Henry was born in 1887. His father Henry Nottidge Moseley (1844–91), was a biologist and also a professor of anatomy and physiology at the University of Oxford, and was a member of the Challenger Expedition. Moseley's mother was Anabel Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley, the daughter of the Welsh biologist and conchologist John Gwyn Jeffreys. Anabel Moseley was also the British ladies' champion of chess in 1913.
Henry Moseley was a pioneering physicist who developed the techniques of X-ray spectroscopy using the techniques of William Henry Bragg and his son William Laurence Bragg. His measurements of the X-ray spectra of the elements aided greatly the development of the periodic table by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev and the theory of the atom being developed by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford. He probably would have won the 1916 Nobel Prize for his contributions but his life was cut short by a Turkish sniper at Gallipoli in 1915. 
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