Project: Poland/Resource Library
Part of the Poland Project
Divisions of Poland
|Poland Project |
Flags and Images
|Poland Coat of Arms|
Administratively, Poland is divided into areas called Voivodeship, Powiat, and Gmina.
"A województwo ([vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ]; plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries. The term "województwo" has been in use since the 14th century, and is commonly translated in English as "province." The word "województwo" is also rendered as "voivodeship" (/ˈvɔɪˌvoʊdˌʃɪp/) or a variant spelling."
"A powiat (Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries. The term "powiat" is most often translated into English as "county". A powiat is part of a larger unit, the voivodeship (Polish województwo) or province."
"A powiat is further subdivided into units known as "gmina," (Polish plural: gminy) in English, often referred to as "communes" or "municipalities." Major towns and cities, however, function as separate counties in their own right, without subdivision into gminy. They are termed "city counties" (powiaty grodzkie or, more formally, miasta na prawach powiatu) and have roughly the same status as former county boroughs in the UK. The other type of powiaty are termed "land counties" (powiaty ziemskie)."
"Please Note: different powiaty and gminy sometimes have the same name in Polish, since the names of different towns may have the same derived adjective. For example, the counties with their seats at Grodzisk Wielkopolski and Grodzisk Mazowiecki are both called powiat grodziski, and those with seats at Brzeg and Brzesko are both called powiat brzeski. In English this ambiguity either does not occur (Brzeg County and Brzesko County) or can be avoided by using the complete name of the seat (Grodzisk Wielkopolski County and Grodzisk Mazowiecki County)."
- Capital and largest city: Warsaw 52°13′N 21°02′E
- Official language: Polish
- Regional language: Kashubian
- Minority languages: Belarusian, Czech, Lithuanian, German, Slovak, Russian, Ukrainian, Yiddish
- Government Type: Parliamentary republic
- Current President: Andrzej Duda
- Current Prime minister: Beata Szydło
- Mazurek Dąbrowskiego, Polish National Anthem
- Area: 312,679 sq km (120,696.41 sq mi)
- Water (%): 3.07
- Population estimate (2014): 8,483,957
- Gross Domestic Product: (PPP): 2016 estimate, Total: $1.051 trillion
- Currency: Złoty (PLN)
- Poland's Official Website
- Directory of Cities, Towns, and Regions in Poland- gives region information, geographical coordinates, names of cities, towns and other areas, climate information, weather, population, and local airport information.
- Christianization: 14 April 966
- Kingdom of Poland: 18 April 1025
- Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: 1 July 1569
- Partition of Poland: 24 October 1795
- Duchy of Warsaw: 22 July 1807
- Congress Poland: 9 June 1815
- Second Polish Republic Reconstitution of Poland: 11 November 1918
- Invasion of Poland, World War II: 1 September 1939
- Polish People's Republic (Communist Poland): 8 April 1945
- Republic of Poland: 13 September 1989
- Joined the European Union: 1 May 2004
- Administrative Divisions of Poland (in progress - contains history of voivodeship/województwa formation)
- Poland's History and Timeline
- Galician Research, Historical Perspectives - a perspective of Galicia, an area of Poland which was occupied by the Austro-Hungarian Empire between 1772-1918
- Education in Prussian Poland
- Dutch Populace in Greater Poland
- Translated Descriptions of Polish Villages and Provinces
- International Resources for Historic Research
- Ethnic Organizations for Historic Research
- Genealogy Indexer; 618,000 pages of historical directories (business, address, telephone, etc.)
- US States - Parish Histories
- The History of Poland
- The History of Poland During the Middle Ages
- Poland in World War II
- Haller's Army Recruitment Index; index of those recruited for the Polish Army in France (Armia Polska we Francyi), to fight for Poland's independence during World War I.
- Polish Soldiers Who Died in France; and index of Polish Soldiers who died during the Second World War and were buried in different cemeteries in France
- Polish War Graves in Scotland
- World War II Military Cemeteries - (in Polish)
- Polish Civil and Military History
- Hallers Army Index; the Polish Army in France
- Soldiers and Refugees of the Polish Insurrection of 1830-1831 - information on the Polish, Lithuanian and Russian refugees who fought in the Polish Revolution of 1830 - 1831, after which they emigrated to the United States rather that accept the “amnesty” offered by the Czar of Russia.
- Polish Military Bibliography - an excellent compilation of resources for researching Polish military history
- Keilce District Survivors, 1945
- Dachau Concentration Camp Records
- Residents of Auschwitz (Oshpitsin); Poland, 1919-1941(Ancestry Database Search)
- Holocaust Database, JewishGen Database
- Captured German Records; records include those from Buchenwald, Natzweiler, Mauthausen, Sandbostel, Bergen Belsen, Constanz, Gross Rosen, Sangerhausen; war criminal lists; transport lists from Berlin, Flossenburg, Natzweiller, Bavaria, Austria.
Poland and the United States
- Panna Maria, Texas; the first permanent Polish settlement in the United States.
- Photos From Panna Maria, taken by WikiTree Member Summer O.
- Polish Texans
- History of Panna Maria
- Polish in Pittsburgh, PA
- Polish Declarations of Admiration and Friendship for the United States
Geography/Maps of Poland
- Maps of Poland
- University of Texas, Polish Maps Library
- Geography and Maps; by Polish Roots foundation
- Polish City Maps; online searchable map down to 1:70,000. This site includes many maps for individual towns at a very detailed level.
- Map of Poland from 1921
- Map of Poland in 1939
- High Resolution maps of Poland; maps of the south-eastern corner of Poland, into Ukraine and the Slovak Republic. These maps were recently released for public use by the Headquarters of the Polish Army, Carthographic Division, Warsaw 1994.
- Polish Provinces of the Russian Empire, ca 1902
- Map of Neu-Ostpreußen in 1795-1807; which became part of the Russian Empire
- Poland Cities Listing
- Poland National Listings
- Posen, Map in 1910
- EcoRegions, Topography, Drainage
- Area and Boundaries
- Land and Natural Resources
Polish Government and Structure
- Voivodeship (similar to a province)
- Powiat (similar to a county or district; within a voivodeship) - current list of Powiat
- Gmina (a community or municipality; within a powiat)
- Places in Prussia & Pomerania - 1879; Contains, in German & Polish: Place Name, Language, County, Area, Region
- Polish Geographical Dictionary: Geographic Dictionary of the Former Kingdom of Poland and other Slavic Lands - published between 1880 to 1902; an excellent guide (translated to English) for identification of: former Polish provinces of Russia, the former Austrian province of Galicia, Belorussian provinces of the Russian Empire, and many areas in other Slavic and eastern European nations such as Russia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania. There is also limited information from provinces of Poznan, West Prussia, East Prussia, Silesia, and Pomerania.
- Culture of Poland
- Sociology of Poland; social classes,
- Social Life and Customs
- Polish Culture, by Polish Genealogical Society of America; includes sections on Polish customs, music, museums, and Wycinanki (Art of Polish Paper Cutouts).
- American Institute of Polish Culture
- Lenten Customs
- National Museum in Warsaw
- Pittsburgh Polish Aristocrats Orchestra
- The Polish Center of Discovery and Learning
- Polish Folkways in America
- Polish Museum of America
- Polish Museum in Rapperswil, Switzerland
- USC Polish Music Center
- Polish Singers Alliance of America
- Polish Songs
- Towarzystwo Genealogiczne Ziemi Częstochowskiej; Czestochowa Genealogical Society
- Śląskiego Towarzystwa Genealogicznego; Wroclaw
- Famous Polish Athletes
Polish Language Resources
- English-Polish Free Online Translator
- Reading Polish Handwritten Records Lessons, courtesy of FamilySearch; 3 lessons
- Polish Genealogical Word List
- Polish Language Help; alphabet, pronunciation guide, language characteristics, key words, numbers, dates and times, months, days of the week, times of day, general word lists
- Guide to Writing Letters to Poland; hints and help for those writing to request genealogical assistance in Poland
- Polish phonology
Polish Naming Conventions
Polish names consist of one or two given names, followed by a family name (surname). Polish surnames are hereditary and generally patrilineal (passed from the father to his children). Polish surnames are affected by gender endings; for example, with the family name of Kowalski, the male name would be written as Kowalski, while the female name is written as Kowalska.  If a wife takes a husband's surname which ends in -ski, her new surname will end in -ska.
Resources for Polish Names
- Behind the Names: Polish Names
- Polish Surname Meanings and Origins: Origins of Polish Last Names
- Map of Polish Names and Locations
- Alternate Surnames in Russian Poland
- English Equivalents of Foreign Given Names
- Poland's Name Days
- Polish Naming Customs
- Polish Names; Explanation
- Surnames of Polish Origin
- Hoffman, William F. Polish Surnames: Origins and Meanings. Chicago, Illinois: Polish Genealogical Society of America, 1997. (FHL book 943.8 D46h.)
- Bubak, Józef. Księga naszych imion (Book of Given Names). Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im, Ossoliński, 1993. (FHL book 943.8 D4b.)
Cemeteries in Poland
- Cemeteries in Poland
- Powązki Cemetery - the parents and siblings of Fryderyk (Frédéric) Chopin (the famous composer) are buried there.
- Powązki Cemetery Unofficial Website
- Powązki Cemetery on Find a Grave
- Pomeranian Cemeteries Database; very large list of cemeteries in the Pomeranian region; listings contain birth/death dates if available; records exist from the mid 1700s to present day
- Cemeteries & Funeral Homes; Index of Cemeteries and Funeral Homes in Poland
- Poland National - Cemetery Records
- Jewish Cemetery Listings (English and Polish)
- Scientia Pro; Publisher of the Polish Biographical Dictionary
- PosenPoznan; A website dedicated to capturing images of Poland; contains more than 1100 original photographs and vintage picture postcards; includes "everything from everyday scenes and military life to the streets and monuments of Posen and/or Poznań, from around 1890 through to the present day; and also many hundred old images of smaller locations in the wider Posen / Warthegau / Wielkopolska province."
- Everything Poland on Cyndi's list
- Family Search, Poland - (Most comprehensive)
- Foundation for East European Family History Studies
- Polish Genealogical Society of America
- Polish Genealogical Society of America, Research Links
- Polish Language Information
- Lonely Planet's Guide to Poland
- Internet Polish Genealogical Source
- Polish Roots.org
- Poznan Project - their mission is the transcription of 19th century marriage records from the historic Greater Poland (then Prussian Province of Poznan) into a searchable online database.
- Polish Gen Web
- Polish Origins
- FEEFHS, Poland Genealogy Resources
- The Polish Genealogy Project
- Poland, Wikimedia Commons
- Wikipedia, Poland
- The All Galicia Database
- Polish surnames
G2G Posts Related to Poland/Polish Genealogy
Records Search by Subject
Birth, Marriage, Death Records
- Geneszukacz wyszukiwarka nazwisk w bazach PTG: A service of Polish Genealogical Society (Polish Genealogical Association). Includes a parish registers indexing project, a public registers indexing project, Polish Declarations of Admiration and Friendship for the United States, the list of casualties of the Polish Army, killed in action or died from wounds from the years 1918-1920, and an index of soldiers of the Polish Legions from the years 1918-1920.
- Catholic Church Registers of Klein Tinz- Transcriptions of the Catholic church registers of Klein Tinz, Breslau, Silesia, Prussia from 1791 to 1900. The village is known today as Tyniec Maly, Poland. In English and German. Contains over 3,000 individual records.
- Poland, Warsaw Death Notices from Nasz Przeglad, 1923 & 1937-1938; via Ancestry.com
- Online Archives, Civil Parish Records
- Protestant Church Records in Nekla, 1819-1835; Nekla, Posen, Preussen - Evangelische Church Records 1819-1835. Nekla Evangelisch Church Records for BMD, 1818 - 1874. Also includes land registers for Nekla, Siedleczek, Gierlatowo, Chlapowo, and Barcyzna as well as some Bible Records, hymns, and photographs of area cemetery headstones.
- Szpejankowskich Family Portal; an excellent resource!! More than 70 parish church books from the "DobrinerLand" area of Poland (central Poland); records for marriages, births & deaths, from the 1700s to the late 1800s. Also has pictures, historical information about the area.
- Marriages in Plauschwarren, East Prussia: 1778-1802
- Polish-American Marriage Records; by Polish Genealogical Society of Connecticut and the Northeast, Inc.; records for Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Jersey City, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
- Marriage Index for Polish Parishes in Chicago through 1915
- Marriage at Sea, The Ships List index of marriages performed while in transit (1854-1972)
- Jedność-Polonia Death Notice Index Search, 1926-1946' from Maryland State Archives
- Dziennik Chicagoski Death Notice Index Search, 1890-1929; compilation of death notices appearing in the Dziennik Chicagoski, Chicago’s Polish daily newspaper, for the years 1890-1929
- Dziennik Chicagoski Death Notice Index Search 1930 – 1971; compilation of death notices appearing in the Dziennik Chicagoski, Chicago’s Polish daily newspaper, for the years 1930-1971
- Polish Family Information - $$
- PomGenBase; large database of records within the Pomeranian Voivodeship; Pomeranian Genealogical Association.
- Rzeszów Vital Records
- South Poland Catholic Records Microfilms
- Records from Lublin area (in polish, family name is Nazwisko)
- Warsaw and Praga Homeowner's Lists, from the years 1852, 1864, 1869, 1870, and 1897
- West Prussian Land Records
Polish Immigration and Emigration
- Immigration & Ships; contains immigration records of Polish citizens to different countries including the United States and Canada; passenger lists and documents; border crossings; information on the different passenger ships
- Allen Line Tourist’s Guide to Canada & US – circa 1880
- Immigration to America - extensive list of resources
- Information about British Home Children
- Immigrants to Canada: Hungarians, Croatians, Romanians, Slovaks and Czechs
- Ellis Island, New York Immigration Records
FamilySearch Polish Categories: Direct Links
- Poland on FamilySearch
- Poland Census Records, FamilySearch
- Church Directories
- Civil Registration
- Court Records
- Polish Public Directories
- Emigration and Immigration Records
- Compiled Genealogies
- Poland, Online Genealogy Records
- Land and Property Records
- Military Records
- Online Genealogy Records
- Polish Church Records
- Polish Civil Records
- Population Info
- Probate Records
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