||Magna Carta Surety Baron|
William de Mowbray was one of the twenty-five medieval barons who were surety for Magna Carta in 1215.
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William de Mowbray (c. 1173-c. 1224) was "a landowner with Yorkshire estates centring on Thirsk and Lincolnshire lands in the Isle of Axholme."
In the Histoire des Ducs de Normandie, he is described as being as small as a dwarf, but very generous and valiant.
Mowbray was typical of those lords, particularly in northern England, who had suffered at the hands of John, felt a burning sense of grievance, and were longing for the opportunity to get their own back.
On the other hand, WikiTree, without attribution, notes his parents as Nigel de Mowbray and Mabel de Clare
William was the eldest of the one daughter and three or four sons of Nigel de Mowbray, by Mabel, thought to be daughter of William de Patri, and grandson of Roger de Mowbray.
A manuscript which recites the Mowbray ancestry names “Willielmum, Robertum, Philippum et Rogerum” as the four sons of “filius Rogeri de Molbray primogenitus…Nigellus de Molbray” & his wife, adding that William died “in insula de Haxeiholm” and was buried “apud Novum-Burgum”.
He is said to have married Avice, a daughter of William d'Aubigny, 3rd Earl of Arundel, of the elder branch of the d'Aubignys.
The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. A manuscript record of the Mowbray family (many of the details in which relating to the early generations of the family are inconsistent with other sources) states that the wife of “Willihelmus…primogenitus et hæres Nigelli de Molbray” married “[filiam] comitis de Arundel…Agnetem” who was mother of his two sons. If this is correct, she would have been Agnes, daughter of William Earl of Arundel & his wife Matilda de Saint-Hilaire, but the identification of this person has not yet been corroborated from other sources.
If he was in fact born in 1173, he would have been aged 21 in 1194, a good age for marriage. This would place the birth of his elder son at about 1195. There are no records for when his elder son Nele or Nigel was actually born. Nele assumed his father's lands when William died in 1224, so Nele had achieved majority by then, so was born no later than 1203.
The ‘Progenies Moubraiorum’ makes Nigel predecease his father, and Nicolas and Courthope accept this date; but Dugdale adduces documentary evidence showing that he had livery of his lands in 1223, and did not die (at Nantes) until 1228.
As Nigel left no issue by his wife Mathilda or Maud, daughter of Roger de Camvile, he was succeeded as sixth baron by his brother Roger II, who only came of age in 1240, and died in 1266. This Roger's son, Roger III, was seventh baron (1266-1298) and father of John I de Mowbray, eighth baron.
In the past, WikiTree profiles for three daughters have been linked, but have not been verified as daughters by credible source and it is possible that two never existed. The two no longer linked as children:
There was much in William’s background and personal circumstances that can be seen, with hindsight, as pointing the way to his involvement in the rebellion against King John. His forebear, Roger de Mowbray, had taken part in the great uprising against Henry II in 1173-4, which had convulsed the whole Angevin world.
He himself had become entangled in financial dealings with King John which were to cost him dearly. His problems lay in his family’s early rise to power, specifically in their acquisition from Henry I a century before of the lands of Robert de Stuteville, a supporter of Henry’s brother Robert Curthose in his failed bid for the English crown, and who had forfeited his property to Henry.
"He appears to have been in the company of King Richard I on his return from Palestine, and witnessed a charter of the king at Spiers in Germany 20 Nov 1193, where Richard spent his second Christmas in captivity. "
In 1194 he had livery of his lands. paying a relief of £100. He was immediately called upon to pay a sum nearly as large as his share of the scutage levied towards Richard's ransom, for the payment of which he was one of the hostages. William was later a witness to Richard's treaty with Baldwin of Flanders in 1197.
Upon the death of King Richard, William de Mowbray swore fealty to King John.
"In 1200 his enemy Robert’s descendant, William, reactivated his family’s claim against the Mowbrays, and in that year William offered the sum of 2000 marks (over £1300) to John to secure a judgement in the matter. When the case was brought before the king’s justices, however, it ended in a compromise, and one highly favourable to Stuteville. William was nonetheless still under obligation to pay and, like others before him, had little alternative but to borrow from the Jews. William had gambled everything on the favourable outcome of a risky legal action and had failed. It is clear that, when he embarked on rebellion against John, he had nothing to lose."
William "joined the confederacy of the barons against the king at Stamford in Easter week, 1215. He was one of the twenty-five barons elected to guarantee the observance of Magna Carta, signed by King John 15 June 1215."
"In 1215 Mowbray was prominent with other north-country barons in opposing King John. He was appointed one of the twenty-five executors of the Magna Carta, and as such was specially named among those excommunicated by Pope Innocent III. His youngest brother, Roger, has sometimes been reckoned as one of the twenty-five, apparently by confusion with, or as a substitute for, Roger de Mumbezon. Roger died without heirs about 1218, and William received his lands".
In the First Barons' War, Mowbray supported Louis. Mowbray was taken prisoner in the Battle of Lincoln (1217), and his estates bestowed upon William Marshal the younger; but he redeemed them by the surrender of the lordship of Bensted in Surrey to Hubert de Burgh, before the general restoration in September of that year.
"Mowbray was taken prisoner at the battle of Lincoln in May 1217. He had to surrender the Surrey manor of Banstead, that formed his mother’s marriage portion to Hubert de Burgh as the price of redemption. His family never succeeded in recovering it."
Mowbray founded the chapel of St Nicholas at Thirsk, and was a benefactor of his father’s foundation, Newburgh priory, where, on his death at Axholme around 1224, he was buried.
William de Mowbray founded the chapel of St. Nicholas, with a chantry, at Thirsk, and was a benefactor of his grandfather's foundations at Furness Abbey and Newburgh, where, on his death in Axholme about 1224, he was buried.
“Willielmus de Molbrai” confirmed donations to Newburgh Abbey by “Rogeri de Molbray avi mei et Nigelli de Molbray patris mei” by undated charter, witnessed by “Roberto de Mubray patruo meo, Philippo de Mubray fratre meo, Roberto de Mubray fratre meo…”.
Caution: William de Mowbray-135 has a different father and son and appears to be a member of a different family. Do not attempt a merge without further research.
|MEDIEVAL LANDS: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families by Charles Cawley © Foundation for Medieval Genealogy & Charles Cawley 2000-2018.|
This page has been edited according to Style Standards adopted by January 2014. Click the Changes tab to see edits to this profile; from that list, click WikiTree IDs other than Mowbray-151 to see changes to those profiles prior to being merged.
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