Project: Quebecois

Categories: Portail Francophone | Canadian Projects


The Quebecois Project covers profiles who lived in Canada, Nouvelle-France (modern day Quebec) during the 17th century and up to 1763.

Contents

How to Participate

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Goals

The mission of the Quebecois project is to create, source, connect, and improve profiles and free-space pages related to the people and places in Canada, Nouvelle-France. Our goals include:

  1. Create profiles for people who lived in Canada, Nouvelle-France up to 1763.
  2. Find profiles already on WikiTree that should be managed by the project.
  3. Merge duplicates into the lowest numbered profile, using G2G to discuss LNAB issues as they arise. Be sure to tag the discussion with the surname(s) of the profiles involved as well as quebecois.
  4. Project-protect the final profile, if it meets Project Protection Guidelines. A Leader can help with this.
  5. Appropriate categories added, discussing with the Categorization Project as necessary for creation of categories without precedent.
  6. Biography cleaned up and written, using the WikiTree Style Guide (can work with Profile Improvement Project for help).
  7. Attached family meets these goals, even if they are not part of the project (templates excluded).
  8. Attached to the main WikiTree family tree (ask the Connectors Project for help).
  9. Free-Space pages built to represent important events and linked with associated pages.
  10. Nothing created without respected sources added-no simple family trees!

To Do List

See our list on this page: Quebecois_Project_To-Do-List


Help us improve our profiles !

Templates

Project Box

The {{Quebecois}} Project Box is used for protected profiles (PPP) and must also be managed by the Project Account. Note that all profiles with the the Project Box are categorized in the category Quebecois_Project.

Sticker

We have a sticker to use on profiles. It does not categorize into anything, so please use category picker to enter proper location categories in profiles.

Copying this code {{Canada_Nouvelle-France}} under the ==Biography== will add the sticker to the profile:

Drapeau identifiant les profils du Canada, Nouvelle-France
... ... ... lived
in Canada, Nouvelle-France.


The code for the French version is {{Canada_Nouvelle-France|lang=fr}}

Drapeau identifiant les profils du Canada, Nouvelle-France
... ... ... a vécu
au Canada, Nouvelle-France.

Categories

Quebecois Genealogical Resources

See our list here Quebecois Resources

Voir notre liste en français Ressources Québec

Participants

Join our members: Quebecois Project Participants.

Followers

This page lists who follows our project: https://www.wikitree.com/genealogists/QUEBECOIS


Our pages

Quebecois Project Page this page

Space page for Canada, Nouvelle-France

Category pages: Category: Quebecois, Category: Quebecois_Project, Category: Canada, Nouvelle-France , Category: Maintenance_Categories

List of Participants and their interests.

Quebecois Resources here you will find both sources and location name listings

Guidelines on Names

GUIDELINES FOR PERSONAL NAMES IN NEW FRANCE AND QUEBEC, CANADA


FIRST NAME FIELD: Many girls got called Marie X, boys Joseph X or Jean Baptiste often, and that was their full names. The name is Marie Louise for example, and Louise is NOT a middle name, middle names are something which does not in fact exist in French Canadian culture, whether now or in the past. When you consult the records, their names are either written out Marie Louise, or else later on, either one is dropped, so they use Marie or Louise by itself (which shows up normally in preferred name field). Some took another totally different name as their fantasy suited them. Some Wikitree members hyphenate the two names: Marie-Louise, which can get around the single name requirement that gets thrown up by data-base errors program, but this factually does not reflect usage of the time. Hyphenation of names is fairly modern usage, older records simply did not have it.


MARRIED NAME: The usage that having women take their husband's last name is NOT true of the French settlers and their descendants at all until the conquest of 1760 and for some time after, and even then most records to this day list the woman under her maiden name, unless it was not known. And the practice has been restored legally in the 1980s in this province (too many divorces making for a lot of paperwork on name changes)

See the newest G2G discussion or earlier one on this subject.

SAINT SOMETHING OR OTHER:

In French, the St/Saint before another name is hyphenated, always when it is a name of a person who is not the original saint. Goes for place names even more. So you have the original person, Saint Louis (Louis number IX king of France). Then you have Pierre St-Louis. Hyphenated, always, no period after the St; and place names that bear the name of a person also are always hyphenated: the island named St-Jean is hyphenated, Jacques-Cartier place is hyphenated (the hyphen differentiates from the actual man Jacques Cartier).

DIT NAMES:

Dit names are a constant source of puzzlement to those who are not born in this province. There are several ways a person could acquire one:

1) A military nom de guerre (war name), which was standard practice in the military of the era, to protect anonymity and prevent retaliation against a person's family. The most famous case of this is found in the Three Musketeers, the names Athos, Porthos and Aramis were all war names.

2) Some people got called by their place of origin as a dit name, such as Bourguignon for those coming from Bourgogne, Picard from Picardie, etc.

3) A name added to a person's name to differentiate them from a namesake. There were actually very few given names in use in this era, and they were often reused extensively generation after generation, children being named after their parents and so on. To differentiate them, people would specify something about them, such as des Aulnaies, des Rosiers, du Tremble, du Chesne... These are all names of trees in this example. Probably they were called that due to the proximity to their residence of a grove of such.

4) Another way they were differentiated was to say Claude à Paul, ie Claude Paul's son. The family of Paul Hus was one such example, the children were called Hus or Paul Hus as a last name, and subsequent generations sometimes dropped the Hus and just called them Paul as a last name. The practice still exists verbally to this day, when cousins bear the same name, anyone referring to them will say Jean à Pierre to specify which Jean they are talking about.

5) A fifth source of dit names was the name of the mother. Again, due to the repetition of given names, to differentiate lineage, the family name of the mother or grandmother got added as a dit name in some instances.

As a note, for a woman it should actually read Marie Hébert dite Sansoucy, which is the feminine form of the word. Although on many records of the era, this was not written that way, so it should not be considered an error.

NOTE: Originally, the particules (what these are called) de, des or du were considered part of a person's name, and denoted noble birth when written that way. de Bermen, de Lauson. Not capitalized in any record seen. When you consult baptisms of noble offspring, the name gets written 'de Blah', and not just 'Blah'. The particule was retained. Euro-Aristo project removes it from the Last Name at Birth (LNAB) field, but that is specific to that project. Many of these names evolved in time to become connected. Some got dropped, particularly after the French revolution. As time passed also, they got used more and more by people who were not of noble origin, like the 'dit' names des Rosiers and du Tremble, which both evolved to become Desrosiers and Dutremble. The place name in Québec, Lauzon, was actually named after the two de Lauson who were lords of the area. Notice that the particule is dropped there, because a particule applies to a person, not a place.

The following is one of the numerous discussions on the subject of dit names and how they should be treated in Wikitree:

https://www.wikitree.com/g2g/82305/once-again-dit-names-and-related-issues

So, to establish a guideline on how they should be used in Wikitree:

The surname of a child should always be the surname of the father on the baptism, without the dit name (unless illegitimate of course, in which case it will be recorded under the mother's name). If the father is recorded as Jean Doublon dit des Rosiers (not a real name), then only Doublon would be used in the LNAB field of the child . Current last name (CLN) can be used to reflect the Doublon dit des Rosiers IF the child actually used it. BUT, if the only name used on the baptism is a dit name, then that is what is recorded in LNAB field.

The name of the father would be recorded as Doublon in LNAB field, and the name Doublon dit des Rosiers would be entered in CLN box, and also des Rosiers would be entered separately in other last name (OLN) field, for search purposes, and because some records only show the dit name by itself.

Is should look something like this:

  • Last name at birth (LNAB): Doublon
  • Current last name (CLN): Doublon dit des Rosiers
  • Other last name (OLN): des Rosiers

Keep in mind that some children once adult went only by the dit name of the family, in which case it would be entered by itself in CLN field.

The following profile is that of a man with 2 dit names. There is a listing of his children and the names they were baptized under in the bio. As can be seen, there is no hard and fast rule as to which one got applied, since the children got baptized under each name individually.

Joseph Limousin dit Beaufort dit Brunelle

NOTE: Last names and dit names should NOT be hyphenated together. That is a practice which is contrary to the usage of these. Many databases will give you the names without putting the dit there. So what you will see in those databases is something like Jean Doublon Desrosiers. One has to look at the record to ascertain the true usage of the person and time. Hyphenation did finally occur, but that was after the English had been in control of the area for decades, they found dit names confusing too.  :D And these NEVER go in suffix field, although some GEDCOM uploads do that automatically. They are NOT a suffix, see the Wikitree definition of what is considered a suffix. Nor should multi-generation lines with the same name father to son be tagged with a number or a Snr/Jnr. That is not a French usage outside of kings.

Guidelines for place names

Since Wikitree Location Field Style Guide requires using place names in native languages as they were known in whatever time period is being looked at ("use their conventions instead of ours") here is a list of what the place names should look like with time frame they apply to (this goes beyond this project's time frame but the question keeps coming up):

A. Location Fields for Québecois profiles of individuals who lived in Canada, Nouvelle-France

Note: Wikitree has automatic place name suggestions which include electoral ridings names in them, under the mistaken notion that they are counties as known is the USA today. Not accurate. Counties were created by the English at some point after the conquest, but their formation is not all in one shot, and the modern day names of such are actually provincial electoral ridings, NOT counties as found elsewhere, and are subject to change on a regular basis. To be avoided, and certainly should not appear in place names for era covered by this project. They simply did not exist. The ONLY actual County was the Comté Saint-Laurent, which had as its head an actual Count, on île d'Orléans.

Place names bearing a person's name should always be hyphenated, for example place Jacques-Cartier is an actual place in Montréal, the hyphen differentiates it from the man Jacques Cartier. Any place with a saint's name should also be hyphenated: Saint-Paul-l'Ermite, Sainte-Thérèse, etc. When using the abbreviation for Saint, it should be written St-Paul-l'Ermite, Ste-Thérèse, NO period, always hyphenated. Preference is given by Wikitree to use the full Saint rather than the abbreviation in location fields.

The parish place name, if different from that of the village, can only be indicated in profile's biographical text. Thus, a name place field such as for example, Montréal (Notre-Dame) or Notre-Dame de Montréal, where Notre-Dame denotes parish, is not permitted in birth and death fields. They should be included in marriage field where applicable, since that is an actual specific location of an event. Note that such parish names as Saint-Jean, Île d'Orléans, should be included, as Île d'Orléans had a number of parishes which denoted geographic location also.

1) Historical place name, Canada, Nouvelle-France = from about 1520 to the 1763 date of the English conquest and final ceding by France to England. Note: Canada, Nouvelle-France in the period to 1763 was the part of New France that was colonized in the Saint Lawrence valley, Canada thus being distinct from other parts of New France including, for example, Acadie, Louisiane, and so on. See also Chronicles of New France for a map showing the various areas with names.[1][2]
2) Historical place name, Canada, Nouvelle-France = from 1760 to 1763, even if the colony was under English military rule and no longer factually part of New France. The name only changed officially with the 1763 British proclamation act.
3) Historical place name, Province of Québec or Province de Québec[3] = from 1763 to 1791, [Map] the combined geographic coverage of which essentially comprised of the southern portions of modern-day provinces of Québec and Ontario.
4) Historical place name, Bas-Canada/Lower Canada = 1791-1841 or 1791 -1867, which period is concurrent to Haut-Canada/Upper Canada, their combined territory being split into the modern-day provinces of Québec and Ontario.
  • Note Canada-Est is only found on federal census records, it was not in use by the general population, who continued calling the area Bas-Canada
5) Historical place name, Canada-Est/Canada-East or Canada-Ouest/Canada-West = 1841-1849 (Bas-Canada - Haut-Canada are still being used concurrently with Canada-East/Canada-West appellation, and in 1849 Canada-East/Canada-West reverted to Bas-Canada - Haut-Canada designations). Basically Canada-East/Canada-West were mainly for administrative usage. 1843 saw the ad-hoc reinstatement of the Bas-Canada - Haut-Canada appellation, which parliament made legal in 1849.
6) Historical place name, Bas-Canada/Lower Canada = 1843-1867, this period also being applicable to Upper-Canada for Ontario profiles.
L'Acte d'Union est voté au Parlement de Londres le 23 juillet 1840 et entre en vigueur le 10 février 1841 à Montréal. L'Acte d'Union introduit de nombreuses réformes. Les deux Canadas deviennent le Canada-Uni et celui-ci est administré par un seul gouvernement. On retrouve dans le Canada-Uni les institutions établies par l'Acte constitutionnel de 1791 : un gouverneur responsable devant le Parlement britannique, un Conseil exécutif nommé par la Couronne, un Conseil législatif de 24 membres, nommés à vie, une Chambre d'assemblée qui comprend 84 députés dont la moitié est choisie par les électeurs du Canada-Est et l'autre moitié par les électeurs du Canada-Ouest.
Officiellement, le Canada-Est et le Canada-Ouest remplacent les anciens noms de Bas-Canada et de Haut-Canada; cependant, dans la pratique, l'appellation ancienne demeure très vivace.[4]
1841 à 1849
De 1841 à 1843, on utilise le terme Canada-Est et Canada-Ouest, mais après 1843, on privilégie avant tout l'usage des désignations Bas-Canada et Haut-Canada dans les lois. Puisque cette terminologie n'a pas de statut constitutionnel, elle est accompagnée de certaines expressions pour préciser le sens. Donc, au lieu d'écrire simplement Bas-Canada on écrit province du Canada qui constitue la province du Bas-Canada.
1849 à 1867
À partir du 25 avril 1849, les parlementaires adoptent officiellement les termes Bas-Canada et Haut-Canada dans l'Acte pour donner une interprétation législative à certains mots employés dans les Actes du Parlement :
""Les mots Bas-Canada signifieront toute la partie de cette province qui constituait ci-devant la province du Bas-Canada. Les mots Haut-Canada signifieront toute la partie de cette province qui constituait ci-devant la province du Haut-Canada.[5]

The Act of Union was passed by the Parliament in London on July 23, 1840, and came into force on February 10, 1841. It introduced numerous reforms. The two Canadas were to become one United Canada, with one government. This United Canada was to keep the institutions established by the Constitutional Act of 1791: a governor who was answerable to the British Parliament, an executive council appointed by the Crown, a legislative council of 24 members, appointed for life, and a house of assembly of 84 members, half to be elected by Canada East and the other half by Canada West . Officially, Canada East and Canada West simply replaced the names Lower Canada and Upper Canada. In practice, however, the former names did not die quickly.
The implementation of political union, which unified the economy as well, greatly pleased the Canadian business class. However, it only made the French Canadians angry, for several clauses of the constitution humiliated them. For example, Canada East, which had a larger population than Canada West, was allotted the same number of elected representatives -- a breach of the principle of democracy. The civil list was raised to 75,000 pounds per year, and elected members no longer had any control over it. Also, section 41 of the Act of Union decreed that English was to be the only official language of the country. This was the first time that England had prohibited French in a constitutional text.
The objective pursued by England in the Act of Union was clear: hammer together a British-style parliamentary system with an artificial majority, while waiting for immigration to run its course and give the British a real majority. Such a system would in all likelihood adopt policies favourable to British colonization. So it was that French Canadians began their existence as a minority.
The measures of 1841 created deep wounds. In the Québec City region, petitions called for the abolition of the Act. Some people suggested withdrawal from political life. The reaction was so intense that, in 1848, London had to recognize and accept the use of French.[6]
1841 to 1849
From 1841 to 1843, the terms Canada East and Canada West were used. The former names of the two colonies, Lower Canada and Upper Canada, had no constitutional status. Quebec act divided Canada into two parts, Canada east and Canada west.
1849 to 1867
From April 25, 1849, the Canadian Parliament enacted an interpretation act, which once again gave legal meaning to the terms Lower Canada and Upper Canada:
The words "Lower Canada," shall mean all that part of this Province [that is, the United Province of Canada] which formerly constituted the Province of Lower Canada.

The words "Upper Canada," shall mean all that part of this Province which formerly constituted the Province of Upper Canada.[7]

7) Place name, Québec, Canada = 1867 to now.

B. Location Fields for profiles of individuals who were born (and possible married or died) in Europe

For profile key event fields related to individuals born, married or dead in France see the French Roots standards at French_Roots#Location_fields. Rigid adherence to this profile location field convention is necessary to avoid confusion with a multitude of other available place name identifiers currently used to describe location field place names.

Beyond these French Roots project place name quideline requirements, the following standards are used by PRDH, Fichier Origine and originis.ca databases:

1. PRDH
PRDH uses the following convention - ". . . the place of origin of a French settler is identified in two ways
- first are given the historical names of the parish, including its patron saint, or of the city (v.), then of the diocese (ev.) and of the province;
- second, in parentheses, the name of the village (if it differs from the name of the ancient parish), of the district (ar.) and of the Department as they are known today."
PRDH on-line database's List of Pioneers is especially useful because, for males with male posterity, it is free and it easily identifies historical parish, historical village or city and ancient province in comparison to corresponding modern geographic information. PRDH provides in its database similar, more comprehensive information for individuals of both sexes, with posterity or not, born in North America as well as born in Europe.
2. Fichier Origine
The free on-line Fichier Origine database uses the following birth/baptism/origin place name convention - village or city (parish) (département) INSEE #. It is recommended that such other birth place name identifiers as diocese, arrondissement, département and INSEE # be as described explicitly in any given profile's biography. Covering over 6,000 Québecois pioneers born mostly in Europe, the Fichier Origine database has had a 40-year partnership between la Fédération québécoise des sociétés de généalogie and la Fédération française de généalogie.
3. originis.ca
The originis.ca free on-line database provides a « Liste des paroisses » ordered alphabetically[8] by modern place name and modern parish but with a write-up for each parish of historical place name and parish including date parish registry was started, seigneurie ownership and geographic amalgamation/relationship milestones, when modern place name formally came into effect, and so on.

While PRDH, Fichier Origine and originis.ca are highlighted here for Québecois-pionneer-anchoring purposes via standardized profile location field convention identification, many other on-line sources are available free or by subscription to more generally identify profile location field information.

Bibliography

- 1763 -- Treaty of Paris / Traité de Paris, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- 1763 -- Royal Proclamation of 1763 The Canadian Ancyclopedia
- 1763 -1791 -- Province of Quebec / Province de Québec, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- 1791 -- Constitutional Act / Acte constitutionnel, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- 1791 - 1842 -- Lower Canada / Bas-Canada, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- 1842 -1867 -- Canada East / Canada-Est, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- Geographic Coverage / Couverture géographique, collectionscanada.gc.ca - Library and Archives Canada / Bibliothèque et Archives Canada
- Fichier Origine
- Humphreys, Edward (2008, 2014 ed.). Great Camadian Battles: Heroism and Courage Through the Years , ISBN 978--78212-700-0
- originis.ca - Liste alphabétique de paroisses
- PRDH - Programme de recherche en démographie historique, Université de Montréal
- List of former Provinces of France / Liste des anciennes provinces de France, Wikipedia Article / Article Wikipédia
- Chronicles of New France, Wikitree

Related/ Sub-Projects

Les Filles du Roi Project

Les Filles à marier Project

Régiment Carignan-Salières 1665/1668 Not a project but important for the history of the country.

Notes

  1. According to Library & Archives Canada, Geographic Coverage, New France covers from ~1520 to 1761. Thus we have for example:
    • Québec , Canada, Nouvelle-France
    • Port-Royal, Acadie, Nouvelle-France
    • Natchitoches, Louisiane, Nouvelle-France
  2. Humphries 2008/2014, pp. 66-67: « On the morning of 18 September [1759], the Articles of Capitulation of Quebec were signed and all hostilies ceased. » . . . « On 8 September [1760], confronted with 17,000 troops . . . , the French surrendered. The British took possession of Montreal. »
  3. English or French is applied as needed depending on applicable place name's native language; see Article Wikipédia, « Province de Québec (1763-1791). »
  4. BAC-LAC Vers la confédération canadienne
  5. Wikipédia: Canada-Est citant Statuts de la province du Canada, 12 Vict., c. 10 (R.-U.). En contrepartie, on retrouve également : « that part of this Province formerly constituting the Province of Upper Canada », « the late Province of Upper Canada » ou « that part of this Province which was formerly comprised within the limits of Upper Canada »
  6. BAC-LAC Lower Canada
  7. Wikipedia: Canada East citing Statutes of Canada, 12 Vict., c. 10, s. V. In counterpart is also found: « that part of this Province formerly constituting the Province of Upper Canada », « the late Province of Upper Canada » ou « that part of this Province which was formerly comprised within the limits of Upper Canada »
  8. originis.ca paroisses are also searchable in other ways than alphabetically.


This page was last modified 04:45, 23 January 2020. This page has been accessed 27,806 times.