Edward III (Plantagenet) of England

Edward (Plantagenet) of England (1312 - 1377)

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Edward (Edward III) "King of England" of England formerly Plantagenet
Born in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married in York Minster, York, Yorkshire, Englandmap
Descendants descendants
Died in Sheen (later Richmond) Palace, co. Surrey, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 12 Sep 2010 | Last significant change: 14 Nov 2018
18:32: Joy (Fowler) Jernigan posted a message on the page for Edward III (Plantagenet) of England. [Thank Joy for this]
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Categories: Hundred Years' War | Battle of Halidon Hill | Battle of Stanhope Park | Windsor, Berkshire | Royalty | 14th Century | This Day In History June 21 | This Day In History November 13 | Knights Companion of the Garter | House of Plantagenet.


Preceded by
Edward II
King of England
01 Feb 1327 – 21 Jun 1377
Succeeded by
Richard II

The House of Plantagenet crest.
Edward III (Plantagenet) of England is a member of the House of Plantagenet.
Edward III, King of England

Contents

Biography

Name and Titles

Edward III, King of England [1] [2]
Son of Edward II, king of England and Isabella of France.
Edward of Windsor - as he was known early in life prior to being crowned King of England.
King of England - 1327 to 1377.
King of France - claimed from 1340 to 1360
Duke of Aquitaine - 1325 to 1360
Lord of Aquitaine - 1360 to 1377.
Lord of Ireland
Knight of the Garter - Founder Sovereign of the Order of the Garter in 1348.
Earl of Chester - Created on 24 November 1312; this title was merged into the crown in 1327. [3]
King of England - Forced from power by his own wife Isabel and Roger Mortimer, Edward II abdicated the throne of England in favor of his son Edward of Windsor on 21 January 1327. Edward III was proclaimed King of England on 25 January 1327, and crowned at Westminster Abbey on 1 February 1327. His mother Isabella with Roger de Mortimer served as Regent of England in his place until Edward usurped the regents (and executed Roger Mortimer) on 19 October 1330.
King of France - Edward III first styled himself King of France in 1337 when Phillip VI King of France attempted to reclaim the English Duchy of Aquitaine. His claim was based on his right from his maternal grandfather Phillip IV, King of France. In 1340, he formally proclaimed himself King France, thus precipitating the 100 Years War. In 1360, a temporary peace was reached with the Treaty_of_Brétigny where Edward III renounced his claim to French throne in exchange for sovereignty over Aquitaine and other lands in France.
Duke of Aquitaine - The Duchy of Aquitaine, with fealty owed to the French king, was held by the kings of England from the time of Henry I. Reluctant to personally present himself and swear allegiance to the king of France, Edward II named his oldest son Edward of Windsor as Duke of Aquitaine on 10 September 1325. [4] When sovereignty was granted to Aquitaine by the Treaty_of_Brétigny in 1360, the title duke was dropped in favor of Lord of Aquitaine.

Birth

Born: 13 November 1312 at Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. [1]

Marriage and Children

Married: Phillipa of Hainault, daughter of Guillame III, Count of Hainault, on 24 January 1327/8 at York Minster in York, Yorkshire, England. [2] She was likely born in early (January or February) 1314. [5] She died on 15 August 1369 at Windsor Castle. [5]
Papal dispensation for the marriage granted on 30 August 1327, they being related in the 3rd degree of kindred. [2]
Children of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault: [1] [2]
  1. Edward of Woodstock, Princes of Wales. Commonly known as The Black Prince. Born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock, Oxfordshire.
  2. Isabel of Woodstock. Born on 16 June 1332 at Woodstock, Oxfordshire.
  3. Joan of the Tower. Born about February 1335 at the Tower of London, London, England.
  4. William of Hatfield. Born on 13 February 1337 at Hatfield near Doncaster, Yorkshire. Died before 8 July 1337.
  5. Lionel of Antwerp, K.G. Earl of Ulster. Born on 29 November 1338 at Antwerp in Brabant.
  6. John of Gaunt, Duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster. Born in March 1340 at Ghent in Flanders.
  7. Edmund of Langley, K.G. Duke of York. Born on 5 June 1341 at King's Langley.
  8. Blanche of the Tower. Born March 1342 at the Tower of London. Died March 1342 at the Tower of London.
  9. Mary of Waltham. Born on 10 October 1344 at Bishops Waltham, Hampshire.
  10. Margaret of Windsor. Born on 20 July 1346 at Windsor Castle, Berkshire.
  11. William of Windsor. Born shortly before 24 June 1348 at Windsor Castle, Berkshire. Buried at Westminster Abbey about 5 September 1348.
  12. Thomas of Woodstock, K.G. Duke of Gloucester. Born 7 January 13545 at Woodstock, Oxfordshire.
Mistress: Edward III had a well-known relationship with Alice de Salisbury, a lady in the household of Queen Philippa. Her ancestry is unknown but she has been shown to be a sister of a John de Salisbury. She was the wife of John de Perrers who was dead by 18 December 1362. Edward III's relationship with Alice is believed to have begun by 1364.
Children believed to be by Edward III and Alice de Salisbury: [2]
  1. John de Surrey (or Southerey).
  2. Joan de Surrey (or Southerey).
Controversy regarding children: A 2014 Y-DNA study compared the DNA of Edward III’s descendants, namely Richard III and 5 men descended from Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester. [6] Richard III descended in the male line from Edward’s son Edmund of Langley, and Henry Somerset descended in the male line from Edward’s son John of Gaunt. The Y-DNA did not match. The press sensationalized the announcement to suggest that Edward III might not be the father of Edmund of Langley or John of Gaunt, or even of his other children. [7]
However, this is an extremely poor analysis of the data. Certainly, there was a non-paternal event(s) somewhere in the line down to his gr-gr—grandson Richard III, or somewhere in the 24 to 26 generation descent in the Somerset lines. It is not possible to tell where the non-paternal event occurred from this study. At this point, all the children of Philippa of Hainault must be presumed to be the children of Edward III, King of England.

Death

Died: 21 June 1377 at Sheen Palace (now Richmond), co. Surrey, England. [2]
Will: He left a will dated 8 October 1376.
Buried: 5 July 1377 at Westminster Abbey in London, England.
From Royal Tombs of Medieval England: "Edward III died at Sheen Palace on 21 June 1377. The king's will dated the previous year instructed his burial at Westminster in the manner befitting a king. Edward's will endowed a chantry for himself, and his wife, Philippa of Hainault, at his father's foundation at King's Langley, but not at Westminster. His eldest surviving son, John of Gaunt, the keeper of the privy seal, was one of his executors. Edward was buried at Westminster only two weeks after his death, on July 5, dressed in formal robes and regalia. Edward's tomb stands immediately south of the Confessor's shrine in the bay adjacent to the monument for his wife, Philippa of Hainault, and has a gilt-bronze effigy and Purbeck marble tomb-chest with gilt-bronze dynastic figures, and heraldic wall paneling. Contemporary records claimed the king's body was interred beside Philippa, but the locations of the royal coffins has never been identified. The position of Edward's tomb was almost certainly reserved by the king himself, given his instructions for the arrangement of Westminster burials made as early as 1339. Work on the monument, though, appears to have been delayed for several years. In 1386 a ship was carrying Purbeck marble 'for the king's tomb' (with its sailors exempted from impressment) suggesting that tomb work was then only at a preliminary stage. The tomb-chest at least must have been completed by 1395 when it was used as a model for the tomb of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia." [8]

Notes

* From Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson [9]
In 1333 he reversed Isabel's and Mortimer's policy of peace with Scotland by invading it, reviving the ambitions of his grandfather, King Edward I. Edward III's main foreign preoccupation, however, from 1337 onwards was France, whose king, Philippe VI, then declared his Duchy of Gascony forfeited. Edward formally assumed the title of King of France in right of his mother in Jan. 1340. In June 1340 the English fleet defeated the French navy in the Battle of Sluys, off the coast of Flanders. This victory gave the English control of the English Channel for the next generation. Near continuous war ensued with some respite from truces. The army, commanded by King Edward III and his son, Edward, defeated a larger French force at the battle of Crecy in August 1346, the victory owning to superior tactics and to the invention of the longbow, which decimated the mounted French knights. The financial burden of the war roused resentment, which was assuaged somewhat when Edward negotiated the main war taxes with the representatives of the shires and the borough communities sitting in parliament. He aroused enthusiasm for the war by engaging the chivalrous interests of the nobles in it and stirring up distrust and hatred of the French.
His son, Edward, won a great victory at Poitiers in Sept. 1356, capturing the French king, Jean II. In 1360 King Edward concluded the treaty of Bretigny, giving up his claim to the throne of France, receiving in turn the duchy of Aquitaine, together with Calais, Guines, Poitou, and Ponthieu in full sovereignty.
In the war of 1369-75, Charles V, King of France, won back from Edward what had been conceded in 1360. By 1375, when a truce was made at Bruges, English possessions in France had been reduced to Calais, a coastal strip of territory from Bordeaux to Boulogne, and parts of the Brittany coast.

Sources

Footnotes and citations:
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Cawley, Medieval Lands: Edward III
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Richardson, Royal Ancestry, vol. 1 p. 80-97
  3. Cokayne, Complete Peerage, vol. III p. 170
  4. Cokayne, Complete Peerage, vol. III p. 170
  5. 5.0 5.1 Cawley, Medieval Lands: Phillipa of Hainault
  6. King, Nature Communications
  7. e.g. Knapton, S. (2014, December 02). Richard III DNA shows British Royal family may not have royal bloodline. Telegraph. www.telegraph.co.uk (Note Elizabeth of York's claim was through Lionel of Antwerp, not John of Gaunt.)
  8. Duffy, Royal Tombs, p. 146-151.
  9. Richardson, Royal Ancestry, vol. 1 p. 80
Source list:
  • Cokayne, George Edward. The Complete Peerage, vol. III: Canonteign-Cutts. (original: 1913; Microprint reprint 14 volumes in 6, Great Britain:Sutton publishing, 2000): III, 170.
  • Duffy, Mark. Royal Tombs of Medieval England. (2003):146-151.
  • King, Turi E., et. al. Identification of the Remains of King Richard III, in Nature Communicaions (Published online: 02 December 2014). Online Journal LINK
  • Richardson, Douglas. Royal Ancestry: A Study In Colonial And Medieval Families, in 5 vols. (Salt Lake City, Utah, 2013). See vol. 1 p., 80; vol. III p. 427, 666; vol. V. p. 197.
See also:

British Aristocracy
Edward III (Plantagenet) of England was a member of aristocracy in the British Isles.
Join: British Royals and Aristocrats Project
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DNA Connections
It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Edward III by comparing test results with other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA. Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree:

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Images: 9
Bruges Garter Book: Edward III, KG
Bruges Garter Book: Edward III, KG

Plantagenet Edwards: Edward III of England & Edward the Black Prince KG of Woodstock
Plantagenet Edwards: Edward III of England & Edward the Black Prince KG of Woodstock

Royal Arms: Edward III
Royal Arms: Edward III

Effigy of Edward III
Effigy of Edward III

Edward III of England Coat of Arms By Rs-nourse via Wikimedia Commons
Edward III of England Coat of Arms By Rs-nourse via Wikimedia Commons

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On 14 Nov 2018 at 18:32 GMT Joy (Fowler) Jernigan wrote:

Edward III and I are first cousins 21 times removed and are related thru our closest common ancestor Eleanore of Castile.

On 4 Oct 2018 at 06:44 GMT Martin Allen wrote:

Please can we have the inappropriate England category removed.

On 13 Sep 2018 at 15:58 GMT Pamela Smith wrote:

My 3rd cousin 24 ×'s removed both descendants of my 26th great grandmother Isabelle (Angoulême) de Lusignan

On 31 Aug 2018 at 13:38 GMT E J (Narramore) Gooden wrote:

Edward is my 20th great grandfather.

On 22 Aug 2018 at 16:41 GMT Andrea Smith wrote:

My 19x great-grandfather!

On 10 Jun 2018 at 19:27 GMT Doris (Conkright) Miller wrote:

Edward III's son Thomas is marked as an uncertain relationship - is there a question about his paternity? Or is it just an oversight?

Thanks.

On 14 Apr 2018 at 20:23 GMT Barbara (McCleary) Berman wrote:

According to Wikitree relationship finder, Edward was my 20th gr. grandfather through the Radcliffe’s, the Canbys (Quaker, Bucks Co PA),and the Gillingham's (Quaker, PA). My grandmother was a Gillingham.

On 2 Apr 2018 at 06:46 GMT Gillian Thomas wrote:

Hi PMs, do you have any concerns about the England location category being amended to Windsor, Berkshire? Please contact me if you would like to discuss that change. Many thanks. Gillian

On 23 Dec 2017 at 11:15 GMT Michael Griffiths wrote:

Greetings,

We are 8th cousins 19 times removed, we are both descendants of Richard (Clare) de Clare.

Regards, Michael Griffiths, New Zealand

On 21 Dec 2017 at 14:46 GMT Dona Floyd wrote:

I am related to Edward Plantagenet of England and Eleanor Plantagenet, Queen of France through my Williams, Morgan/Cromwell/Tudors. My DNA is matched to Roger Williams, b. 1700's, founder of Rhode Island, and his family goes back to Morgan Williams/Cromwell as well as the Percy family, Dukes of Northumberland. My daughter's DNA, Sheryl (Sanders) Bolton's DNA is matched to the Bourbons, Capet, Sanders Family. O am now working on the Dukes of Norhumberland, Percys.

Dona Floyd Kimmons Floyd-2256

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Edward III is 26 degrees from Rosa Parks, 24 degrees from Anne Tichborne and 15 degrees from Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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