Robert  (Normandie) de Normandie

Robert (Normandie) de Normandie (1000 - bef. 1035)

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Robert (Robert I) "le Magnifique, the Magnificent, Duc de Normandie" de Normandie formerly Normandie
Born in Rouen, Duchy of Normandymap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Husband of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Descendants descendants
Died before in Nicaea, Byzantine Empire (modern Iznik, Turkey)map
Normandie-43 created 5 Feb 2012 | Last modified | Last edit: 14 May 2017
16:22: Jack Day edited the Biography for Robert I (Normandie) de Normandie. (Added category) [Thank Jack for this]
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Categories: Charlemagne to William the Conqueror Descent.

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Contents

Line of Descent to William the Conqueror

Douglas Richardson [1] provides one line of descent from Charlemagne to William the Conqueror and four lines of descent from Charlemagne to William's wife Maud.

Parent: Judith, born 982
This profile: Robert, born 1000
Child: William, born 1027

Biography

Name and Titles

  • Robert is usually called Robert I, Duke of Normandy, but since his ancestor Rollo took Robert as his baptismal name, sometimes Rollo is addressed as Robert I, and this Robert as Robert II. [2]
  • Robert I, the Magnificent, [3]
  • He was also, although erroneously, said to have been called 'Robert the Devil' (French: le Diable). Robert I was never known by the nickname 'the devil' in his lifetime. 'Robert the Devil' was a fictional character who was confused with Robert I, Duke of Normandy sometime near the end of the Middle Ages. [4] In 1831 the composer, Giacomo Meyerbeer, wrote an opera "Robert le Diable" about this legendary character.
  • Count of Hiemois, 1026, [3]
  • Duke of Normandy, 1027-1035, [3] aka: 6th Duke of Normandy
  • Robert I "le Magnifique" ("the Magnificent") [5]
  • Duke of Normandy, 1027-1035. [5]

1000 Birth and Parentage

His date and place of birth is unknown. [5] He was born 22 June 1000 in Normandy.[2]

He was the son of Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I of Rennes.

Guillaume of Jumièges names “Richardum...atque Robertum et Willelmum” as the three sons of “dux Richardus” and his wife “Goiffredum Britannorum comitem...sororem...Iudith”[212]. [6] Ademar names Robert as brother of Richard[213]. [6]

1021 Estimated Dates for Mistresses and Children

When in 1035 Robert made his plans for a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, his son William, who became the Conqueror, was aged 7 (or 8).

According to Cawley, Deville suggests that Guillaume's birthdate can be fixed more precisely to mid-1027, taking into account that his father Robert occupied Falaise immediately after the death of his father Duke Richard II (23 Aug 1026), not wishing to accept the authority of his older brother Duke Richard III, but that Robert´s stay was short as the two brothers were reconciled soon after, it being reasonable to suppose that Robert´s relationship with Guillaume's mother occurred soon after his arrival at Falaise. He succeeded his father in 1035 as GUILLAUME II Duke of Normandy. [6]

Some authorities suggest that both William and his sister Adelaide had the same mother, but most suggest different mothers. There is also a discrepancy as to whether Adelaide was born before or after William. Some sources refer to Adelaide as William's "uterine sister." The question of who her mother was seems to remain unsettled. Elisabeth Van Houts ['Les femmes dans l'histoire du duché de Normandie', Tabularia « Études », n° 2, 2002, (10 July 2002), p. 23, n. 22] makes the argument that Robert of Torigny in the GND II, p. 272 (one of three mentions in this volume of her being William's sister) calls her in this instance William's 'uterine' sister' (soror uterina) and is of the opinion this is a mistake similar to one he made regarding Richard II, Duke of Normandy and his paternal half-brother William, Count of Eu (calling them 'uterine' brothers). Based on this she concludes Adelaide was a daughter of Duke Robert by a different concubine. Kathleen Thompson ["Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale", Normandy and Its Neighbors, Brepols, (2011) p. 63] cites the same passage in GND as did Elisabeth Van Houts, specifically GND II, 270–2, but gives a different opinion. She noted that Robert de Torigni stated here she was the uterine sister of Duke William "so we might perhaps conclude that she shared both mother and father with the Conqueror." But as Torigni wrote a century after Adelaide's birth and in that same sentence in the GND made a genealogical error, she concludes that the identity of Adelaide's mother remains an open question. [2]

In 1021, Robert would have been 21 years old, and it is reasonable to imagine that he had a mistress during this period, lending credence to those who believe that Adelaide was born two or three years before William.

Cawley reports that Robert de Torigny names "Aeliz" as daughter of Duke Robert II "de alia concubina", different from Herleve. The name of Duke Robert's first mistress is not known. [6] Richardson simply reports, without stating which relationship was earlier, that by Arlette, or by an unknown mistress, Robert had an illegitimate daughter, Alice, Countess of Aumale. [3]

If this scenario is to be believed, and Herleve of Falaise remained well rooted in Falaise, then the question of whether there was an earlier mistress might be settled by whether Robert spent time in Falaise during the period 1021 to 1027.

Unfortunately, since Robert was neither Duke nor expected to become Duke during this period, his activities are less well documented than they might otherwise be.

1016 Engagement to Estrid Svensdatter

After Cnut's elevation to the throne of England (1016) , Cnut made an agreement with Richard II of Normandy that Cnut's sister Estrid Estrid was to marry Richard's son Robert. It is not known whether this marriage ever took place. Ralph Glaber in his Historiarum libri quinque [7] reported that an unnamed sister of Cnut married Robert, but Adam of Bremen reports a marriage of Estrid (calling her Margaret) to Richard II, indicating that after he went to Jerusalem she married Ulf, yet although Richard never went to Jerusalem Robert did. [8]

Norman sources do not mention such a marriage for either duke, and historians disagree whether it was a short-lived marriage, a betrothal, or a result of confusion.[9]

Since there is no indication the marriage ever took place, it should be disconnected on WikiTree.Day-1904 10:17, 13 May 2017 (EDT)

A "Possible spouse or intended spouse (of Robert or his father Richard II): Estrid/Margaret, daughter of Svend I, king of Denmark. Rodulfus Glaber, 108, states that Robert was married to a sister (not named) of king Canute, and that he was father of William by a concubine. Adam of Bremen [Book 2, chapter liv(52), p. 92], who obtained some of his information from king Svend II (son of Estrid by her marriage to jarl Ulf), stated that before her marriage to Ulf, Svend's mother Margaret (called Estrid in other sources) was married to Richard (II) of Normandy, father of Robert, but then goes on to show confusion by saying that Margaret married Ulf after Richard set out for Jurusalem, where he died. (Richard did not set out for Jeruslaem, but Robert did.) Unfortunately, there are significant problems with the statement that Estrid married either Richard or Robert, discussed in detail by Douglas [Douglas (1950), 292-5]. Nevertheless, despite the problems, it is difficult to believe that there is nothing to these two similar, and apparently independent, accounts of two near contemporary writers. Given the difficulty of reconciling a marriage with the evidence, a possible betrothal of Estrid to either Robert or Richard II would seem like a reasonable alternative." [5]

1026 Herleve of Falaise

Richardson reports that Robert had a mistress was named Arlette or Herleve who was the mother of one illegitimate son, William the Conqueror. [3]

Given William's birth in 1027, Robert had a relationship with Herleve of Falaise, probably at Falaise, in 1026. Herleve (or Arlette) was the daughter of Fulbert de Falaise and his wife Doda (Duwa). "Guillaume of Jumièges names “Herleva Fulberti cubicularii ducis filia” as the mother of “Willelmus...ex concubina Roberti ducis...natus“. [6]

The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the mother of Duke Guillaume as "filia…Herbertus pelliparius et uxor eius Doda sive Duwa", specifying that they were from Chaumont in the diocese of Liège but moved to Falaise, adding that others said they were from Huy, and refers to her marriage to "Herlewino de Vado comitis". [6]

1026 Count of Hiemois

When his father Duke Richard II died in 1026, Robert was made count of Hiémois under his elder brother Richard III as his share of the inheritance. Less than a year later, Richard III had died and Robert became duke of Normandy. Having set off on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem early in 1035, Robert died at Nicaea during the return trip, and was succeeded by his young son William, later known as William "the Conqueror". [5]

1026 Reign and Death of Robert's brother, Richard III

In August 1026, Richard II, father of Richard and Robert, died. Guillaume of Jumièges records that Richard II Duke of Normandy, on his deathbed, confirmed the succession of his son Richard and granted “comitatui Oximensi” [Hiesmes] to “Robertum fratrem eius”. [6]

Before he died, Richard II had decided his elder son Richard III would succeed him while his second son Robert would become Count of Hiémois. [10]

Richard III became duke, but very soon afterwards Robert rebelled against his brother, was subsequently defeated and forced to swear fealty to his older brother Richard.[11] When Richard III died a year later, it was reported by William of Malmesbury [12] that Robert died of poisoning. Although nothing could be proved, Robert had the most to gain. [13]

However it was common in Normandy during the eleventh century to attribute any sudden and unexplained death to poisoning. [14]

1027 Reign of Robert

Robert the Magnificent (French: le Magnifique)[a] (22 June 1000 – 1–3 July 1035), was the Duke of Normandy from 1027 until his death in 1035.[2]

Robert succeeded his brother in 1027 as ROBERT II Duke of Normandy. Orderic Vitalis records that “Ricardus juvenis filius eius” succeeded after the death of “Ricardo Gunnoride” for one and a half years, when he was succeeded by “Rotbertus frater eius” who ruled for seven and a half years[216]. [6]

The conflicts initiated by Robert against his brother Richard continued to destabilize Normandy after his accession, and his reign was characterized by private wars between neighboring barons and conflicts with domains ruled by close relatives, such as his uncle, Robert, Archbishop of Rouen and Count of Evreux or his cousin Hugo III d'Ivry, Bishop of Bayeux. [2]

During this period Robert also seized a number of church properties belonging to the Abbey of Fecamp. [15]

Robert also engaged in conflicts outside of Normandy. He contributed to the restoration of Henry King of France to his throne and received from the gratitude of the monarch, the Vexin, as an addition to his patrimonial domains.

Robert intervened in the civil war in Flanders between Baldwin V, Count of Flanders and his father Baldwin IV whom the younger Baldwin had driven out of Flanders.[16]

Robert's cousins, the Athelings Edward and Alfred, sons of his aunt Emma of Normandy and Athelred, King of England had been living at the Norman Court and at one point Robert, on their behalf, attempted to mount an invasion of England but was prevented in doing so, it was said, by unfavorable winds, [8]that scattered and sank much of the fleet. Robert made a safe landing in Guernsey. Gesta Normannorum Ducum stated that King Cnut sent envoys to Duke Robert offering to settle half the Kingdom of England on Edward and Alfred. After postponing the naval invasion he chose to also postpone the decision until after he returned from Jerusalem. [17]

1035 The Church and his pilgrimage

Cawley reports that Robert's attitude towards the Church had changed noticeably certainly since his reinstating his uncle's position as Archbishop of Rouen. [18] In his attempt to reconcile his differences with the Church he restored property that he or his vassals had confiscated, and by 1034 had returned all the properties he had earlier taken from the abbey of Fecamp. [19]

1035 Pilgrimage to Jerusalem

William of Malmesbury records that Robert went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1035. The date of Robert´s departure can be estimated more precisely from his charter dated 13 Jan 1035 which announces his forthcoming departure for Jerusalem. [6]

After making his illegitimate son William his heir, he set out on pilgrimage to Jerusalem. [20]

1036 Death on Return from Jerusalem

Robert died 3 July 1035, aged 35, in Nicaea.[2] Robert I, Duke of Normandy, set off on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem early in 1035, and subsequently died at Nicaea 1-3 July 1035. [3]

According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Robert died while on pilgrimage in 1031. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert died in 1035 “apud Nicæam urbem Bithyniæ”. The Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris records that "Robertus…Ricardi filius" was buried "rediens de Hierusalem…in Nica civitate". [6]

Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Robert died from illness “VI Non Jul” in 1035 at “Nicenam” on his return from pilgrimage to Jerusalem and was buried “in basilica sanctæ Mariæ...intra mœnia Nicenæ civitatis”[222]. [6]

Cawley reports that Robert of Normandy died in Nicaea (Nikaia) 22 July 1035. He was buried in the basilca of St. Mary, there, and transferred in 1187 to Apulia. [6]

According to the Gesta Normannorum Ducum he travelled by way of Constantinople, reached Jerusalem, fell seriously ill and died on the return journey at Nicaea on 2 July 1035. [20] His son William, aged about eight, succeeded him. [21]

1035 Death and Burial

He died at Nicaea between 1 and 3 Juy, 1035 and was buried there. [5]

His father was Richard II, d. 23 August 1026, duke of Normandy and his mother was Judith de Rennes, d. 28 June 1017, daughter of Conan I of Brittany. [5]

1036 Marriage of Herleve to Herluin

Cawley reports that Herleve, mother of William, married ([after 1035]) Herluin de Conteville. [6] Orderic Vitalis records that “Herluinus...de Contavilla” married “Herlevam Rodberti ducis concubinam”. [6] Guillaume of Jumieges also reported that after Duke Robert died “Herluinus...miles” married her by whom he had “duos filios Odonem et Robertum”[228]. [6]

In Richardson's account, however, Herleve married Herluin de Conteville, Vicomte, seigneur of Conteville about 1030, prior to Robert's death. [3]

1086 Reburial

According to the historian William of Malmesbury, around 1086 William sent a mission to Constantinople and Nicaea, charging it with bringing his father's body back to be buried in Normandy. Permission was granted, but, having travelled as far as Apulia (Italy) on the return journey, the envoys learned that William himself had meanwhile died. They then decided to re-inter Robert's body in Italy.

William of Malmesbury recounts that his remains were disinterred from Nikaia on the orders of his son, but interred in Apulia on their way back to France after the messenger learnt of the death of William I King of England[226]. [6]

According to the historian William of Malmesbury, decades later his son William sent a mission to Constantinople and Nicaea, charging it with bringing his father's body back to Normandy for burial. [22]

Permission was granted, but, having travelled as far as Apulia (Italy) on the return journey, the envoys learned that William himself had meanwhile died.[22] They then decided to re-inter Robert's body in Italy. [22]

Issue

Documented Children

  1. Guillaume, who became William the Conqueror, was born 1027 in Normandy the illegitimate son of Robert, Duke of Normandy, and his mistress, Arlette (or Herleve), daughter of Fulbert of Falaise, [3] Cawley reports that William's mother was the second mistress, and that he was born in the Château de Falaise, Normandy [1027/28]-Rouen, Prioré de Saint-Gervais 9 Sep 1087, bur Caen, Abbé de Saint-Etienne). Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Roberto Duce...Willelmum filium suum” was born “apud Falesiam”[236]. [6] William's birth date is estimated from William of Malmesbury, according to whom Guillaume was born of a concubine and was seven years old when his father left for Jerusalem, and Orderic Vitalis, who states that he was eight years old at the time. [6] By his mistress, Herleva of Falaise, [23] he was father of:

William the Conqueror (c. 1028–1087). [24]

  1. Adelais or Alice, de Lens, Countess of Aumale, an illegitimate daughter of Herleva or an unknown mistress.[3] The only chronicler to explicitly address the issue, Robert of Torigny, contradicts himself, once indicating that she had a distinct mother from William, elsewhere stating that they shared the same mother. This daughter, Adelaide of Normandy (1030-c. 1083), married three times: to Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu, Lambert II, Count of Lens, and Odo II of Champagne.

Cawley reports that she retained the title Comtesse d'Aumâle after her first marriage. Her second marriage is deduced from the same charter of Saint-Martin d´Auchy which also names “Judita comitissa domine supradicte filia”[233]. Orderic Vitalis records that King William I granted "comitatum Hildernessæ" to "Odoni...Campaniensi nepoti Theobaldi comitis" who had married "sororem...regis filiam...Rodberti ducis"[234]. William I King of England donated various properties to the abbey of La Trinité de Caen, including "burgum de Hulmo" with the consent of "Adelisa amita mea…cujus hereditas erat sed et comitissa A. de Albamarla…in vita sua", by charter dated 1082[235]. m firstly ENGUERRAND [II] Comte de Montreuil, son of HUGUES de Ponthieu Comte de Montreuil & his wife Berthe d'Aumâle (-killed in battle Château d'Arques 25 Oct [1053]). m secondly ([1053/54]) LAMBERT de Boulogne Comte de Lens, son of EUSTACHE [I] Comte de Boulogne & his wife Mathilde de Louvain (-killed in battle Phalampin 1054). m thirdly ([1060]) EUDES III Comte de Troyes et d'Aumâle, son of ETIENNE I Comte de Troyes [Blois] & his wife Adela --- (-after 1118). [6]Wikitree currently reports her born in Falaise Castle 1035. This is problematic because she may well have been born earlier than William in 1027. Birth at Falaise Castle suggests the belief that Herleva was her mother, but in 1035 Herleva was becoming married to Herluin.

William

Partner:

Herleva, daughter of Fulbert. [5]

Children:

by Herleva: [GND vi, 11(12) (vol 2, pp. 80-1, mother not named); GND (Orderic) vii, (3) (vol. 2, pp. 96-7, naming Herleva as mother); Chr. Rob. Tor., s.a. 1026, MGH SS 6: 478 (naming Herleva as mother)]

MALE William I "the Conqueror", b. prob. 1027×8, d. 9 September 1087, duke of Normandy 1035-1087, king of England, 1066-1087.

GND = Guillaume de Jumièges, Gesta Normannorum Ducum, as edited in Elisabeth van Houts, ed. & trans., The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni, 2 vols., (Oxford, 1992). Citation is by book and chapter of Guillaume's work, with the volume and page number of the edition by van Houts in parentheses. Unless otherwise stated, references are to Guillaume's work, and not to later additions by such authors as Orderic Vitalis and Robert de Torigny.

GND (Orderic) = Additions to GND by Orderic Vitalis.

GND (Rob. Tor.) = Additions to GND by Robert de Torigny.

Adelaide

illegitimate child, mother unknown (but not Herleva): [5]

FEMALE Adelaide, m (1) Enguerrand II, count of Ponthieu, (2) Lambert, seigneur of Lens, (3) Eudes, count of Champagne. Stapleton (1836), 350-1, quotes part of a charter mentioning count (consul) Enguerrand (son of Berta, daughter of Guerinfridus, who built the castle of Aumâle), his wife Addelidis, daughter of king William of England, countess Addelidis, daughter of Enguerrand and Addelidis aforesaid, and countess Judith (daughter of Addelidis the mother). Robert de Torigny, in his additions to GND, states in one place that Stephen, count of Aumâle, was son of count Eudes of Champagne and a nephew of William the elder through a sister ("... Stephanus, comes de Albamarla filius Odonis comitis de Campania, Willelmi autem regis Anglorum senioris ex sorore nepos ...") [GND (Rob. Tor.), viii, 3 (vol. 2, pp. 206-7)], and in another that Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon, had three daughters by his wife, a daughter of the countess of Aumâle, who had been a "uterine sister" of William ("Habuit enim idem Walleus tres filias ex uxore sua, filia comitisse de Albamarla, que comitissa fuit soror uterina Willelmi regis Anglorum senioris.") [GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 37 (vol. 2, pp. 270-3)]. The Chronicle of Robert de Torigny states that Robert's daughter "Aeliz" (not strictly the same name as "Adelaide", but often confused with it, both then and now) was by a concubine other than Herleva ("... Robertus frater eius, qui genuit Willermum de Herleva non sponsata, qui postea Angliam conquisivit, et unam filiam nomine Aeliz de alia concubina.") [s.a. 1026, MGH SS 6, 478]. The name of Adelaide's second husband Lambert comes from two Scottish sources. The "Life of Waltheof" states that Waltheof's wife Judith was a niece of William the Conqueror, a daughter of count Lambert of Lens, and a sister of count Stephen of Aumâle [translation of relevant passage given in ESSH 2: 33], and the Chronicle of the Canons of Huntingdon also states that Judith was a daughter of count Lambert of Lens [ESSH 2: 28]. [5]

The above stated evidence combines to give a consistent picture for Adelaide's three marriages listed above. The evidence presents some minor problems, but they do not seem to be serious. Stapleton (1836) argued that count Eudes was married to the younger Adelaide, daughter of the present Adelaide by her first husband Enguerrand, but the evidence is consistent in making the younger Adelaide, Judith, and Stephen the children of Adelaide by three different husbands (although no single source gives all of this information). The most significant contradiction would appear to be Robert de Torigny's statement in one place that Adelaide was "soror uterina" to William, but, as pointed out Elisabeth van Houts, Robert uses the same adjective "uterine" in one other place to refer to duke Richard II of Normandy and his paternal half-brother count William of Eu [GND (Rob. Tor.), vii, (20) (vol. 2, pp. 128-8); van Houts (2002), 23, n. 22]. Thus, the evidence clearly suggests that William and Adelaide had different mothers. (Geoffrey White had left the matter of Adelaide's maternity open in his discussion of William's siblings in The Complete Peerage [White].) Another problem concerns Adelaide's second marriage to count Lambert of Lens. Morton & Muntz (1972), 127, stating that the Life of Waltheof was the only source for the second marriage (but erroneously, as the Chronicle of the Canons of Huntingdon also mentions Lambert as Judith's father: see the previous paragraph), and noting that Lambert died less than a year after Enguerrand, suggested that no such marriage took place. However, Barlow (1999), xlv, pointed out that Enguerrand was excommunicated in 1049 for "incest" (evidently because Enguerrand's sister had been married to Adelaide's uncle), leaving open the possibility that Lambert had married Adelaide before 1053. [5]

[Note: Adelaide and her daughter Judith were the subject of numerous discussions on the soc.genealogy.medieval/GEN-MEDIEVAL internet newsgroup/mailing list in March 2003, of which postings by Chris Phillips (pointing out the van Houts paper and the Tabularia website), Douglas Richardson (pointing out that the Life of Waltheof was not the only source naming Lambert as the father of Judith) and Nathaniel Taylor (pointing out the discussion in Carmen de Hastingae Proelio) were particularly helpful.] [5]

Other Supposed Children Currently LInked on Wikitree

  1. Felicia (Normandy) Normandie, b. 1017, Normandy
  2. Lesceline (Normandy) de Normandie, born 1026 Caen, however Caen was founded by William the Conqueror, to which he moved his Normandy capital from Rouen.

Undocumented children no longer linked on Wikitree

  1. Godiva (Normandie) de Mercia, born Nourmandie 1076

Henry Project Bibliography

Adam of Bremen = Francis J. Tschan, trans., Adam of Bremen - History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen (New York, 1959).

Barlow (1999) = The Carmen de Hastingae Proelio of Guy bishop of Amiens (Oxford, 1999).

Chr. Rob. Tor. = L. C. Bethemann, ed., Roberti de Monte Chronica (a continuation by Robert de Torigny of the chronicle of Sigebert de Gembloux), MGH SS 6, 476-535.

CP = The Complete Peerage.

Douglas (1950) = David Douglas, "Some Problems of Early Norman Chronology", English Historical Review 65 (1950), 289-303.

ESSH = Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records]


MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Morton & Muntz (1972) = The Carmen de Hastingae Proelio of Guy bishop of Amiens (Oxford, 1972).

RHF = Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.

Rodulfus Glaber = Maurice Prou, ed., Raoul Glaber - les cinq livres de ses histoires (900-1044) (Paris, 1886).

Stapleton (1836) = Thomas Stapleton, "Observations on the History of Adeliza, sister of William the Conqueror", Archaeologia 26 (1836), 349-357.

van Houts (2002) = Elisabeth van Houts, "Les femmes dans l'histoire du duché de Normandie (Women in the history of ducal Normandy)", Tabularia «Études» nº 2, 2002, p. 19-34, 10 juillet 2002.

White = Geoffrey H. White, "The Conqueror's brothers and sisters", in CP 12, Appendix K (pp. 30-4 in second pagination at end of volume).

Sources

  1. Douglas Richardson. Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Kimball G Everingham, Editor. Salt Lake City, Utah: By the Author, 2013. Volume V, p. 485-486
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Kimball G. Everingham, ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: 2013. Volume 5, page 487
  4. See François Neveux, A Brief History of the Normans, trans. Howard Curtis (Constable & Robinson, Ltd. London, 2008), p. 97 & n. 5. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 "Robert the Magnificent." The Henry Project. Compiled by Stewart Baldwin. First uploaded 8 February 2004 http://home.earthlink.net/~henryproject/hproject/prov/rober000.htm. Accessed May 131, 2017. jhd
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 Charles Cawley. "Robert." Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. Medieval Lands Database. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMANDY.htm. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  7. M. K. Lawson, Cnut: England's Viking King (2004), p. 105. and CdB Guided Tours Roman and Norman Notes. Cited by Wikipedia. Estrid Svendsdater. [1] Accessed May 13, 2017. jhd
  8. 8.0 8.1 Pauline Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith (1997), p. 23; cf. p. 235. Cited by Wikipedia. Estrid Svendsdater. [2] Accessed May 13, 2017. jhd
  9. Wikipedia. Estrid Svendsdater. [3] Accessed May 13, 2017. jhd
  10. The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumieges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, Vol. II, Books V-VIII, ed. Elisabeth M.C. Van Houts (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995), pp. 40–1. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  11. David Crouch, The Normans, The History of a Dynasty (Hambledon Continuum, London, New York, 2002), p. 46. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  12. Gesta regum Anglorum, Vol. i, pp. 211-12) and Wace (pt. iii, II, 3212–14) Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  13. David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1964), p. 32. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  14. See: David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1964), p. 411. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  15. David Crouch, The Normans, The History of a Dynasty (Hambledon Continuum, London, New York, 2002), p. 49. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  16. David Crouch, The Normans, The History of a Dynasty (Hambledon Continuum, London, New York, 2002), pp. 49–50. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  17. The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, Ed. & Trans. Elizabeth M.C. Van Houts, Vol. I (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992), pp. 78–80. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  18. François Neveux. A Brief History of The Normans (Constable & Robbinson, Ltd, London, 2008), p. 102Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  19. François Neveux. A Brief History of The Normans (Constable & Robbinson, Ltd, London, 2008), p. 103. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  20. 20.0 20.1 The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, Ed. & Trans. Elizabeth M.C. Van Houts, Vol. I (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992), pp. 80-5. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  21. François Neveux, A Brief History of the Normans, trans. Howard Curtis (Constable & Robinson, Ltd. London, 2008), p. 110. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 William M. Aird, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy: C. 1050–1134 (Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK, 2008), p. 159 n. 38 Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  23. The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, Ed. & Trans. Elizabeth M.C. Van Houts, Vol. I (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992), p. lxxv. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd
  24. David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1964), p. 15, passim. Cited by Wikipedia. Robert I, Duke of Normandy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I%2C_Duke_of_Normandy. Accessed May 5, 2017. jhd

See also:

  • Burke, John. The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, With Their Descendants, Sovereigns and Subjects. London, England: E. Churton, 1848-1851.
  • Souv. Gen., France 22, Tab. 32, 48
  • Dukes of Normandy, France 5, p. 115-27
  • Keiser und Koenig Hist., Gen. Hist. 25, pt 1, p. 100-01
  • Burke's Peerage, Eng. P, 1949, pref. p. 252

In fiction

* Lomer, Mary, "Robert of Normandy". A biographical novel cum adventure/romance. London: Headline, 1991.

Acknowledgements

This page has been edited according to Style Standards adopted January 2014. Descriptions of imported gedcoms for this profile are under the Changes tab.



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Memories: 1

On 6 Jan 2012 Paul Lee wrote:

from wikipedia

Robert the Magnificent[1] (French: le Magnifique) (22 June 1000 – 3 July 1035), also called Robert the Devil (French: le Diable), was the Duke of Normandy from 1027 until his death. Owing to uncertainty over the numbering of the Dukes of Normandy he is usually called Robert I, but sometimes Robert II with his ancestor Rollo as Robert I. He was the son of Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I of Rennes. He was the father of William the Conqueror.

When his father died, his elder brother Richard succeeded, whilst he became Count of Hiémois. When Richard died a year later, there were great suspicions that Robert had Richard murdered, hence his other nickname, "the Devil". He is sometimes identified with the legendary Robert the Devil.[citation needed]

Robert aided King Henry I of France against Henry's rebellious brother and mother, and for his help he was given the territory of the Vexin (1032). He also intervened in the affairs of Flanders, supported his cousin Edward the Confessor, who was then in exile at Robert's court, and sponsored monastic reform in Normandy.

By his mistress, Herleva of Falaise, he was father of the future William I of England (1028–1087). He also had an illegitimate daughter, but the only chronicler to explicitly address the issue, Robert of Torigny, contradicts himself, once indicating that she had a distinct mother from William, elsewhere stating that they shared the same mother. This daughter, Adelaide of Normandy (1030 – c. 1083), married three times: to Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu, Lambert II, Count of Lens, and Odo II of Champagne.

After making his illegitimate son William his heir, he set out on pilgrimage to Jerusalem. According to the Gesta Normannorum Ducum he travelled by way of Constantinople, reached Jerusalem, and died on the return journey at Nicaea on 2 July 1035. Some sources attribute his death to poison and date it to 1 or 3 July. His son William, aged about eight, succeeded him.

According to the historian William of Malmesbury, William sent a mission to Constantinople and Nicaea, charging it with bringing his father's body back to be buried in Normandy. Permission was granted, but, having travelled as far as Apulia (Italy) on the return journey, the envoys learned that William himself had meanwhile died. They then decided to re-inter Robert's body in Italy.



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Images: 3
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Collaboration

On 5 May 2017 at 22:48 GMT John Atkinson wrote:

There is some information about Estrid as his wife on Stewart Baldwin's, The Henry Project page for Robert I http://home.earthlink.net/~henryproject/hproject/prov/rober000.htm I also think the exact date of birth for Robert is probably very unlikely, and even a DOB of 1000 needs careful consideration (and sources), given some other elements of the biography seem to be based on that date.

On 5 May 2017 at 08:10 GMT Jack Day wrote:

To profile managers -- I'm working on the profiles of a line of descent from Charlemagne to William the Conqueror and will be doing some edits on narrative and sourcing for this profile. Let me know if there are particular concerns I should pay attention to! Thanks.

On 26 Jan 2016 at 01:29 GMT RJ Horace wrote:

Wikipedia has removed the bit about "also called Robert the Devil" and added this footnote:

"He was also, although erroneously, said to have been called 'Robert the Devil' (French: le Diable). Robert I was never known by the nickname 'the devil' in his lifetime. 'Robert the Devil' was a fictional character who was confused with Robert I, Duke of Normandy sometime near the end of the Middle Ages."

On 25 Dec 2015 at 02:05 GMT Maryann (Thompson) Hurt wrote:

Hi Profile Managers

There are two Memories attached to this profile containing the same info, one attributes the info to WikiPedia, so I'm deleting the other Memory.

Maryann

On 16 Oct 2015 at 21:07 GMT Bob Wood wrote:

Of Normandy-116 and Normandie-43 appear to represent the same person because: names, dates, places match

On 25 Jul 2015 at 12:02 GMT Maryann (Thompson) Hurt wrote:

Hi

Why is his second spouse private?

On 23 Sep 2014 at 19:59 GMT Kyle Dane wrote:

UNKNOWN-2791 and Normandie-43 appear to represent the same person because: UNKNOWN-2791 also looks like an unnecessary duplicate

On 23 Sep 2014 at 19:57 GMT Kyle Dane wrote:

Duke De Normandy-1 and Normandie-43 appear to represent the same person because: Duke_De_Normandy-1 looks like an unnecessary duplicate.

On 16 Apr 2014 at 04:56 GMT Sheri (Petersen) Sturm wrote:

According to thepeerage.com, this Robert is not the child fo Judith de Bretagne. The link has been removed.

On 6 Feb 2012 at 18:41 GMT Roger Travis Jr. wrote:

Hi; This profile should have white privacy. Please change it as soon as convenient, so we can carry out the expedited merges outlined here:

http://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Historically-significant_ancestors



Robert I is 27 degrees from Kevin Bacon, 26 degrees from Cindy Lesure, 28 degrees from Bonnie Thornton and 24 degrees from Queen Elizabeth II Windsor on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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