Emmy Noether

Amelie Emmy Noether (1882 - 1935)

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Amelie Emmy (Emmy) Noether
Born in Erlangen, Bavaria, Germanymap
[spouse(s) unknown]
[children unknown]
Died in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, United Statesmap
Profile last modified 16 May 2019 | Created 23 Mar 2015
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Advances in Mathematics She wrote Noether's Theorem

  • daughter of mathematician Max Noether and Ida Amalia Kauffman, from a well-off family[1]
  • had two brothers who died very young. Her brother Fritz (also a mathematician) is her only sibling to survive to adulthood.[1]
  • Teacher certification took 4 days of exams but even after all that she decided to go to University to study mathematics.[1]
    • She couldn't enroll in classes at the University of Erlangen. She had to get permission from every instructor of every class she took to audit the class and again to take the exams for each class.
    • University of Göttingen[1]
    • After returning to Erlangen (they had started officially accepting female students) she worked under Paul Gordan, a family friend whom she had known since she was young. His nickname was "The King of Invariant Theory." Emmy was his only doctorate student he ever mentored.[1]
    • PhD in Mathematics, thesis on Algebraic Invariants - Suma Cum Laude[1]
  • Despite being held in HIGH ESTEEM by the mathematics community and having published numerous influential and well-received papers in her field, she was not given an official position until 1919 (Privatdozent, which recognized her PhD and gave her the right to lecture and advise students but not a professorship - and was not paid). Initially she worked under her father at the University of Elerangen and later was invited to Göttingen and lectured under Hilbert's name because the University would not give her an official position with permission to teach (until 1919).
  • Noether's Thoerem (symmetry and conservation) - a basic tenant of modern physics.
  • Worked with the best mathematicians at the time as a PEER but did not receive pay until 1923.
  • 1920: Concerning Moduli in Non-Commutative Fields Particularly in Differential and Difference Terms[1]
  • Worked on Commutative Algebra, 1920-1926
  • 1925: Greta Hermann completed her PhD - under the mentorship of Emmy Noether[1]
  • Noether's Boys
  • Presented at the International Mathematical Congress, 1928 & 1932
  • German Mathematical Annual
  • Her mathematical colleagues continually tried to petition for greater recognition (in terms of POSITION at the University) for Emmy - despite her low "rank" - she was considered a Leader in the Mathematics community.
  • Lost her position when the Nazi party passed laws effectively prohibiting Jews from holding civil positions
  • Bryn Mawr in Pennsylvania
  • Noether Girls
  • Albert Einstein's letter about Emmy Noether was published in The New York Times[1] in which he called her the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began. In the realm of algebra, in which the most gifted mathematicians have been busy for centuries, she discovered methods which have proved of enormous importance in the development of the present-day younger generation of mathematicians.[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Frey, Holly and Tracy V. Wilson. "Emmy Noether, Mathematics Trailblazer." Stuff You Missed in History Class (Podcast). 7 September 2015. HowStuffWorks, 2015. Accessed via app 13 Sept 2015.

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