Edward I Plantagenet
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Edward Plantagenet (abt. 1239 - 1307)

Edward (Edward I) "Longshanks, King of England" Plantagenet
Born about in Westminster, Middlesex, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married 18 Oct 1254 (to 1290) in Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castilemap
Husband of — married 10 Sep 1299 (to 1307) in Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, Englandmap
Descendants descendants
Died at about age 68 in Burgh by Sands, Cumberland, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 6 Jan 2010
This page has been accessed 164,292 times.
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Preceded by
Henry III
Edward I, King of England
1272 - 1307
Succeeded by
Edward II

Contents

Biography

Edward I "Longshanks" of England (b. 17 Jun 1239 Westminster Palace - d. 07 Jul 1307 Burgh-on-Sands near Carlisle).[1]

a.k.a Edward of Westminster.[2]
House of Anjou: Plantagenet Branch[1]

Titles

  • 16 Nov 1272 - 07 Jul 1307: King of England, but not crowned at Westminster Abbey until 19 August 1274.[1]
  • 1284: King of Wales[1]
  • 1290: King of Man[1]
  • 1296: King of Scotland[1]
  • Lord of Ireland[1]
  • 1254: Duke of Gascony; Earl of Chester.[1]

Marriage

m.1 (Oct 1254 Las Huelgas, Castile) Eleanor of Castile, dau. of Ferdinand III of Castile and his second wife, Jeanne, Countess of Ponthieu. Issue: 16[1]

  • (dau) "died young" (b/d.1255; bur. Bordeaux)
  • Katherine "died young" (b/d. 1264)
  • Joan "died young" (b. 1265; bur. bef. 07 Sep 1265 Westminster Abbey).
  • John (b. Jun/Jul 10, 1266 Windsor or Kenilworth Castle - d. 01 or 03 Aug 1271 Wallingford in the custody of his great uncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall; bur. Westminster Abbey)
  • Henry (b. 13 Jul 13 1268 Windsor Castle - d.14 Oct 1274 Merton, Surrey, or Guildford Castle)
  • Eleanor (b. 1269 - d. 12 Oct 1298).
m. 20 Sep 1293 Count Henry III of Bar
  • (dau) ____ "died young" (b. 1271 Acre, Palestine - d. 28 May or 5 Sep 1271)
  • Joan of Acre. (b. 1272 Acre Spring - d. 23 Apr 1307 at her manor in Clare, Suffolk; bur. priory of Austin friars, Clare, Suffolk).
m.1 Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford
m.2 Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer.
  • Alphonso (b. 24 Nov 1273 Bayonne or Bordeaux- d. 14 or 19 Aug 1284 Windsor Castle; bur.Westminster Abbey)
  • Margaret (b. 11 Sep 1275 Windsor Castle - d. 1318; bur. Collegiate Church of St. Gudule, Brussels)
m. John II of Brabant
  • Berengaria (sometimes called Berenice) (b. 01 May 1276 Kempton Palace, Surrey - d. 27 Jun 1278; bur. Westminster Abbey)
  • Mary (b. 11 Mar or 22 Apr 1278 Windsor Castle - d. 08 July 1332), nun in Amesbury, Wiltshire
  • Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (b. Aug 1282 Rhuddlan Castle - d. c. 05 May 1316 in childbirth at Quendon, Essex; bur. Walden Abbey, Essex).
m.1 John I, Count of Holland
m.2 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex
  • Edward II of England, "Edward of Caernarvon" (b. 25 Apr 1284 Caernarvon Castle, Wales - d. 21 Sep 1327 probably Berkeley Castle; bur. Gloucester Cathedral).
m. Isabella of France.


m.2 (10 Sep 1299 Canterbury Cathedral) Marguerite de France (b. c 1279-d. 1318), dau. of Philippe III [Capet] of France. Issue: 3.[1]

  • Thomas of Brotherton, earl of Norfolk (b. 01 Jun 1300 Brotherton, Yorkshire - d. 04 Aug/20 Sep 1338; bur: abbey of Bury St Edmunds).
m.1 Alice Hayles
m.2 Mary Brewes
  • Edmund of Woodstock (b. 05 Aug 1301 Woodstock Palace, Oxon - d. 19 Mar 1330, executed by Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer following overthrow of Edward II.
m. Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell.
  • Eleanor (b. 04 May 1306 - d. 1311) his youngest child named after his first wife Eleanor of Castile.

Mistress

  • Illegitimate issue: 1 possible[1]

Burial

"Edward I died at Burgh-on-Sands on 7 July 1307 on a campaign to Scotland. On 28 August, Edward of Caernarvon finally instructed English prelates to attend him in Northampton to discuss arrangements for his father's burial and his own coronation as Edward II.

The kings body lay in state in Waltham Abbey, the burial place of Harold II, before entering London. During the funeral procession between Holy Trinity, Aldgate, and Westminster the coffin was preceded by knights wearing the king's armor.

The coffin rested at St. Paul's and the Franciscan Church before arriving at Westminster on 27 October. The following day Edward was interred in the Confessor's Chapel to the west of the monument he commissioned for his father, Henry III, the exequies presided over by the bishops of Durham, Winchester and Lincoln.

The funeral was unrecorded, apart from a distribution of 100 marks to the poor. It was later claimed that Edward's heart, like his father's, was taken to the Angevin mausoleum at Fontevrault.

Edward's tomb was probably commissioned by Edward II or his second wife, Margaret of France, although it may have been instructed by Edward himself, who was sixty-seven years old when he died.

The 9 ft 7 in x 3 ft 7in tomb is a plain, Purbeck sarcophagus, formed by five slabs joined without mortar, with a Purbeck plinth. There is no effigy or tomb-chest decoration, and none was recorded.

Traces survive of the epitaph painted on the north side of the tomb during 1556-59 referring to Edward simply as the 'Hammer of the Scots': Edwardus Primus Scotorum Malleus. Pacum Serva 1308.

In 1774 Edward's tomb was opened revealing a 6ft 7in long Purbeck coffin, resting on rubble with a detailed description of his undisturbed appearance recorded that noted distinct facial marks thought to be battle scars."[3]

Timeline

1207b. 01 Oct 1207 Westminster
p. King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence
1217Fifth Crusade:
1217 - 1221: King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria, John of Brienne in command.
1228 Sixth Crusade:
1228-1229: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in command.
1248Seventh Crusade:
Louis IX of France in command.
1254m.1 OCT Eleanor, Infanta of Castile[1] (1241–1290). surviving issue:
  • Joan of Acre
  • Alphonso, Earl of Chester
  • Edward II, Invested with Wales and Ireland[1]
1256Welsh rebellion:

Llewelyn ap Gruffydd declares himself ruler of North Wales. Rebels against English.

1257Welsh rebellion put out.
1264-1265Second Barons War
Longshanks leads royalists. Simon de Montfort leads barons.
1264 Battle of Lewes
14 MAY: Henry defeated. Taken prisoner by Montfort's army. "Longshanks" escapes.
1270Eighth Crusade: Louis IX in command.
1271-1272 Ninth Crusade: Edward leads Ninth Crusade. Brings Eleanor.
1272Henry III dies 16 NOV. Buried at Westminster Abbey.
1274Arrives in England 02 AUG[1]
Coronation: 19 AUG[1]
1278Builds four castles at Wales:
  • Flint
  • Rhuddlan
  • Builth
  • Aberystwyth
1282Builds more castles to control Wales:
  • Caernarfon
  • Conwy
  • Harlech
  • Beaumaris
1284Statute of Rhuddlan: Wales annexed.
1290Queen Eleanor dies. Edwards erects the twelve famed crosses.
1292Balliol Crowned: John de Balliol crowned King of Scotland at Scone.
1296

APRIL: Balliol renounces homage. Edward responds with Berwick invasion. Battle of Dunbar breaks out. Edinburgh Castle is captured.

10 JUL: Balliol abdicates. Goes into permanent exile.

Edward steals Stone of Scone. Puts it in the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey. Stays there for 700 years.[1]

1296 First War of Scottish Independence begins. William "Braveheart" Wallace leads rebellion.
1298Battle of Falkirk: Wallace defeated but escapes. Later caught.
1299Second Marriage: SEP: m. Marguerite of France.
1305Wallace Executed: Drawn and quartered in London, a martyred Wallace ignites Scottish nationalism.
1306

Robert the Bruce (1274-1329) rebels. Crowned king of Scotland.

Edward tries to invade. Dies on the way.

130707 JUL: Edward I dies at Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland.
  • Buried at Westminster Abbey
  • Edward II takes the throne.

Research Notes

Not sure which source this is from but cites primary sources that should be investigated.

Footnote 1: "Faedera, i. 300. Edward... born at Westminster on the 17th (Paris, ed. Luard, iii. 539) or 18th (Annales Monastici, i. 112, 257; ii. 88, 1212, &c.) of June in the year 1239, and named after Edward the Confessor. He was knighted at Burgos 30 Dec. 1254 by Alfonso. See Add. Charter 24,804

For descent from William the Conqueror see: Richardson, D. (2013). Royal Ancestry, I:197 (m. Eleanor of Castile), 420, 479, II:118, III:32; Duffy, M. (2003). Royal Tombs of Medieval England, pp. 96-99

Sources

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 Ashley, Mike, A Brief History of British Kings and Queens (Philadelphia, PA: Running Press Book Publishers, 2008.) pp. 164-173.
  2. Wikipedia contributors, "Edward I of England," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_I_of_England&oldid=958194015 (accessed February 2014).
  3. Duffy, M., Royal Tombs of Medieval England (2003). pp. 96-99

See also:

  • Richardson, D. (2013). Royal Ancestry, I:63-73 ENGLAND 7.
  • Vincent, J.A.C (1893). Lancashire Lay Subsidies. The Record Societ, XXVII, p. 28,
  • "Valerie Bertinelli." Who Do You Think You Are (S5 E4). TLC. 13 Aug 2014.




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Comments: 36

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Project Members,

Maybe I'm missing something here, but under Edward I timeline, the first entry is the date of birth of his Father. Edward's date of birth is not mentioned, but it reads like it is his.

It's just not clear that the first few entries are not about Edward, but are providing a historical context of what happened before he was born in 1239.

Shouldn't there be an entry for Edward's birth in the timeline? I am not Pre-1500 certified and not a project member, so I cannot fix it myself.

Ken

posted by Ken Parman
Thank you for not commenting on your relationship to Edward I on his profile. Instead, why not put this nifty relationship sticker on your own profile to show how you are related to him?

Jo, England Project Managed Profiles Team Coordinator

edit: typo

posted by Jo Fitz-Henry
edited by Jo Fitz-Henry
Great video regarding Edward's life:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBd3-GI2jaQ

posted by Barbara Lannigan

This week's featured connections are from the War of the Roses: Edward I is 7 degrees from Margaret England, 5 degrees from Edmund Beaufort, 6 degrees from Margaret Stanley, 6 degrees from John Butler, 6 degrees from Henry VI of England, 6 degrees from Louis XI de France, 7 degrees from Isabel of Clarence, 6 degrees from Edward IV of York, 7 degrees from Thomas Fitzgerald, 6 degrees from Richard III of England, 7 degrees from Henry Stafford and 9 degrees from Perkin Warbeck on our single family tree. Login to see how you relate to 33 million family members.