issue

Godiva and Leofric had one child:

  1. Aelfgar, Earl of the East Angles and Earl of Mercia (d.1062). He married first Aelfgifu and had three children, then married second, about 1058, a woman of Gwynedd.

The only evidence that she was the mother of Ælfgar is the fact she was Leofric's wife. In 1043 the Earl and Countess founded a Benedictine house for an abbot and 24 monks on the site of St Osburg's Nunnery, which had been destroyed by the Danes in 1016. The monastery was dedicated by Edsi, Archbishop of Canterbury, to God, the Virgin Mary, St Peter, St Osburg and All Saints. Lady Godiva endowed the monastery with many gifts in honour of the Virgin Mary. She is supposed to have had all her gold and silver melted down and made into crosses, images of saints and other decorations to grace her favoured house of God. On her deathbed, she gave a heavy gem-encrusted gold chain to the monastery, directing that it should be placed around the neck of the image of the Virgin. Those who came to pray, she said, should say a prayer for each stone in the chain. The remains of the subsequent 13th-century church monastery, Coventry's first cathedral, can now be seen in Priory Row, Coventry, England.

  1. His son was Aelfgar, Earl of Mercia. [5]
    1. His son was Edwin, Earl of Mercia. Edwin died in 1075 and the earldom of Mercia was discontinued at that time. [5]

Estmond therefore could not have been an Earl of Mercia since he was born about 1074 and the earldom was discontinued at the death of Edwin. See any encyclopedia (such as Wikipedia) for confirmation. In summary, Estmond, who was apparently a son of Eadnoth "the Staller" a marshall of the king, was never an Earl of Mercia or anywhere else. [5]

Leofric and Godiva had one known son, Aelfgar. [18]

The modern era Kingsbury family have claimed descent from Lady Godiva. [19][20][21] [22] [2]

Legend

She is the famous "Lady Godiva." She complained constantly to her husband that the taxes were too high on the townspeople of Coventry. He finally said that he would reduce the taxes if she would ride nude through the marketplace on market day. She arranged for all of the men to remain inside and covered her entire body, except her legs, with her hair. Supposedly one person named Tom did not remain inside during her ride and became known as "Peeping Tom". Leofric eliminated all taxes, except for one on horses. During Edward I's reign, a check was made and the only tax in Coventry was one on horses. Since 1678 the town of Coventry still celebrates the ride during its annual fair.

In the legend of Lady Godiva, dating at least to the 13th century, she was an English noblewoman who rode naked – covered only in her long hair – through the streets of Coventry to gain a remission of the oppressive taxation that her husband imposed on his tenants. The name "Peeping Tom" for a voyeur originates from later versions of this legend in which a man named Tom watched her ride and was struck blind or dead. [1]

The legend of the nude ride is first recorded in the 13th century, in the Flores Historiarum and the adaptation of it by Roger of Wendover; despite its considerable age, it is not regarded as plausible by modern historians,[citation needed] nor is it mentioned in the two centuries intervening between Godiva's death and its first appearance, while her generous donations to the church receive various mentions. According to the typical version of the story, Lady Godiva took pity on the people of Coventry, who were suffering grievously under her husband's oppressive taxation. Lady Godiva appealed again and again to her husband, who obstinately refused to remit the tolls. At last, weary of her entreaties, he said he would grant her request if she would strip naked and ride on a horse through the streets of the town. Lady Godiva took him at his word, and after issuing a proclamation that all persons should stay indoors and shut their windows, she rode through the town, clothed only in her long hair. Just one person in the town, a tailor ever afterwards known as Peeping Tom, disobeyed her proclamation in one of the most famous instances of voyeurism.[1]


Some historians have discerned elements of pagan fertility rituals in the Godiva story, whereby a young "May Queen" was led to the sacred Cofa's tree, perhaps to celebrate the renewal of spring. The oldest form of the legend has Godiva passing through Coventry market from one end to the other while the people were assembled, attended only by two knights. This version is given in Flores Historiarum by Roger of Wendover (died 1236), a somewhat gullible collector of anecdotes, who quoted from unnamed earlier writers.[1]


The ballad "Leoffricus" in the Percy Folio (ca. 1650) conforms to Grafton's version, saying that Lady Godiva performed her ride to remove the customs paid on horses, and that the town's officers ordered the townsfolk to "shutt their dore, & clap their windowes downe," and remain indoors on the day of her ride.[1]

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  2. 2.0 2.1 P.R. Cross 'Lordship, Knighthood and Locality: A Study in English Society, C. 1180-1280' 1991. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Ann Williams, ‘Godgifu (d. 1067?)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, October 2006 accessed 18 April 2008 (subscription or UK public library membership required). Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  4. "Anglo-Saxons.net, S 1230". Anglo-saxons.net. Retrieved 30 January 2014. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Posted by "steve16907" at http://boards.ancestry.com/thread.aspx?mv=flat&m=592&p=topics.medieval.general, on 20 Sep 2008
  6. "Anglo-Saxons.net, S 1226". Anglo-saxons.net. 13 April 1981. Retrieved 30 January 2014. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  7. "Anglo-Saxons.net, S 1232". Anglo-saxons.net. Retrieved 30 January 2014. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  8. "Anglo-Saxons.net, S 1478". Anglo-saxons.net. Retrieved 30 January 2014. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  9. In the Stow charter, she is called "Godgife" (Thorpe, Benjamin (1865). Diplomatarium anglicum aevi saxonici: A collection of English charters. 1. London: MacMillan. p. 320.) Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  10. The Chronicle of John of Worcester ed. and trans. R.R. Darlington, P. McGurk and J. Bray (Clarendon Press: Oxford 1995), pp.582–583. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  11. Dodwell, C. R.; Anglo-Saxon Art: A New Perspective, 1982, Manchester UP, ISBN 0-7190-0926-X (US edn. Cornell, 1985), pp. 25 & 66. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  12. Dodwell, C. R.; Anglo-Saxon Art: A New Perspective, 1982, Manchester UP, ISBN 0-7190-0926-X (US edn. Cornell, 1985), pp., 180 & 212. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  13. Dodwell, C. R.; Anglo-Saxon Art: A New Perspective, 1982, Manchester UP, ISBN 0-7190-0926-X (US edn. Cornell, 1985), pp. 220, 230 & passim.Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  14. "flickr.com". flickr.com. 11 August 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2014. .Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  15. Phillips, Weber, Kirk and Staggs Families of the Pacific Northwest, by Jim Weber, rootsweb.com; Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; author unknown.
  16. Florence of Worcester
  17. K.S.B.Keats-Rohan, Domesday People: A prosopography of persons occurring in English documents 1066–1166, vol. 1: Domesday (Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk 1999), p. 218. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  18. Patrick W. Montague-Smith Letters: Godiva's family tree The Times, 25 January 1983. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  19. "Kingsbury Hall, the Genealogy of a Family" by Kenneth J. Kingsbury, Gateway Press 2005. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  20. Samuel Timmins, A History of Warwickshire 1889. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  21. F. Smith 'Warwickshire Delineated' 1820. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd
  22. Adam Fox 'Oral and Literate Culture in England, 1500-1700' 2000. Cited by Wikipedia. "Lady Godiva". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Godiva. Accessed April 5, 2017. jhd

See also:

  • "England, AngloSaxon nobility: Northumbria." Medieval Lands v.3. fmg.ac.
  • Florence of Worcester
Edited for Jan 2014 Style Standards. Gedcoms in Changes.


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Memories: 2

On 27 Oct 2011 Roger Wehr wrote:

THE LEGEND OF "LADY GODIVA":

According to the popular story, Lady Godiva took pity on the people of Coventry, who were suffering grievously under her husband's oppressive taxation. Lady Godiva appealed again and again to her husband, who obstinately refused to remit the tolls. At last, weary of her entreaties, he said he would grant her request if she would strip naked and ride through the streets of the town. Lady Godiva took him at his word and, after issuing a proclamation that all persons should stay indoors and shut their windows, she rode through the town, clothed only in her long hair. Just one person in the town, a tailor ever afterwards known as "Peeping Tom," disobeyed her proclamation in one of the most famous instances of voyeurism. In the story, Tom bores a hole in his shutters so that he might see Godiva pass, and is struck blind. In the end, Godiva's husband keeps his word and abolishes the onerous taxes.


On 27 Oct 2011 Roger Wehr wrote:

Lady Godiva was the wife of Leofric, Earl of Mercia. They had one proved son Aelfgar, Earl of Mercia. Lady Godiva's name occurs in charters and the Domesday survey, though the spelling varies. The Old English name Godgifu or Godgyfu meant "gift of God"; Godiva was the Latinised version. Since the name was a popular one, there are contemporaries of the same name. If she was the same Godiva who appears in the history of Ely Abbey, the Liber Eliensis, written at the end of 12th century, then she was a widow when Leofric married her.

Both Leofric and Godiva were generous benefactors to religious houses. In 1043 Leofric founded and endowed a Benedictine monastery at Coventry. On the site of a nunnery destroyed by the Danes in 1016. Writing in the 12th century, Roger of Wendover credits Godiva as the persuasive force behind this act. In the 1050s, her name is coupled with that of her husband on a grant of land to the monastery of St. Mary, Worcester and the endowment of the minster at Stow St Mary, Lincolnshire. She and her husband are commemorated as benefactors of other monasteries at Leominster, Chester, Much Wenlock and Evesham. She gave Coventry a number of works in precious metal made for the purpose by the famous goldsmith Mannig, and bequeathed a necklace valued at 100 marks of silver. Another necklace went to Evesham, to be hung around the figure of the Virgin accompanying the life-size gold and silver rood she and her husband gave, and St Paul's Cathedral, London received a gold-fringed chasuble. She and her husband were among the most munificent of the several large Anglo-Saxon donors of the last decades before the Conquest; the early Norman bishops made short work of their gifts, carrying them off to Normandy or melting them down for bullion. The manor of Woolhope in Herefordshire, along with four others, was given to the cathedral at Hereford before the Norman Conquest by the benefactresses Wulviva and Godiva – usually held to be this Godiva and her sister. The church there has a 20th century stained glass window representing them. Her mark, di Ego Godiva Comitissa diu istud desideravi, appears on a charter purportedly given by Thorold of Bucknall to the Benedictine monastery of Spalding. However, this charter is considered spurious by many historians. Even so it is possible that Thorold, who appears in the Domesday Book as sheriff of Lincolnshire, was her brother. After Leofric's death in 1057, his widow lived on until sometime between the Norman Conquest of 1066 and 1086. She is mentioned in the Domesday survey as one of the few Anglo-Saxons and the only woman to remain a major landholder shortly after the conquest. By the time of this great survey in 1086, Godiva had died, but her former lands are listed, although now held by others. Thus, Godiva apparently died between 1066 and 1086.

The place where Godiva was buried has been a matter of debate. According to the Chronicon Abbatiae de Evesham, or Evesham Chronicle, she was buried at the Church of the Blessed Trinity at Evesham, which is no longer standing. According to the account in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, "There is no reason to doubt that she was buried with her husband at Coventry, despite the assertion of the Evesham chronicle that she lay in Holy Trinity, Evesham." Dugdale (1656) says that a window with representations of Leofric and Godiva was placed in Trinity Church, Coventry, about the time of Richard II.



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Images: 2
Lady Godiva - the Legend
Lady Godiva - the Legend

Chart of Paternal Royal and Noble Ancestors
Chart of Paternal Royal and Noble Ancestors

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On 2 Jul 2016 at 07:33 GMT John Atkinson wrote:

Mercia-251 and Lincolnshire-6 appear to represent the same person because: Same person, Lincolnshire is the preferred LNAB, Mercia was her 'married' name

On 16 Nov 2015 at 01:30 GMT Darrell Parker wrote:

De Bucenhall-2 and Lincolnshire-6 appear to represent the same person because: Appears to be the same person

On 27 Jul 2015 at 11:11 GMT John Atkinson wrote:

De Bucenhall-2 and Lincolnshire-6 are not ready to be merged because: Mother of this profile needs to be merged first

On 27 Jun 2015 at 09:12 GMT Darrell Parker wrote:

De Bucenhall-2 and Lincolnshire-6 appear to represent the same person because: Appears to be the same person

On 9 Nov 2014 at 21:24 GMT Brother Phil Culmer wrote:

I agree - I notice that there are also differences in dates of birth and death, which need to be investigated.

On 9 Nov 2014 at 06:38 GMT John Atkinson wrote:

Lincolnshire-6 and De Bucenhall-2 are not ready to be merged because: I think it would be better to investigate her parents and grandparents (particularly maternal) and merge them before this profile can be merged



Godgifu is 28 degrees from Kevin Bacon, 27 degrees from Cindy Lesure, 28 degrees from Bonnie Thornton and 25 degrees from Queen Elizabeth II Windsor on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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