Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton (1643 - 1727)

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Sir Isaac Newton
Born in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Brother of [half]
Died in Kensington, Middlesex, England, Great Britainmap
Profile last modified | Created 6 Jan 2010
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Categories: Mathematicians | Physicists | Astronomers | Fellows of the Royal Society | English Notables.

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Contents

Biography

Isaac Newton is Notable.

Portrait of Newton in 1689 by Godfrey Kneller

Born
25 December 1642
[NS: 4 January 1643][1]
Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England
Died
20 March 1726/7 (aged 84)
[OS: 20 March 1726 NS: 31 March 1727][1]
Kensington, Middlesex, England
Resting place
Westminster Abbey
Nationality
English
Fields:
Physics
Natural philosophy
Alchemy
Theology
Mathematics
Astronomy
Economics
Institutions:
University of Cambridge
Royal Society
Royal Mint
Alma mater
Trinity College, Cambridge
Academic advisors
Isaac Barrow[2]
Benjamin Pulleyn[3][4]
Notable students
Roger Cotes
William Whiston
Known for
Newtonian mechanics
Universal gravitation
Calculus
Newton's laws of motion
Optics Binomial series
Principia Newton's method
Notable awards
FRS (1672)[5]
Knight Bachelor (1705)
Signature
Is. Newton
Writing
Principia
Religious views
Catholic Christian[1]
Occult studies


Bio from Wikipedia

Sir Isaac Newton PRS (/ˈnjuːtən/;[6] 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27[1]) was an English mathematician, astronomer, and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus.


Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity, and then using the same principles to account for the trajectories of comets, the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the Solar System and demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles. Newton's theoretical prediction that the Earth is shaped as an oblate spheroid was later vindicated by the geodetic measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others, thus convincing most Continental European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over the earlier system of Descartes.


Newton also built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a sophisticated theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the colours of the visible spectrum. Newton's work on light was collected in his highly influential book Opticks, first published in 1704. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developed a method for approximating the roots of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane curves.


Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. He was a devout but unorthodox Christian, who privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity and who, unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, refused to take holy orders in the Church of England. Beyond his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and biblical chronology, but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death. Politically and personally tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and he spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden (1696–1700) and Master (1700–1727) of the Royal Mint, as well as president of the Royal Society (1703–1727).


A Note on Birth and Death Dates

Newton was born "On Christmas", so why do we give him a January Birthdate? During Newton's lifetime, two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian ("Old Style") calendar in protestant and Orthodox regions, including Britain; and the Gregorian ("New Style") calendar in Roman Catholic Europe. At Newton's birth, Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus his birth is recorded as taking place on 25 December 1642 Old Style, but can be converted to a New Style (modern) date of 4 January 1643. By the time of his death, the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days: moreover, he died in the period after the start of the New Style year on 1 January, but before that of the Old Style new year on 25 March. His death occurred on 20 March 1726 according to the Old Style calendar, but the year is usually adjusted to 1727. A full conversion to New Style gives the date 31 March 1727.[2]

Sources

  1. Snobelen, Stephen D. “Isaac Newton, Heretic: the Strategies of a Nicodemite.” The British Journal for the History of Science 32, no. 4 (1999): 381–419.
  2. Thony, Christie (2015) Calendrical confusion or just when did Newton die?, The Renaissance Mathematicus, retrieved 05 May 2017 from https://thonyc.wordpress.com/2015/03/20/calendrical-confusion-or-just-when-did-newton-die/
  • "England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:NBRM-GXR : 10 February 2018, Isaac Newton, ); citing Colsterworth, Lincoln, England, index based upon data collected by the Genealogical Society of Utah, Salt Lake City; FHL microfilm 1,450,482.
  • Wikipedia entry for Isaac Newton
  • “Newton, Isaac (1642-1727), of Woolsthorpe, Colsterworth, Lincs. and Trinity College, Cambridge. | History of Parliament Online.” Accessed May 4, 2018. Isaac Newton
  • Cambridge University Alumni
  • Westfall, Richard S. "Newton, Sir Isaac." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004,
  • Pettigrew, Thomas. Chronicles of the Tombs (George Bell And Sons, London, 1902) Page 60-1

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Images: 1
Sir Isaac Newton by Sir Godfrey Kneller
Sir Isaac Newton by Sir Godfrey Kneller

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On 25 Apr 2017 at 10:01 GMT Matthew Fletcher wrote:

There is no justification for the suffix "Jr" as he was born posthumously.

On 9 Dec 2016 at 22:18 GMT Cynthia (Edgemon) Rushing wrote:

Shouldn't Sir Isaac Newton be a part of the Notables Project?



Isaac is 25 degrees from Sharon Caldwell, 19 degrees from Burl Ives and 12 degrees from Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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