Maud (Normandie) de Anjou
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Matilda (Normandie) de Anjou (1102 - 1167)

Matilda (Maud) "Holy Roman Empress, Lady of the English" de Anjou formerly Normandie aka of England
Born in Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Wife of — married 7 Jan 1114 (to 1125) in Mainz, Germanymap
Wife of — married 22 May 1128 in Le Mans Cathedral, Anjoumap
Descendants descendants
Died in Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, Francemap
Profile last modified | Created 11 Sep 2011 | Last significant change: 6 Apr 2021
18:42: England Project WikiTree deleted a memory from Roger Wehr about Matilda (Normandie) de Anjou (1102-1167). [Thank England Project for this]
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Maud (Normandie) de Anjou is a member of the House of Normandie.

Contents

Biography

Empress Matilda

Name:
♦ Adelaide[1][2]

♦ From 1114: Matilda alias "Maud" or "Maude" at first marriage[1]

Titles:♦ 07 Jan 1114 - May 1125: Empress of Germany[1]

♦ 07 Apr - 01 Nov 1141: Lady of the English[1]

Born:1101 / Gregorian: 1102 Winchester or Sutton Courtenay, Oxfordshire[3]

Parents:Henry I and Matilda of Scotland
Siblings:♦ William Adelin (d. 25 Nov 1120 White Ship Disaster, age 17); and 2 more legitimate.[1]

♦ at least 25 illegitimate[1]

M1:07 Jan 1114: Heinreich V (1081-1125), emperor of Germany[1]

♦ No issue.

M2:22 May 1128: Geoffrey, count of Anjou[1] and Maine

♦ son and heir: Henry I, founder of the House of Plantagenet; and 2 more sons.[1]

Death:♦ 10 Sep 1167: Abbey of Notre, Rouen. Age 65.[1]

♦ buried: Bec Abbey;[1]

♦ moved to Rouen Cathedral in 1847.[1][4]

Early Life

Born in 1102 to Henry I and Matilda of Scotland, Adelaide took the name Matilda ("Maud(e)" at the time of her first marriage.[1]. It's commonly thought she was born at Winchester, but she may have been born in London,[1] or the palace at Sutton Courtenay in Oxfordshire.[3]

Her maternal grandparents were Malcolm III of Scotland and [saint] Margaret of Wessex.[5] Margaret's father was Edward the Exile, son and successor of Edmund II of England.

While she had three natural siblings and at least another 25 illegitimate siblings,[1] Matilda and her younger brother William Adelin were the only surviving, direct contenders to the throne. But after seventeen-year-old William died in the White Ship disaster, Matilda became the sole heir.

First Marriage

Typical of the times, her first marriage was political. Betrothed on 10 April 1110, she married the 32-year-old Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor on the 7th of January in 1114 at the age of twelve[5]. She was crowned... but unfortunately, it wasn't by the pope.[5]

On the Pentecost of May 13th, 1117, the honors were done in Rome by an excommunicated member of the clergy ... the future Antipope, archbishop of Braga, Maurice Bourdin. [5] Maude, "later claimed to have been crowned twice," and managed to convince Norman chroniclers that the pope actually took part.[5]

In any case, Matilda was still, "anointed queen at her husband's coronation by Pope Paschal in 1111."[5] Even after Henry died in 1125, leaving her childless, the title of Empress continued to hold some weight at the English court. Official records address her, "regina Romanorum."[5]

Second Marriage

Henry I and his second wife had no issue, so Matilda was the next option for dynastic continuity. After the barons pledged support, Henry arranged her second marriage to the 13-year-old Geoffrey of Anjou and Maine.[5] She was twenty-five.[5]

Civil War

Once Matilda's half brother Robert, Earl of Gloucester, rebelled against Stephen, war broke out in 1136. Matilda arrived in England in 1139 and after a series of battles, Stephen was caught February 1141 at the Battle of Lincoln.[4]

Lady of the English

During the summer of 1141, Maud almost tasted success. With Stephen out of the way, she was now "lady of the English." ... Only to turn around and blow it.

That June, she rode into London with a bad attitude ... demanding money. It incensed the public and her coronation was met with angry town folk. She fled to Oxford with no crown.[4]

  • DEC 1142: Matilda escapes Oxford Castle and crosses the frozen Thames.
  • 01 NOV 1141: Robert is exchanged for Stephen.

Meanwhile... Stephen's wife hit the ground with an army from France. They caught the Earl of Gloucester, later ransomed in exchange for Stephen. Matilda escaped but her forces were routed at Winchester in September 1141. Thereafter she maintained a weak resistance out west.[4]

Death

In 1148, after the death of her half-brother, Matilda left her son (Henry II) behind and returned to Normandy. She died at Notre Dame du Pré near Rouen on 10 September 1169, and was buried in Fontevrault Abbey. Her remains were moved to Rouen Cathedral in 1847.

Matilda's epitaph reads: "Great by Birth, Greater by Marriage, Greatest in her Offspring: Here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry."[4]

Sources

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14
    Ashley, Mike (2008).A Brief History of British Kings and Queens. pp.72-78. Philadelphia, PA: Running Press Book Publishers. Print.
  2. Adrienne Anderson chart of Scandinavian Norman Descent of Hamblins;
    Herbert Stoyan. Nobility of the Holy Roman Empire and other European Nobility.;
    Gregory Lauder-Frost F.S.A. Some English Descendants of Malcome Canmore King Of the Scots.
  3. 3.0 3.1
    Fletcher, John (1990)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
    Medlands. fmg.ac
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8
    Wikipedia: Empress Matilda
  • "Royal Ancestry" 2013 by Douglas Richardson Vol. I, page 18-20
MAUD OF ENGLAND, sometimes styled "Lady of the English" (rarely "Queen of the English"), daughter and heiress, born at London about 8 Feb. 1102. She married (1st) at Mainz 7 January 1114 HEINRICH (or HENRY) V, Holy Roman Emperor, son of Heinrich IV, Holy Roman Emperor, by Bertha, daughter of Otto, Count of Savoy, They had no issue. HEINRICH V died at Utrecht 23 May 1125. Maud was declared heir presumptive to her father in 1126. She married (2nd) Lemans, Maine 17 June 1128 GEOFFREY PLANTAGENET, nicknamed le Bel), Count of Anjou and Maine, Knt., son and heir of Foulques V le Jeune, Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem, by his 1st wife, Eremburge, daughter and heiress of Helie, Count of Maine. he was born 24 August 1113. They had three sons, Henry (II) [King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou], Geoffrey [Count of Anjou and Nantes], and William Longespee. By an unknown mistress (or mistresses), Geoffrey also had one illegitimate son, Hamelin [5th Earl of Surrey], and two illegitimate daughters, Emma and Mary [Abbess of Shaftesbury]. GEOFFREY, Count of Anjou and Maine, died at Chateau-du-Loir 7 Sept. 1167, and was buried in St. Julien's, Le Mans, Maine. In 1153 the treaty of Westminster allowed Stephen should remain King of England for life and that Maud's son, Henry, should succeed him. MAUD, late Empress of Almain, died at Rouen, Normandy 10 Sept. 1167, and was buried at Bec Abbey, Normandy. At her death, her wealth was distributed to the poor, and to various hospitals, churches, and monasteries.
  • "Royal Ancestry" 2013 Douglas Richardson Vol. I. page 159, 197, 448, 479,
and 536

Footnotes

  • Royal Ancestry D. Richardson 2013 Vol. I p. 12 (ii)
Edited for Jan 2014 Style Standards. Gedcoms in Changes.



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