Maria Montessori is best known for the approach to education which takes her name, and was one of the first women to become a medical doctor in Italy. Maria Montessori was, however, much more than the founder of an educational approach that is still thriving more than a century after she opened her first school. She was, a biologist, naturalist and psychiatrist-physician" who significantly influenced education and attitudes towards children, particularly towards early childhood education. Throughout her life, she was committed to the wellbeing of all children, especially those with cognitive challenges, to the rights of women and of working class people. She campaigned for peace, and for education as the vehicle by which world peace might be attained, for over fifty years.
L' anno mille ottocento settanta 1870. Il Giorno di Sabbato tre Settembre alle ore nove antimeridiane nella Residenza Municipale di Chiaravalle.
Davanti me Nazzareno Sorini Segretario del Comune di Chiaravalle Provincia di Ancona delegato a compiere le funzione d' Uffiziale di Stato Civile per gli atti di nascita e di morte con autorizzazione del Sindaco trentua 31 Dicembre mille ottocento sessantacinque 1865 e' comparso Montessori Alessandro figlio di Nicola e di Verrolini Artemisia, Impiegato di anni trentotto 38 nata a Ferrara, residente a Chiaravalle e mi ha presentato un bambino di sesso feminile che dichiara essergli nato nel giorno di Mercoledi trentuno 31 spirato Agosto alle ore tre e mezza antimeridiane dalla di sua moglie Stoppani Remilde figlia di Raffaele e di Branucci Remilde, casalinga di anni trenta 30 nata a Monsanvito, seco lui residente a Chiaravalle nella casa di propria abitazione posta in Contrada Clementina ed qual bambino dichiara di dare il nome di Maria Tecla Artemisia.
Questa dichiarazione e presentazione di neonata e' stata fatta alla presenza di Giovannini Alessandro del fu Nicola di anni 28 ventotto Impiegato, e Salvi Pietro del vivo Gaspare di anni trentuno 31 Uffiziale in Aspettativa, ambo testimoni qui residenti, ???? dal dichiarante stesso, formiti dei requisiti voluti dall Articolo 351 trecento cinquantuno del Codice Civile e meco qui presa sottoscritti ??? via lettura del presente Processo verbale stesso contemporaneamente in due Registri originale.
Translation into English:
In the year 1870, on the day Saturday 3 September at the hour of 9AM at the municipal hall of Chiaravalle.
Before me, Nazzareno Sorini, Secretary of the town of Chiaravalle, Province of Ancona, delegated to perform the function of registrar for births and deaths with the authorization of the Mayor 31 December 1865 appeared Montessori Alessandro, son of Nicola and Verrolini Artemisia, clerk, age 38, born in Ferrara, living in Chiaravalle and has presented to me a female baby which he declared was born to him on the day Wednesday 31 August at the hour of 3:30 AM of his wife Stoppani Renilde, daughter of Rafaelle and Branucci Remilde, housewife, age 30, born in Monsanvito, living with him in Chiaravalle, at his home in the Clementine quarter, and declared to give the baby the name Maria Tecla Artemisia.
This declaration and presentation of the newborn was made in the presence of Giovannini Alessandro, son of the late Nicola, age 28, clerk, and Salvi Pietro of the living Gaspare, age 31, official on leave, both witnesses who reside the same as the declarant, created in accordance with the requirements of Article 351 of the Civil Code, with me signed below, read and written in two original registers."
Maria Montessori attended an elementary school in Via di San Nicole da Tolentino, where she obtained moderate results. After rejecting the usual educational options open to girls in her time, Maria Montessori gained admission to the Regia Scuola Technica Michelanglo Buonarroti in February 1884, later moving on to the Regio Istituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci which she attended from 1886 to 1890. Despite her good results it was not a foregone conclusion that she would be accepted into University.
Maria had to overcome numerous hurdles in order to gain entry to University. In the 23 years between 1877 and 1900 only 11 women were accepted into University with a technical certificate. Furthermore, her career of choice, medicine, was not one that welcomed woman, and Montessori's father discouraged her from pursuing that path. Because she had only a technical diploma Maria had to first complete two years in the natural sciences, together with supplementary examinations in Latin and Italian, before she could enroll in the faculty of medicine.
Maria Montessori graduated as a professor of medicine and surgery on 10 July 1896,.
Sharon Caldwell has contacted the Montessori family through the Association Montessori Internationale, for details and permission to use information about the descendants of Maria Montessori (22 February 2018).
↑ It is commonly believed that Maria Montessori was the first female doctor in Italy. This is not correct as there are records of at least two other women graduated as medical doctors before her. See Trabalzini, p.14 (note 14).
↑ "Italia, Ancona, Ancona, Stato Civile (Tribunale), 1862-1929," Maria Montessori, 31 Aug 1870, no. 114; images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QSQ-G9Q3-8D4Y : 20 May 2014), Ancona, Chiaravalle, image 134 of 1932; Tribunale di Ancona (Ancona Court, Ancona).
↑ Overlijdensakte [death certificate], Maria Montessori, Leeftijd [age]: 81 jaar, Datum [date]: 06-05-1952, Plaats [place]: Noordwijk, Vader [father]: Alessandro Montessori, Moeder [mother]: Renilde Stappani, Geboorteplaats [birthplace]: Chiaravalle Italie; Erfgoedinstelling: Erfgoed Leiden en Omstreken, Plaats instelling: Leiden, Collectiegebied: Zuid-Holland, Archief: 900, Registratienummer: 2964, Aktenummer: 90; WieWasWie, https://www.wiewaswie.nl/nl/detail/50674869
↑ Erfgoed Leiden in Leiden (Netherlands), Civil registration deaths
Bijzondere onderwerpen; Burgerlijke stand en bevolking, Part: 2964, Period: 1951-1954, Noordwijk, archive 0900, inventory number 2964, May 6, 1952, Overlijden 1951-1954, record number 90
Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate and Letters of Administration made in the Probate Registries of the High Court of Justice in England. London, England, Ancestry