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Francesco Macaluso (1886 - bef. 1951)

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Francesco Macaluso
Born in Casteltermini, Agrigento, Sicilia, Italiamap
Brother of
Husband of — married before (to before ) in Casteltermini, Agrigento, Sicilia, Italiamap
Died before [location unknown]
Macaluso-86 created 20 Feb 2017 | Last modified
This page has been accessed 42 times.

Categories: Lawyers | World War II Italian Spies | Sicilian Immigrants to New York.

Contents

Biography

Introduction

Francesco Macaluso was born in Casteltermini (in Agrigento province) on 18 November 1886, the son of Ferdinando Macaluso and Maria Rosa Sanfilippo, who married in 1859.

He married Esmeralda Zanucco and had three children. Francesco lived most of his adult life in New York City.

A doctor of Italian law, Francesco was later a distributor of Italian propaganda films. He was interned by the United States during WWII.

Immigration

A possible match for his first immigration appears in 1913. Francesco Macaluso, age 28 (b. 1885), from Castelvit... Sicily (town fragment is a better match for Castelvetrano, in Trapani, but could also be Casteltermini), arrives on the Sant'Anna on 9 September 1913. He is single.[1]

Francesco and Esmeralda appear on the manifest of the SS Laconia, sailing from Palermo on 4 May 1914. Francesco Macaluso, 28 (b. 1886), a laborer, and Esmeralda Zanucco, his wife, who is 27 (b. 1887), are both from Casteltermini. Francesco leaves behind his mother Rosa Sanfilippo. They are going to meet Francesco's sister, Vincenza Macaluso, at 400 East 15th St. in New York.[2]

Boston

Francesco and Esmeralda are next found living in the Boston area, where their first two children are born:

  • Ferdinando Antonio Americo Macaluso is born 16 February 1915 in Boston.[3]
  • Rosa I. T. Macaluso is born 9 April 1916 in Cambridge. Her parents live at 122 Berkshire St in Cambridge. Her father is a lawyer.[4]

A WWI registration matching Francesco's birth year and town gives his date of birth as 18 November 1886. He gives his address as 176 North St in Boston MA (about 13 miles from the Cambridge address) and is an alien resident. He is a doctor of Italian law and works for the Banca Stabile (an Italian bank with branches in NYC and Boston) at the same address. He has a wife and two children and requests exemption from the draft because they require his support.[5]

New York

By 1920, Francesco and his family live in New York.

In the 1920 federal census of Brooklyn, NY, Francesco Macaluso, an alien resident who arrived with his wife in 1914, heads a household. He is 33 and his wife, Esmeralda, is 30 (b. 1890). Their children are Ferdinand, 5 (b. 1915), Rose, 3 yr 8 mo, and Armando, five months. The children were all born in New York, according to this record. (Armando was, but the two older children were born in Massachusetts.) Francesco is a lawyer who works at an office.[6] The census shows Francesco's sister living in the same Assembly District this year.

In 1922, Francesco swears his intention to become a naturalized American citizen. This record describes Francesco as standing only 5'0" and weighing 115 pounds. He has a mole on his right cheek. He's a legal advisor, age 35.[7]

A possible match Francesco calls him a 42 year old (b. 1886) married journalist, born in Casteltermini. He appears on the manifest of the SS M/S Saturnia sailing from Naples 30 June 1928. His last permanent address is in NYC.[8]

Francesco's family lives in Brooklyn in 1930, when they appear on the federal census. Francis is a lawyer (it doesn't say for whom), 43 years old. Esmeralda is 40, Ferdinand is 15, Rose, 14, and Armando 10.[9]

The manifest of the SS Saturnia sailing from Palermo on 22 October 1933 includes:

  • Francesco Macaluso, 47 (b. 1886), lawyer, married, born in Casteltermini
  • Esmeralda Macaluso, 44 (b. 1889), housewife, born in Naples (according to earlier sources, she was born in Casteltermini)
  • Rosa Macaluso, 17 (b. 1916), an American citizen born in Cambridge OH (actually born in Cambridge MA)
  • Armando Vittorio Macaluso, 14 (b. 1919), also a US citizen, born in NYC.

Francesco and Esmeralda's last permanent residence is in Brooklyn.[10]

Esperia Film Distributing Company

Francesco makes a number of trips to Italy from 1936-40 in his work for the Esperia Film Distributing Company, of which he is president and general manager. According to IMDb, the company is active for the same period, importing films from Italy for distribution to independent cinemas in New York City.

  • Francesco Macaluso, a 50 year old (b. 1886) lawyer from Casteltermini, traveling with (his daughter) US citizen Rosa J. Macaluso, age 20, born in Cambridge, appears on the manifest of the SS Vulcania sailing from Palermo on 25 May 1936. Francesco's last permanent residence is in Brooklyn.[11]
  • The same lawyer appears the following year on the manifest of the SS Rex, departing Naples on 11 March 1937. He is 51, married, and travels alone.[12]
  • Francesco appears on the manifest of the SS Vulcania sailing from Naples on 6 August 1939.[13]
  • Francesco Macaluso, 53, now a film something illegible (has been written in over "lawyer") is on the manifest of the SS Conte di Savoia sailing from Naples on 19 March 1940.[14]

The 1940 federal census shows the Macaluso family living in Brooklyn. According to their responses, the family lived there in 1935. Francis Macaluso, the head, is 53, Esmeralda is 50, Ferdinand is 25, Rose, 23, and Armando, 20. In this census, Francesco (Francis) is an advisor to a film imports business. Presumably working for the same film importing business are his son, a correspondent, and Rose, a bookkeeper.[15] A couple films distributed by Esperia Film Distributing Co. list Armando as the author of the English titles for the film.

WWII

Armando Vittorio, enlists for WWII on 19 August 1941. He is single. He's had two years of college. His civilian occupation is "Authors, editors, and reporters." He's enlisted in the Army Air Corps as a private.[16]

Francesco's partners in film distribution are Angelo di Carlo and his brothers. Esperia was started by Calogero di Carlo (aka Lelio) in 1939[17] and in 1942 is owned jointly by Calogero, the treasurer, who owns 60% of stock, John (Giovanni) di Carlo, who owns 10%, and Francesco, who owns 30%.[18] Calogero also owns a travel agency. Angelo is a shareholder in one of the cinemas that show Esperia films, Roma Theaters. The family's historian describes Angelo as the primary decision maker in his joint ventures with his youngest brother, Lelio. Lelio's characterization of Angelo's role in Esperia is more limited: a salaried employee, not a shareholder.

Francesco, Angelo, and his brothers are interned in 1942, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.[19] They are apprehended because of their film import business.

Fascist Politics

Macaluso's politics are clearly fascist. In addition to delivering propaganda in film, he founded the first openly fascist journal in the US, in Boston, called “Giovinezza” (Youth). (This is also the name of a Fascist anthem.)[20]

Angelo's nephew and godson, Vincent di Carlo, knew Francesco personally, before and after his internment in 1942. He writes of Francesco: "His relationship with Angelo was strictly business. They were on opposite sides of the political spectrum. Macaluso was a hardcore Fascist. At my visit to Fort Meade I witnessed him trying to impress visiting family members of the POW with shouts of 'Viva il Duce' and making Nazi/Fascist salutes."[21]

In April 1942, Francesco is a resident of the Alien Detention Station in Fort Missoula, MT. His home address is 1835 83rd St Brooklyn, NY. He is 56 years old.[22]

Francesco and Angelo's cases are handled as related when the subject of their release from internment is referred to the assistant Attorney General of the United States in October.[23]

A memo from J. Edgar Hoover, earlier that year on 6 July 1942, asks the same assistant AG whether he would want to prosecute Macaluso and di Carlo with regard to their connection to the Esperia Film Distributing Co.[24]

Contemporary movie reviews do not paint Esperia's films as political.[25] More recent critical analyses describe the Esperia oeuvre as propaganda. The News Research Service, produced by Joseph Roos, describes Esperia as a propagandist specializing in short films. The typical distribution method was to screen a full-length feature along with two or three short pieces of propaganda. This article singles out two film houses in NYC, the Roma Cine Teatro at 1662 Broadway, which "flourished under the management of the notorious, one-time anarchist, Pietro Garofalo," and the Cine Citta, at 250 W 54th St, managed by Signor Macaluso, a "widely known... Fascist agent." [26]All 29 of Esperia's 1940 releases "attempted to convince spectators that under the leadership of Mussolini Italy was a strong and mighty nation."[27] One feature film distributed by Esperia is described as propaganda in the book "Equivocal Subjects." “Under the Southern Cross” (1938) is seen to "naturalize" Italian occupation of Ethiopia, and deals with the racial questions brought up under fascist Aryan superiority, as they apply to southern Italy. Anti-American propaganda was against the Registration Act, also known as the Smith Act.

While Francesco was interned for much of the war, both of his sons enlisted. Armand, who worked with his father at Esperia, registered for the draft in 1941.[28]

Ferdinand, the older son, is a police officer or detective in civilian life, according to his WWII enlistment[29] although his obituary says that he worked his entire career for the Social Security Administration, from its inception in 1935.

Legacy

Francesco's fate after WWII is not known. No record has been found of his life after internment.

It appears that Francesco dies not long before 21 December 1951, when a "Life Claim" on Social Security is paid out.[30] These records name his wife and Armando Vittorio.[31]

At least two of his children married and remained in the United States.

Esmeralda dies in February 1980 at the age of 91. Her last place of residence is White Plains, NY.[32]

Sources

  1. Accessed http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/EIDB/engine/gold.html?username=003007014022000013021024015017016028037023002015012031090006031002&password=034007006027017009028010089093&pid=100737100449&type=manifest on 19 February 2017.
  2. Manifest accessed http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/EIDB/engine/gold.html?username=003007014022000013021024015017016028037023002015012031090006031002&password=034007006027017009028010089093&pid=100460010734&type=manifest on 19 February 2017.
  3. "Massachusetts Births, 1841-1915", database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:FXK2-RGY : 1 March 2016), Francesco Macaluso in entry for Ferdinando Antonio Americo Macaluso, 1915.
  4. "Massachusetts State Vital Records, 1841-1920," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:23YS-TXK : 4 December 2014), Rosa I T Macaluso, 09 Apr 1916; citing Birth, Cambridge, Middlesex, Massachusetts, United States, certificate number 1650, page 476, State Archives, Boston.
  5. "United States World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33SQ-GBR8-8PD?cc=1968530&wc=9FH8-T38%3A928311301%2C928882901 : 14 May 2014), Massachusetts > image 693 of 5229; citing NARA microfilm publication M1509 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  6. "United States Census, 1920," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-9R6T-35T?cc=1488411&wc=QZJ5-7WY%3A1036473601%2C1036473602%2C1038476601%2C1589341104 : 14 December 2015), New York > Kings > Brooklyn Assembly District 16 > image 9 of 30; citing NARA microfilm publication T625 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  7. National Archives at Boston; Waltham, Massachusetts; ARC Title: Petitions and Records of Naturalization , 8/1845 - 12/1911; NAI Number: 3000057; Record Group Title: Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685-2009; Record Group Number: RG 21
  8. "New York, New York Passenger and Crew Lists, 1909, 1925-1957," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-95WP-6S?cc=1923888&wc=MFVB-BZ9%3A1029886501 : 2 October 2015), > image 469 of 934; citing NARA microfilm publication T715 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  9. "United States Census, 1930," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33SQ-GRH1-DHG?cc=1810731&wc=QZFQ-878%3A649437801%2C649437802%2C650387801%2C1589286765 : 10 December 2015), New York > Kings > Brooklyn (Districts 1001-1250) > image 25 of 29; citing NARA microfilm publication T626 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 2002).
  10. "New York, New York Passenger and Crew Lists, 1909, 1925-1957," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33SQ-G5DY-39QG?cc=1923888&wc=MFKS-RWL%3A1030018001 : 2 October 2015), > image 364 of 913; citing NARA microfilm publication T715 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  11. "New York, New York Passenger and Crew Lists, 1909, 1925-1957," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33SQ-G5FZ-9WF3?cc=1923888&wc=MFKQ-MM9%3A1030037901 : 2 October 2015), > image 411 of 842; citing NARA microfilm publication T715 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  12. "New York, New York Passenger and Crew Lists, 1909, 1925-1957," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33SQ-G5F3-9XH2?cc=1923888&wc=MFK3-CTL%3A1030051501 : 2 October 2015), > image 708 of 1047; citing NARA microfilm publication T715 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  13. "New York, New York Passenger and Crew Lists, 1909, 1925-1957," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-95NG-9X1Y?cc=1923888&wc=MFKW-WNL%3A1030108801 : 2 October 2015), > image 32 of 751; citing NARA microfilm publication T715 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  14. "New York, New York Passenger and Crew Lists, 1909, 1925-1957," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33SQ-G5ND-SQVQ?cc=1923888&wc=MFK7-Y68%3A1030098001 : 2 October 2015), > image 67 of 857; citing NARA microfilm publication T715 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
  15. "United States Census, 1940," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9MY-R6H4?cc=2000219&wc=QZXR-8M6%3A790105101%2C795835101%2C803688901%2C803784201 : accessed 19 February 2017), New York > Kings > New York City, Brooklyn, Assembly District 9 > image 5 of 8; citing Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, NARA digital publication T627. Records of the Bureau of the Census, 1790 - 2007, RG 29. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 2012.
  16. "United States World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K8RH-2LK : 5 December 2014), Armand V Macaluso, enlisted 19 Aug 1941, Cp Upton, Yaphank, New York, United States; citing "Electronic Army Serial Number Merged File, ca. 1938-1946," database, The National Archives: Access to Archival Databases (AAD) (http://aad.archives.gov : National Archives and Records Administration, 2002); NARA NAID 126323, National Archives at College Park, Maryland.
  17. Di Carlo, Vincent Angelo. 2013. "The Di Carlo Family: From Corleone, Sicily, Italy." Accessed http://www.dicarlofamiglia.com/uploads/3/7/3/5/37352841/dicarlo_family_05_18_2013.pdf 11 November 2015.
  18. Federal Bureau of Investigation report made at New York, NY, on 23 January 1942 by J. Burleson regarding Angelo di Carlo. File no. NY 100-17523. Released electronically by NARA on 9 March 2016 to Justin Cascio.
  19. United States Department of Justice. Report to the Congress of the United States: A Review of the Restrictions on Persons of Italian Ancestry During World War II. November 2001. Accessed at http://www.schino.com/pdf/italian.pdf on 14 January 2016.
  20. Guido Tintori, Stefano Luconi. "L’ombra lunga del fascio: canali della propaganda fascista degli italoamericani." Accessed https://www.academia.edu/226041/L_ombra_lunga_del_fascio._Canali_di_propaganda_fascista_per_gli_italiani_d_America_ on 19 February 2017.
  21. Personal correspondence with Justin Cascio by email on 11 March 2016.
  22. The National Archives at St. Louis; St. Louis, Missouri; Draft Registration Cards for Fourth Registration for Montana, 04/27/1942 - 04/27/1942; NAI Number: 939368; Record Group Title: Records of the Selective Service System; Record Group Number: 147
  23. Memo from Edward J. Ennis, Director, Alien Enemy Control Unit to Wendell Berge, Assistant Attorney General, dated 14 October 1942. Released electronically by NARA to Justin Cascio on 9 March 2016.
  24. Memo from J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, to Asst AG Wendell Berge, dated 6 July 1942. Released electronically by NARA to Justin Cascio on 9 March 2016.
  25. Frank S. Nugent. "THE SCREEN IN REVIEW; Bette Davis Scores New Honors in 'Dark Victory'; George Brent Also Is Seen in the Music Hall Feature--New Italian Picture Opens Here" (Movie Review). Published 21 April 1939. Accessed http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9E03E7DE113CE73ABC4951DFB2668382629EDE? on 24 February 2017
  26. "Fascismo Says It With Movies." Research Supplement Published by News Research Service, Inc. Vol. 5. No. 142. 23 April 1941.
  27. Francesco di Legge. "L'aquila e il littorio: direttive, strutture e strumenti della propaganda fascista negli Stati Uniti d'America (1922-1941)." Accessed http://road.unimol.it/bitstream/2192/306/1/Tesi_F_DiLegge.pdf on 19 February 2017.
  28. "United States World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K8RH-2LK : 5 December 2014), Armand V Macaluso, enlisted 19 Aug 1941, Cp Upton, Yaphank, New York, United States; citing "Electronic Army Serial Number Merged File, ca. 1938-1946," database, The National Archives: Access to Archival Databases (AAD) (http://aad.archives.gov : National Archives and Records Administration, 2002); NARA NAID 126323, National Archives at College Park, Maryland.
  29. "United States World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K8RP-FYT : 5 December 2014), Ferdinand A Macaluso, enlisted 13 May 1943, New York City, New York, United States; citing "Electronic Army Serial Number Merged File, ca. 1938-1946," database, The National Archives: Access to Archival Databases (AAD) (http://aad.archives.gov : National Archives and Records Administration, 2002); NARA NAID 126323, National Archives at College Park, Maryland.
  30. Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015.
  31. Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015.
  32. "United States Social Security Death Index," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:JYMK-N27 : 20 May 2014), Esmeralda Macaluso, Feb 1980; citing U.S. Social Security Administration, Death Master File, database (Alexandria, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, ongoing).


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