Wolfgang Pauli was a Nobel-prize winning physicist, born in Austria-Hungary, made a German citizen by annexation, a U.S. citizen by naturalization, and eventually a Swiss citizen when he move there in the late 1940s. His parents were chemist Wolfgang Joseph Pauli and Bertha Camilla Schultz. He was married twice, to Käthe Margarethe Deppner and Franziska Bertram (m. April 4, 1934), but had no children.
He is best known for the Pauli exclusion principle. At a high school level of detail, it says that no two electrons can have the same spin and occupy the same orbital at the same time. I'll leave the details of fermions and quantum numbers for elsewhere. Of course his work was not limited to this. It included important contributions to quantum mechanics, postulation of the neutrino, and much more.
A small quote from a longer Wikipedia entry: "Pauli was born in Vienna to a chemist Wolfgang Joseph Pauli (né Wolf Pascheles, 1869–1955) and his wife Bertha Camilla Schütz; his sister was Hertha Pauli, the writer and actress. Pauli's middle name was given in honor of his godfather, physicist Ernst Mach."
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