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1. Introduction; 2. Y-DNA Confirmation; 3. mtDNA Confirmation;
Testing just one direct line descendant is not enough. Y chromosome (Y-DNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing for genetic genealogy require that distant direct line cousins "match" each other in order to confirm they descend from their most recent direct line ancestor in a genealogical time frame.
What constitutes a match; Number of markers;
Two or more males should match on about 90% of their STR markers or closer in order to confirm a shared direct paternal line ancestor in a genealogical time frame. Generally speaking, the closer the direct paternal line relationship, the closer the match, but there are exceptions. For example a father and son may match on 36 out of 37 markers and the father may match his direct paternal line 5th cousin on 37 out of 37 markers. Another exception is RecLOH http://www.isogg.org/wiki/RecLOH
How common or rare a haplotype and surname is has bearing on the number of markers necessary to constitute a match. For example, two males with the Smith surname with a common haplotype such as the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Western_Atlantic_Modal_Haplotype may both need to compare on at least 37 markers.
What constitutes a match; Level of testing;
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