Edward I Plantagenet
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Edward Plantagenet (abt. 1239 - 1307)

Edward (Edward I) "Longshanks, King of England" Plantagenet
Born about in Westminster, Middlesex, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married 18 Oct 1254 (to 1290) in Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castilemap
Husband of — married 10 Sep 1299 (to 1307) in Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Englandmap
Descendants descendants
Died in Burgh by Sands, Cumberland, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 6 Jan 2010
This page has been accessed 94,928 times.
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Preceded by
Henry III
Edward I, King of England
16 Nov 1272 – 7 Jul 1307
Succeeded by
Edward II

Contents

Biography

Edward I "Longshanks" of England (b. 17 Jun 1239 Westminster Palace - d. 07 Jul 1307 Burgh-on-Sands near Carlisle).[1]

a.k.a Edward of Westminster.[2]
House of Anjou: Plantagenet Branch[1]

Titles

  • 16 Nov 1272 - 07 Jul 1307: King of England, but not crowned at Westminster Abbey until 19 August 1274.[1]
  • 1284: King of Wales[1]
  • 1290: King of Man[1]
  • 1296: King of Scotland[1]
  • Lord of Ireland[1]
  • 1254: Duke of Gascony; Earl of Chester.[1]

Marriage

m.1 (Oct 1254 Las Huelgas, Castile) Eleanor of Castile, dau. of Ferdinand III of Castile and his second wife, Jeanne, Countess of Ponthieu. Issue: 16[1]

  • (dau) "died young" (b/d.1255; bur. Bordeaux)
  • Katherine "died young" (b/d. 1264)
  • Joan "died young" (b. 1265; bur. bef. 07 Sep 1265 Westminster Abbey).
  • John (b. Jun/Jul 10, 1266 Windsor or Kenilworth Castle - d. 01 or 03 Aug 1271 Wallingford in the custody of his great uncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall; bur. Westminster Abbey)
  • Henry (b. 13 Jul 13 1268 Windsor Castle - d.14 Oct 1274 Merton, Surrey, or Guildford Castle)
  • Eleanor (b. 1269 - d. 12 Oct 1298).
m. 20 Sep 1293 Count Henry III of Bar
  • (dau) ____ "died young" (b. 1271 Acre, Palestine - d. 28 May or 5 Sep 1271)
  • Joan of Acre. (b. 1272 Acre Spring - d. 23 Apr 1307 at her manor in Clare, Suffolk; bur. priory of Austin friars, Clare, Suffolk).
m.1 Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford
m.2 Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer.
  • Alphonso (b. 24 Nov 1273 Bayonne or Bordeaux- d. 14 or 19 Aug 1284 Windsor Castle; bur.Westminster Abbey)
  • Margaret (b. 11 Sep 1275 Windsor Castle - d. 1318; bur. Collegiate Church of St. Gudule, Brussels)
m. John II of Brabant
  • Berengaria (sometimes called Berenice) (b. 01 May 1276 Kempton Palace, Surrey - d. 27 Jun 1278; bur. Westminster Abbey)
  • Mary (b. 11 Mar or 22 Apr 1278 Windsor Castle - d. 08 July 1332), nun in Amesbury, Wiltshire
  • Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (b. Aug 1282 Rhuddlan Castle - d. c. 05 May 1316 in childbirth at Quendon, Essex; bur. Walden Abbey, Essex).
m.1 John I, Count of Holland
m.2 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex
  • Edward II of England, "Edward of Caernarvon" (b. 25 Apr 1284 Caernarvon Castle, Wales - d. 21 Sep 1327 probably Berkeley Castle; bur. Gloucester Cathedral).
m. Isabella of France.


m.2 (10 Sep 1299 Canterbury Cathedral) Marguerite de France (b. c 1279-d. 1318), dau. of Philippe III [Capet] of France. Issue: 3.[1]

  • Thomas of Brotherton, earl of Norfolk (b. 01 Jun 1300 Brotherton, Yorkshire - d. 04 Aug/20 Sep 1338; bur: abbey of Bury St Edmunds).
m.1 Alice Hayles
m.2 Mary Brewes
  • Edmund of Woodstock (b. 05 Aug 1301 Woodstock Palace, Oxon - d. 19 Mar 1330, executed by Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer following overthrow of Edward II.
m. Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell.
  • Eleanor (b. 04 May 1306 - d. 1311) his youngest child named after his first wife Eleanor of Castile.

Mistress

  • Illegitimate issue: 1 possible[1]

Burial

"Edward I died at Burgh-on-Sands on 7 July 1307 on a campaign to Scotland. On 28 August, Edward of Caernarvon finally instructed English prelates to attend him in Northampton to discuss arrangements for his father's burial and his own coronation as Edward II.

The kings body lay in state in Waltham Abbey, the burial place of Harold II, before entering London. During the funeral procession between Holy Trinity, Aldgate, and Westminster the coffin was preceded by knights wearing the king's armor.

The coffin rested at St. Paul's and the Franciscan Church before arriving at Westminster on 27 October. The following day Edward was interred in the Confessor's Chapel to the west of the monument he commissioned for his father, Henry III, the exequies presided over by the bishops of Durham, Winchester and Lincoln.

The funeral was unrecorded, apart from a distribution of 100 marks to the poor. It was later claimed that Edward's heart, like his father's, was taken to the Angevin mausoleum at Fontevrault.

Edward's tomb was probably commissioned by Edward II or his second wife, Margaret of France, although it may have been instructed by Edward himself, who was sixty-seven years old when he died.

The 9 ft 7 in x 3 ft 7in tomb is a plain, Purbeck sarcophagus, formed by five slabs joined without mortar, with a Purbeck plinth. There is no effigy or tomb-chest decoration, and none was recorded.

Traces survive of the epitaph painted on the north side of the tomb during 1556-59 referring to Edward simply as the 'Hammer of the Scots': Edwardus Primus Scotorum Malleus. Pacum Serva 1308.

In 1774 Edward's tomb was opened revealing a 6ft 7in long Purbeck coffin, resting on rubble with a detailed description of his undisturbed appearance recorded that noted distinct facial marks thought to be battle scars."[3]

Timeline

1207b. 01 Oct 1207 Westminster
p. King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence
1217Fifth Crusade:
1217 - 1221: King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria, John of Brienne in command.
1228 Sixth Crusade:
1228-1229: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in command.
1248Seventh Crusade:
Louis IX of France in command.
1254m.1 OCT Eleanor, Infanta of Castile[1] (1241–1290). surviving issue:
  • Joan of Acre
  • Alphonso, Earl of Chester
  • Edward II, Invested with Wales and Ireland[1]
1256Welsh Rebellion: Welsh Revolt:

Llewelyn ap Gruffydd declares himself ruler of North Wales. Rebels against English.

1257Welsh rebellion put out.
1264-1265Second Barons War
Longshanks leads royalists. Simon de Montfort leads barons.
1264 Battle of Lewes
14 MAY: Henry defeated. Taken prisoner by Montfort's army. "Longshanks" escapes.
1270Eighth Crusade: Louis IX in command.
1271-1272 Ninth Crusade: Edward leads Ninth Crusade. Brings Eleanor.
1272Henry III dies 16 NOV. Buried at Westminster Abbey.
1274Arrives in England 02 AUG[1]
Coronation: 19 AUG[1]
1278Builds four castles at Wales:
  • Flint
  • Rhuddlan
  • Builth
  • Aberystwyth
1282Builds more castles to control Wales:
  • Caernarfon
  • Conwy
  • Harlech
  • Beaumaris
1284Statute of Rhuddlan: Wales annexed.
1290Queen Eleanor dies. Edwards erects the twelve famed crosses.
1292Balliol Crowned: John de Balliol crowned King of Scotland at Scone.
1296

APRIL: Balliol renounces homage. Edward responds with Berwick invasion. Battle of Dunbar breaks out. Edinburgh Castle is captured.

10 JUL: Balliol abdicates. Goes into permanent exile.

Edward steals Stone of Scone. Puts it in the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey. Stays there for 700 years.[1]

1296 First War of Scottish Independence begins. William "Braveheart" Wallace leads rebellion.
1298Battle of Falkirk: Wallace defeated but escapes. Later caught.
1299Second Marriage: SEP: m. Marguerite of France.
1305Wallace Executed: Drawn and quartered in London, a martyred Wallace ignites Scottish nationalism.
1306

Robert the Bruce (1274-1329) rebels. Crowned king of Scotland.

Edward tries to invade. Dies on the way.

130707 JUL: Edward I dies at Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland.
  • Buried at Westminster Abbey
  • Edward II takes the throne.
Notables Project
Edward I Plantagenet is Notable.

Research Notes

Not sure which source this is from but cites primary sources that should be investigated.

Footnote 1: "Faedera, i. 300. Edward... born at Westminster on the 17th (Paris, ed. Luard, iii. 539) or 18th (Annales Monastici, i. 112, 257; ii. 88, 1212, &c.) of June in the year 1239, and named after Edward the Confessor. He was knighted at Burgos 30 Dec. 1254 by Alfonso. See Add. Charter 24,804

For descent from William the Conqueror see: Richardson, D. (2013). Royal Ancestry, I:197 (m. Eleanor of Castile), 420, 479, II:118, III:32; Duffy, M. (2003). Royal Tombs of Medieval England, pp. 96-99

Sources

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 Ashley, Mike, A Brief History of British Kings and Queens (Philadelphia, PA: Running Press Book Publishers, 2008.) pp. 164-173.
  2. Wikipedia contributors, "Edward I of England," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_I_of_England&oldid=958194015 (accessed February 2014).
  3. Duffy, M., Royal Tombs of Medieval England (2003). pp. 96-99

See also:

  • Richardson, D. (2013). Royal Ancestry, I:63-73 ENGLAND 7.
  • Vincent, J.A.C (1893). Lancashire Lay Subsidies. The Record Societ, XXVII, p. 28,
  • "Valerie Bertinelli." Who Do You Think You Are (S5 E4). TLC. 13 Aug 2014.


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DNA Connections
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Comments: 18

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Great video regarding Edward's life:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBd3-GI2jaQ

posted by Barbara Lannigan
Any thought to adding the nickname "Hammer of the Scots" as described in the bio?
posted by SJ Baty
I have came across an interesting record held in The National Archives in Kew. Here's the description:

"Alice de Valence, lady of Offaly and Balliol, to Edward I: the birth of a son to her."

The date is circa 1277-1291. Reference #SC 1/21/33.

Here is an interesting excerpt from another source regarding Alice & Gilbert de Clare's marriage along with a possible relation with Edward:

"Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan , also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that had now succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They were married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten-years-old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry , but the marriage floundered. Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267; allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward ."

I wonder what happened to the son?

Thought it was an interesting fact to share. Hopefully there is someone who can fill in some more details.

Alice's WikiTree profile: https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Lusignan-82

posted by Barbara Lannigan
edited by Barbara Lannigan
Nice timeline but it starts with the birth of Edward's father, followed by other events before the birth of Edward and fails to include the birth of Edward.
posted by Thom Anderson
I believe adjustments need to be made to the location of death. There was no County Cumbria until 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972. At that time the historic County Cumberland's former area was combined with Westmorland and parts of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire to form the new county of Cumbria. The timeline in the biography correctly states "Cumberland," but the BMD data shows "Cumbria," which wouldn't exist until almost 670 years later.
posted by Edison Williams
It is doubtful that Richard III of York was a descendant of Longshanks.

His Y DNA hg is G2, it is thought that he or an ancestor was an NPE.

Very possible, since stability of the kingdom required a male heir, and royal impotence was often concealed..

And other reasons as well.

Article here: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/mar/25/richard-iii-dna-tests-uncover-evidence-of-further-royal-scandal

posted by [Living Farrar]