Project: Quebecois

Categories: Portail Francophone | Canadian Projects


The Quebecois Project covers profiles who settled in Canada, Nouvelle-France (modern day Quebec) during the 17th century and up to 1763.

Contents

How to Participate

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Joingnez-vous au Projet Quebecois !quebecois.gif


Goals

The mission of the Quebecois project is to create, source, connect, and improve profiles and free-space pages related to the people and places in Canada, Nouvelle-France. Our goals include:

  1. Create profiles for people who were born, lived, married or died in Canada, Nouvelle-France up to 1763.
  2. Find profiles already on WikiTree that should be managed by the project.
  3. Merge duplicates into the lowest numbered profile, using G2G to discuss LNAB issues as they arise. Be sure to tag the discussion with the surname(s) of the profiles involved as well as quebecois.
  4. Project-protect the final profile, if it meets Project Protection Guidelines. A Leader can help with this.
  5. Appropriate categories added, discussing with the Categorization Project as necessary for creation of categories without precedent.
  6. Biography cleaned up and written, using the WikiTree Style Guide (can work with Profile Improvement Project for help).
  7. Attached family meets these goals, even if they are not part of the project (templates excluded).
  8. Attached to the main WikiTree family tree (ask the Connectors Project for help).
  9. Free-Space pages built to represent important events and linked with associated pages.
  10. Nothing created without respected sources added-no Ancestry trees!

To Do List

See our list on this page: Quebecois_Project_To-Do-List


Help us improve our profiles !

Template

The template {{Quebecois}} is used for protected profiles and managed by the Project Account only. At this time almost all profiles have the template. We will correct this situation as we fix the profiles and transfert them to the right categories.

New categories have been created. Later, we will move the profiles from the category Quebecois to a new category. (Probably done by a Bot). And finally, the profiles will be verified, updated and transfered manually to the new categories .

We are working on a sticker to be posted on profiles to show they are from Canada, Nouvelle-France.

Categories

The Quebecois Template will automatically add the profile to Category: Quebecois. Please don't move the profiles from there before making all needed corrections.

We now have different categories for places in Canada, Nouvelle-France for profiles up to 1760. The Category: Canada, Nouvelle-France has over 100 sub-categories to receive the profiles. If the category is missing, just ask and we'll create it for you.

We also have some categories for profiles that need members need working on: Maintenance categories

Profiles managed by this project are listed at Category:Quebecois Project.

Quebecois Genealogical Resources

See our list here Quebecois Resources

Participants

Join our members: Quebecois Project Participants.

Followers

This page lists who follows our project: https://www.wikitree.com/genealogists/QUEBECOIS


Our pages

Quebecois Project Page this page

Space page for Canada, Nouvelle-France

Category pages: Category: Quebecois, Category: Quebecois_Project, Category: Canada, Nouvelle-France , Category: Maintenance_Categories

List of Participants and their interests.

Quebecois Resources

Guidelines on Names

GUIDELINES FOR PERSONAL NAMES IN NEW FRANCE AND QUEBEC, CANADA


FIRST NAME FIELD: Many girls got called Marie X, boys Joseph X or Jean Baptiste often, and that was their full names. The name is Marie Louise for example, and Louise is NOT a middle name, middle names are something which is very little used in French Canadian culture, whether now or in the past. When you consult the records, their names are either written out Marie Louise, or else later on, either one is dropped, so they use Marie or Louise by itself (which shows up normally in preferred name field). Some took another totally different name as their fantasy suited them. Some Wikitree members hyphenate the two names: Marie-Louise, which can get around the single name requirement that gets thrown up by data-base errors program, but this factually does not reflect usage of the time. Hyphenation of names is fairly modern usage, older records simply did not have it.


MARRIED NAME: The usage that having women take their husband's last name is not true of the French settlers and their descendants at all until the conquest of 1760 and for some time after, and even then most records to this day list the woman under her maiden name, unless it was not known. And the practice has been restored legally in the 1980s in this province (too many divorces making for a lot of paperwork on name changes)

See: http://www.wikitree.com/g2g/199892/proper-treatment-married-women-settled-france-17%2618-century?show=200038#c200038 for a discussion on this subject.

SAINT SOMETHING OR OTHER:

In French, the St/Saint before another name is hyphenated, always when it is a name of a person who is not the original saint. Goes for place names even more. So you have the original person, Saint Louis (Louis number 11 king of France). Then you have Pierre St-Louis. Hyphenated, always, no period after the St; and place names that bear the name of a person also are always hyphenated: the island named St-Jean is hyphenated, Jacques-Cartier place is hyphenated (the hyphen differentiates from the actual man Jacques Cartier).

DIT NAMES:

Dit names are a constant source of puzzlement to those who are not born in this province. There are several ways a person could acquire one:

1) A military nom de guerre (war name), which was standard practice in the military of the era, to protect anonymity and prevent retaliation against a person's family. The most famous case of this is found in the Three Musketeers, the names Athos, Porthos and Aramis were all war names.

2) Some people got called by their place of origin as a dit name, such as Bourguignon for those coming from Bourgogne, Picard from Picardie, etc.

3) A name added to a person's name to differentiate them from a namesake. There were actually very few given names in use in this era, and they were often reused extensively generation after generation, children being named after their parents and so on. To differentiate them, people would specify something about them, such as des Aulnaies, des Rosiers, du Tremble, du Chesne... These are all names of trees in this example. Probably they were called that due to the proximity to their residence of a grove of such.

4) Another way they were differentiated was to say Claude à Paul, ie Claude Paul's son. The family of Paul Hus was one such example, the children were called Hus or Paul Hus as a last name, and subsequent generations sometimes dropped the Hus and just called them Paul as a last name. The practice still exists verbally to this day, when cousins bear the same name, anyone referring to them will say Jean à Pierre to specify which Jean they are talking about.

5) A fifth source of dit names was the name of the mother. Again, due to the repetition of given names, to differentiate lineage, the family name of the mother or grandmother got added as a dit name in some instances.

As a note, for a woman it should actually read Marie Hébert dite Sansoucy, which is the feminine form of the word. Although on many records of the era, this was not written that way, so it should not be considered an error.

NOTE: Originally, the particules (what these are called) de, des or du were considered part of a person's name, and denoted noble birth when written that way. de Bermen, de Lauson. Not capitalized in any record seen. When you consult baptisms of noble offspring, the name gets written 'de Blah', and not just 'Blah'. The particule was retained. Euro-Aristo project removes it from the Last Name at Birth (LNAB) field, but that is specific to that project. Many of these names evolved in time to become connected. Some got dropped, particularly after the French revolution. As time passed also, they got used more and more by people who were not of noble origin, like the 'dit' names des Rosiers and du Tremble, which both evolved to become Desrosiers and Dutremble. The place name in Québec, Lauzon, was actually named after the two de Lauson who were lords of the area. Notice that the particule is dropped there, because a particule applies to a person, not a place.

The following is one of the numerous discussions on the subject of dit names and how they should be treated in Wikitree:

https://www.wikitree.com/g2g/82305/once-again-dit-names-and-related-issues

So, to establish a guideline on how they should be used in Wikitree:

The surname of a child should always be the surname of the father on the baptism, without the dit name (unless illegitimate of course, in which case it will be recorded under the mother's name). If the father is recorded as Jean Doublon dit des Rosiers (not a real name), then only Doublon would be used in the LNAB field of the child . Current last name (CLN) can be used to reflect the Doublon dit des Rosiers IF the child actually used it. BUT, if the only name used on the baptism is a dit name, then that is what is recorded in LNAB field.

The name of the father would be recorded as Doublon in LNAB field, and the name Doublon dit des Rosiers would be entered in CLN box, and also des Rosiers would be entered separately in other last name (OLN) field, for search purposes, and because some records only show the dit name by itself.

Is should look something like this:

  • Last name at birth (LNAB): Doublon
  • Current last name (CLN): Doublon dit des Rosiers
  • Other last name (OLN): des Rosiers

Keep in mind that some children once adult went only by the dit name of the family, in which case it would be entered by itself in CLN field.

The following profile is that of a man with 2 dit names. There is a listing of his children and the names they were baptized under in the bio. As can be seen, there is no hard and fast rule as to which one got applied, since the children got baptized under each name individually.

Joseph Limousin dit Beaufort dit Brunelle

NOTE: Last names and dit names should NOT be hyphenated together. That is a practice which is contrary to the usage of these. Many databases will give you the names without putting the dit there. So what you will see in those databases is something like Jean Doublon Desrosiers. One has to look at the record to ascertain the true usage of the person and time. Hyphenation did finally occur, but that was after the English had been in control of the area for decades, they found dit names confusing too.  :D And these NEVER go in suffix field, although some GEDCOM uploads do that automatically. They are NOT a suffix, see the Wikitree definition of what is considered a suffix. Nor should multi-generation lines with the same name father to son be tagged with a number or a Snr/Jnr. That is not a French usage outside of kings.

Guidelines for place names

Since Wikitree Location Field Style Guide requires use the names of places is native languages as they were known in whatever time period is being looked at ("use their conventions instead of ours") here is a short list of what the place names should look like with time frame they apply to (this goes beyond this project's time frame but the question keeps coming up):

A. Location Fields for Québecois profiles of individuals who were largely born, married or died in Canada[1][2]

1) Historical place name (historical parish)[3], Canada, Nouvelle-France = from about 1520 to the 1760 date of the English conquest.[4][5][6][7]
2) Historical place name (historical parish)[3], Canada = from 1760 to 1763, when the colony was under military rule and no longer factually part of New France.
3) Historical place name (historical parish)[3], Province of Quebec or Province de Québec[8] = from 1763 to 1791, the combined geographic coverage of which essentially comprised of the southern portions of modern-day provinces of Québec and Ontario.
4) Historical place name (historical parish)[3], Bas-Canada/Lower Canada = 1791-1841 or 1791 -1867[9], which period is concurrent to Haut-Canada/Upper Canada, their combined territory being split into the modern-day provinces of Québec and Ontario.
5) Historical place name (historical parish)[3], Canada-Est/Canada-East/Canada-West = 1841-1849 (Bas-Canada - Haut-Canada are still being used concurrently with Canada-East/Canada-West appellation, and in 1849 Canada-East/Canada-West reverted to Bas-Canada - Haut-Canada designations). See Article Wikipédia « Canada-Est ». Basically Canada-East/Canada-West were mainly for administrative usage. 1843 saw the ad-hoc reinstatement of the Bas-Canada - Haut-Canada appellation, which parliament made legal in 1849.
6) Historical place name (historical parish)[3], Bas-Canada/Lower-Canada = 1843-1867, this period also being applicable to Upper-Canada for Ontario profiles.
7) Historical place name (historical parish)[3], Québec, Canada = 1867 to now.

Table of selected Library and Archives Canada Geographic Coverage terms

ItemAppellation Geographic Coverage termDescriptionOptional?
Amérique du Nord britanniqueBritish North America1761-1867No
CanadaCanadaDepuis / since 1867No
5Canada-EstCanada East1842-1867Yes, incl. in item 6) by preference
5Canada-OuestCanada West1842-1867Yes, incl. in item 6) by preference
6Bas-CanadaLower Canada1791-1867Generally part of item 5)
1Nouvelle-FranceNew France~ / c1520-1761Generally incl. as part of item 2)
Territoires du Nord-OuestNorthwest TerritoriesToutes les périodes / All time periodsNo
7OntarioOntarioDepuis / since 1867No
5Province du CanadaProvince of Canada1842-1867Generally incl. as part of item 6)
7QuébecQuebecDepuis / since 1867No
6Haut-Canada Upper Canada1791-1867Generally part of item 5)

For simplication purposes, it is accordingly recommended that 2) and 5) be treated as optional, for information only, items that are to instead be treated by preference for inclusion as part of items 1) & 6), respectively.

B. Location Fields for profiles of Québecois individuals who were born (and possible married or died) in Europe

The vast majority of Québecois individuals born in Europe were born in France in the 17th and 18th centuries before 1790, shortly after the French Revolution when the establishment of the system of départements superseded the system of provinces, In both cases, the location field convention uses the following simplified convention versions derived by combining PRDH's List of pioneers, Fichier Origine and originis.ca « Liste des paroisses » conventions -
1a) Historical village, ancient province, France, or,
1b) Historical village or city (historical parish), ancient province, France, or for individuals born starting in 1790,
2a) Historical village, post-revolution région, France, or,
2b) Historical village or city (parish), post-revolution région, France, where,
1a) or 2a) forms are used if parish is unknown and 1b) or 2b) forms with bracketed parish are used if village and parish are not the same; province is the ancient province in effect before 1790 whereas région is as described starting in 1790.

Rigid KISS-principle adherence to this profile location field convention is necessary to avoid confusion with a multitude of other available place name identifiers currently used to describe location field place names.

For example,

1. PRDH
PRDH uses the following convention - ". . . the place of origin of a French settler is identified in two ways
- first are given the historical names of the parish, including its patron saint, or of the city (v.), then of the diocese (ev.) and of the province;
- second, in parentheses, the name of the village (if it differs from the name of the ancient parish), of the district (ar.) and of the Department as they are known today."
PRDH on-line database's List of Pioneers is especially useful because, for males with posterity, it is free and it easily identifies historical parish, historical village or city and ancient province in comparison to corresponding modern geographic information. PRDH provides in its database similar, more comprehensive, information for individuals of both sexes, with posterity or not, born in North America as well as born in Europe.
2. Fichier Origine
The free on-line Fichier Origine database uses the following birth/baptism/origin place name convention - village or city (parish) (département) INSEE #. It is recommended that such other birth place name identifiers as diocese, arrondissement, département and INSEE # be as described explicitly in any given profile's biography. Covering over 6,000 Québecois pioneers born mostly in Europe, the Fichier Origine database will soon has had a 40-year partnership between la Fédération québécoise des sociétés de généalogie and la Fédération française de généalogie.
3. originis.ca
The originis.ca free on-line database provides a « Liste des paroisses » ordered alphabetically[10] by modern place name and modern parish but with a write-up for each parish of historical place name and parish including in terms of date parish registry was started, seigneurie ownership and geographic amalgamation/relationship milestones, when modern place name formally came into effect, and so on.

While PRDH, Fichier Origine and originis.ca are highlighted here for Québecois-pionneer-anchoring purposes via standardized profile location field convention identification, many other on-line sources are available free or by subscription to more generally identify profile location field information.

Bibliography

- 1763 -- Treaty of Paris / Traité de Paris, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- 1763 -1791 -- Province of Quebec / Province de Québec, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- 1791 -- Constitutional Act / Acte constitutionnel, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- 1791 - 1842 -- Lower Canada / Bas-Canada, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- 1842 -1867 -- Canada East / Canada-Est, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- Geographic Coverage / Couverture géographique, collectionscanada.gc.ca - Library and Archives Canada / Bibliothèque et Archives Canada
- Fichier Origine
- Humphreys, Edward (2008, 2014 ed.). Great Camadian Battles: Heroism and Courage Through the Years , ISBN 978--78212-700-0
- originis.ca - Liste alphabétique de paroisses
- PRDH - Programme de recherche en démographie historique, Université de Montréal
- List of former Provinces of France / Liste des anciennes provinces de France, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- Chronicles of New France, Wikitree

Related/ Sub-Projects

Les Filles du Roi Project

Notes

  1. Wikitree has automatic place name suggestions which include electoral ridings names in them, under the mistaken notion that they are counties as known is the USA today. Not accurate. Counties were created by the English at some point after the conquest, but their formation is not all in one shot, and the modern day names of such are actually provincial electoral ridings, NOT counties, and are subject to change on a regular basis. To be avoided, and certainly should not appear in place names for era covered by this project. They simply did not exist. The ONLY actual County was the Comté St-Laurent, which had as its head an actual Count, on île d'Orléans.
  2. Place names bearing a person's name should always be hyphenated, for example place Jacques-Cartier is an actual place in Montréal, the hyphen differentiates it from the man Jacques Cartier. Any place with a saint's name should also be hyphenated: Saint-Paul-l'Ermite, Sainte-Thérèse, etc. When using the abbreviation for Saint, it should be written St-Paul-l'Ermite, Ste-Thérèse, NO period, always hyphenated.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Use bracketed parish if the parish is known and if parish is not the same as place name.
  4. Canada in the period to 1760 was the part of New France that was colonized in the Saint Lawrence valley, Canada thus being distinct from other parts of New France including, for example, Acadie, Louisiane, and so on.
  5. See also Chronicles of New France for a map showing the various areas with names.
  6. According to Library & Archives Canada, Geographic Coverage, New France covers from ~1520 to 1761. Thus we have for example:
    • Québec (Notre-Dame), Canada, Nouvelle-France, with parish if known in brackets
    • Port-Royal, Acadie, Nouvelle-France
    • Natchitoches, Louisiane, Nouvelle-France
  7. Humphries 2008/2014, pp. 66-67: « On the morning of 18 September [1759], the Articles of Capitulation of Quebec were signed and all hostilies ceased. » . . . « On 8 September [1760], confronted with 17,000 troops . . . , the French surrendered. The British took possession of Montreal. »
  8. English or French is applied as needed depending on applicable place name's native language; see Article Wikipédia, « Province de Québec (1763-1791). »
  9. Preference is to apply Bas-Canada/Lower Canada to period 1791 -1867 In accordance to Library & Archives Canada, Geographic Coverage such that Bas-Canada can generally be from 1791 to 1867.
  10. originis.ca paroisses are also searchable in other ways than alphabetically.


This page was last modified 09:29, 13 December 2017. This page has been accessed 13,597 times.