Hųgᵋxų́nųga Little Priest

Hųgᵋxų́nųga Little Priest (1829 - 1866)

Privacy Level: Open (White)
Hųgᵋxų́nųga Little Priest
Born in Koshkonong Village, Wisconsin, Michigan Territory, United Statesmap
Son of and [mother unknown]
Husband of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Husband of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Husband of — married about 1851 [location unknown]
Died in Thurston, Nebraska, United Statesmap
Profile last modified 21 Feb 2020 | Created 13 Dec 2019
This page has been accessed 68 times.
Hųgᵋxų́nųga Little Priest was a Native American and member of the Ho-Chunk tribe.
Hųgᵋxų́nųga Little Priest is Notable.

Contents

Biography

Name

The name Hųgᵋxų́nųga is from Hųk-xų́nų-ga, where hųk can be translated as "chief, priest, prophet"; and xų́nų as "young, little." These may be recombined to give many different permutations of his name, the two most common being "Little Priest" and "Young Prophet."

Birth

Hųgᵋxų́nųga was born in 1829 in a village on the shore of Lake Koshkonong in Wisconsin, which at the time was part of Michigan Territory. He was the son of the elder Hųgᵋxų́nųga (Little Priest). They were members of the Bear Clan, probably the Blue (Gray) Bear Subclan, since the younger Little Priest was blessed with Grizzly Bear powers. The Grizzly Bear Spirit is the patron of the Blue Bear Subclan. The Blue Bear Subclan are the priests of the Bear Clan, so it is not surprising that Little Priest was brought up as a priest. However, the Bear Clan are the mą́ną́pe, "soldiers," who function in peace as the police, but have special functions in war. Consequently, it is also not surprising that in the 1840s Little Priest became a War Chief.

Treaty Signatory

He signed the treaty of 1855. (Lurie #31, p. 58; F. T. Mann)

Life History

The historian Tim Smith has an excellent succinct account of the life of Little Priest which will be quoted here. "Little Priest, the son of Little Priest. He was born in 1829 at Lake Kosh Ronona, Wisconsin and trained as a medicine man. At the age of fifteen, he was made war chief, after his accomplishments against the Lake Superior Chippewas. In order to help his people, he fought against the German settlers during the 1863 Santee [Dakota] outbreak. When the Winnebago were shipped down the Mississippi and up the Missouri Rivers, he ordered John Omaha and Little Hog to fall off the boat and to swim to the Omaha at the Blackbird Bend and open up negotiations with them about acquiring some land in the northern part of their territory. At that time in 1863, the Lakota bands were making hit and run attacks all along the northern and western border of Omaha Territory until the Omaha were forced to move south. The attacks became worse as the months passed on. The Omaha agreed to sell the northern part of their reservation to the Winnebago in 1863. The Omaha Chiefs made an agreement with John Omaha and Little Hog and signed their agreement on a beaded wampum belt. Some of our old beadwork has the agreement on them, if one knows where to look. As a researcher I am experienced in this. In 1864, Little Priest traveled to the Omaha Reservation and agreed to the agreement. With him was one of the principal Chiefs, Little Hill. In 1863, General Sully made an agreement with Little Priest. If the War Chief helped him against the Western Sioux, then he would use his influence to help relocate the Winnebago to Nebraska. Little Priest knew it was wrong to fight against his own brothers, but in order to save his people he joined General Alfred Sully. He fought from 1863-66 with the United States Army against the Lakota Bands, Northern Cheyenne, Northern Arapahoe and the Santee Dakota Bands. Little Priest was finally wounded outside of Deer Creek Fort in Wyoming by a band of Oglala Lakota and some Northern Cheyenne warriors. That was in April of 1866. He was shot four times, one in the lung." (Smith, 1, 6)

Marriages and Children

Here is a list of the wives and children of Little Priest (quoted, with punctuation adjustments, from Linda W.):

     1) Mink Woman (born abt. 1828; died Oct 7, 1905); parents: Manjahnuckaw [Mąjanąka] and Chumpahkahrahchewinkaw [Jąpakaraciwįga]; other husbands: Mitchell St. Cyr, Walking Soldier (or George Carver), Jacob Horn (or John Davis).

Child of Little Priest: John Connohuttenickaw Priest (born abt. 1848; died Sep 9, 1923).

     2) White Breast Woman (born abt. 1820; died abt 1888); parents Solomon Blackdeer and unknown; other husbands: Henry Frenchman Decora.

Child of Little Priest: Walking Priest (1852- May 7, 1928).
Mrs. Henry Decora (Wa nuc ska win kaw), died about 1888 NE/4 of SE/4 & the SW of the SW 12-26-5 and the SW of the NE & the NW of the SE 14-26-5; Date of Patent: Dec. 9, 1893; Heir: Walking Priest, son, sole heir. [Winnebago Allotments, page 19]
Mrs Henry Decora [Wanuckshawinkaw] was a single woman at the time of her death. She had been deserted by her husband who went to Wisconsin with another woman." [Regional Archives of Winnebago Agency, roll 87]

     3) Iron House or “Mashechekah” (born about 1831; died Oct 8, 1893); other husbands: Little Beaver Lincoln and Joseph Armell.

Child of Little Priest: Edward Wawahaskah Priest (1856-1892).
“Mrs Beaver was previously the wife of Jos. Armell by whom she had one son & dau. (Baptist John Armel, enrolled with A.L., 20 yrs. and Mary Armell, He nu kaw, married to John Johnson, enrolled Jos. Johnson, 19 yrs.) Mrs. Little Beaver was first married to Little Priest by whom she had one son Ed Priest, Wa-wa-ha-ska (or Driving Off).” [Alice Fletcher enrollment pages]

     4) Twin Woman (born about 1831; died Oct 10, 1900); she was the full sister of Little Priest’s wife, Mink Woman.

Other husbands: Peter Brown (whose children were named Jennie and Paul Priest),
Charles English and
an unknown man (whose child was named William Priest).
Children [of Twin Woman and Little Priest]:
Mary Priest (born abt 1860; died Jan 25, 1913)
Louis Priest (1865-Apr 1, 1925)

Death

"He returned to the newly bought Winnebago Reservation and died on September 12, 1866." (Smith, 6) "Little Priest was buried on September 13, 1866 and his remains were placed in a small mound in the Timbers, 3 miles west of the Missouri River." (D. L. Smith, 7)

Oldest Memorial Celebration

"The Winnebago Nation of Nebraska has the oldest Memorial Celebration in the United States. It was started in July of 1866, in honor of the Last War Chief that our tribe had, Little Priest, the son of Little Priest. ... The same year that Chief Grey Wolf asked the council of fourteen village leaders to honor his brother with a celebration for his death in the Sioux Wars and to honor the surviving members of the Company A, Omaha Scouts of the Nebraska Volunteers. Robert Fumas signed his name to the paper authorizing the celebration of the Powwow. So this is a fact that the Winnebago, Ho-Chunks do have the oldest Memorial Celebration." (Smith, 6)

Memorial College

One of the things that Little Priest said before he died was, "Be strong and educate my children," which is now the mission statement of Little Priest Tribal College, located in Winnebago, Nebraska, and dedicated to the memory of the last War Chief of the Hochunk Nation, Little Priest.

Sources

  • Daniel "Tim" Smith, "The Oldest Memorial Celebration," Winnebago Indian News, 46, #14 (Saturday, July 28, 2018): 1, 6.
  • Nancy Oestreich Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Journal of the Wisconsin Indians Research Institute, 2, #1 (June, 1966): 50-73.
  • F. T. Mann, Superintendent, Winnebago, Nebraska, October 27, 1920, to Thomas Hughes, Atty. at law, Mankato, Minn. Thomas Hughes Papers, Minnesota History Center; cited by Linda W., 6c.
  • Linda W[aggoner], "Little Priest’s Wives and Children," Winnebago Indian News, 46, #14 (Saturday, July 28, 2018): 6c.


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Categories: Ho-Chunk | Nebraska, Notables | Notables