"Arnulf, who became one of the most powerful clerical leaders in the army, was a native of Flanders. He is said to have been the son of a priest, which, on strict canonical grounds, would have disqualified him for the priesthood. However, large portions of Europe were still unconverted to the stricter ideals of the Reform Church Party. As a result, he found little to hinder his rapid advancement. Before the Crusade he had gained fame as a teacher, especially in Normandy, where he counted among his pupils Matilda*, the daughter of William the Conqueror, and Raoul, famous later as a priest and panegyrist. When the Crusade was preached, Arnulf joined the expedition in the band of Robert of Normandy. His position was that of chaplain to Odo, Archbishop of Bayeux, the fiery brother of the Conqueror. Upon Odo's death early in the march, Arnulf virtually succeeded the Archbishop, becoming chaplain to Robert of Normandy. In this capacity he was soon recognized as one of the ablest churchmen in the whole army. He possessed many qualities aside from his great learning which won him popularity and influence not only among the leaders, but also among the soldiers."