William II "Rufus"
|King of the English
2 Aug 1100 – 1 Dec 1135
||Henry I (Normandie) of England was a member of aristocracy in the British Isles.|
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Henry "Beauclerc" I, King of England.
He was sometimes referred to as "Beauclerc" in French, implying that he was well educated.
William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders. He had two older brothers, William Rufus and Robert Curthose, who stood before him in the lines of inheritance for England and Normandy.
Married twice, and had at least 2 legitimate children, both of whom have descendants.
There is no final and exact list of all mistresses and illegitimate children but Henry is thought to have had more than any English king since. Complete Peerage 2nd ed. has a special appendix by G H White about the subject which has been criticized in more recent publications.
All major modern sources agree about the following (note that fitz Roy simply meant "son of the King" and inheritable family surnames were rare in this period):
Also see illegitimate children in mistresses of Henry I.
The death and burial of King Henry I. (Royal Tombs of Medieval England) Henry I died at the royal hunting lodge of Lyons-la-Foret near Rouen on 2 December 1135, reportedly poisoned by a dish of lampreys. The king's organs were buried in the church of Sainte-Marse des Pres, near Rouen, a Benedictine house founded by his mother, Matilda. Henry's body was embalmed and wrapped in bull's hide to preserve it for burial in England. Bad weather delayed the return of the body to England and the king's remains were kept at Saint-Etienne in Caen, his father's burial place, for the best part of a month. This is the first recorded example of a divided English royal burial at a distant location. Henry was finally buried before the high altar in the abbey church at Reading on 5 January 1136 with full honors, unlike his father and brother.
Additional detail notes on death and burial of King Henry I. (Royal Tombs of Medieval England) Henry I died of food poisoning at Lyons-la-Foret, near Rouen. The king's brains, eyes and viscera (entrails) were buried at Rouen, and the body was wrapped in bull's hide to preserve it for burial at Reading Abbey. This was the first recorded example of English royal embalmment and the process appears to have been spectacularly unsuccessful.
Grave location of Henry I. (Royal Tombs of Medieval England) Reading Abbey was progressively demolished following the Dissolution (of the monasteries). The ruins of the south transept survive and stand to the south-east of the Forbury Gardens. A large cross in the Forbury Gardens commemorates Henry I's burial, but it stands on the site of the south nave aisle. The abbey choir, the most likely site of Henry I's grave, stood in the area now lying between the Forbury Day Centre and Reading Jail.
On 30 Oct 2018 Gabrielle Estrada wrote:
On 2 May 2018 Catherine (West) West-Dossett-Davies wrote:
On 4 Dec 2011 Roger Wehr wrote:
In 1067, William the Conqueror assumed control of the Marlborough area and set about building a wooden motte and bailey castle, sited on the prehistoric mound. This was completed in around 1100. Stone was used to strengthen the castle in around 1175. The first written record of Marlborough dates from the Domesday Book in 1087. William also established a mint in Marlborough, which coined the William I and the early William II silver pennies. The coins display the name of the town as Maerlebi or Maerleber.
He also established the neighbouring Savernake Forest as a favourite Royal hunting ground and Marlborough Castle became a Royal residence. Henry I observed Easter here in 1110. Henry II stayed at Marlborough Castle in talks with the King of Scotland.
Later Henry III was also married here. Henry III held Parliament here, in 1267, when the Statute of Marlborough was passed (this gave rights and privileges to small land owners and limited the right of the King to take possession of land). This seven-hundred-year-old law states that no-one shall seize his neighbour's goods for alleged wrong without permission of the Court. Apart from Charters, it is the oldest statute in English law which has not yet been repealed.
On 3 Dec 2011 Roger Wehr wrote:
On 3 Dec 2011 Roger Wehr wrote:
Born: September, 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire Parents: William I and Matilda of Flanders Relation to Elizabeth II: 24th great-grandfather House of: Normandy Ascended to the throne: August 3, 1100 aged 31 years Crowned: August 6, 1100 at Westminster Abbey Married: (1) Edith (Matilda), Daughter of Malcolm III (2) Adelicia, Daughter of Geoffrey VII, count of Louvain Children: Daughter Matilda, son William, and reputedly around 20 illegitimate children Died: December 2, 1135 at St Denis le Fermont, Normandy, aged 67 years, 2 months, and 29 days Buried at: Reading Reigned for: 35 years, 3 months, and 28 days Succeeded by: his nephew Stephen
King of England from 1100. Youngest son of William the Conqueror, he succeeded his brother William II. He won the support of the Saxons by granting them a charter and marrying a Saxon princess, Edith, daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland. She was known as Matilda after her marriage, a name more acceptable to the Norman Barons than her Saxon name Edith. Henry's daughter was also called Matilda. He was an able administrator, and established a professional bureaucracy and a system of travelling judges. He was called Beauclerc because of his scholarly interests.
In 1101 his elder brother Robert, Duke of Normandy, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. However, after the Treaty of Alton, Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King and returned to Normandy. They fought again in 1106 at Battle of Tinchebrai at which Robert was captured and Henry became Duke of Normandy as well as King of England. Henry's only legitimate son and heir, William, was drowned in 1120 in wreck of the White Ship and Henry tried to settle the succession on his daughter Matilda and her son Henry (later Henry II). However, Matilda widow of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, was unpopular when she re-married into the House of Anjou rival of the House of Normandy. The throne was taken by Henry's nephew Stephen, who, towards the end of his reign, agreed to adopt Matilda's son as his heir.
Henry died in Normandy in 1135 of food poisoning according to legend from eating a 'surfeit of Lampreys' (an eel type fish).
On 12 Nov 2011 Roger Wehr wrote:
Henry's reign established deep roots for the Anglo-Norman realm, in part through his dynastic (and personal) choice of a Scottish princess who represented the lineage of Edmund Ironside for queen. His succession was hurriedly confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade, and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties, which linked his rule of law to the Anglo-Saxon tradition, forming a basis for subsequent limitations to the rights of English kings and presaged Magna Carta, which subjected the king to law.
The rest of Henry's reign, a period of peace and prosperity in England and Normandy, was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury. He used itinerant officials to curb the abuses of power at the local and regional level that had characterized William Rufus' unpopular reign, garnering the praise of the monkish chroniclers. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a descendant of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign and the struggles with Anselm over the English investiture controversy (1103-07), but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship. His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda, but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.
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