Henry Purcell

Henry Purcell (1659 - 1695)

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Henry Purcell
Born in Westminister, London, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Son of and [mother unknown]
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[spouse(s) unknown]
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Died in Dean's yard, Westminster, London, Englandmap
Profile last modified 29 Dec 2019 | Created 3 Apr 2015
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Henry Purcell is Notable.

Contents

Biography

Henry Purcell was born 10 September 1659 [1] in St Ann's Lane, Old Pye Street, Westminster – the area of London later known as Devil's Acre – in 1659. Henry Purcell Senior,[2] whose older brother, Thomas Purcell, (died 1682) was a musician, was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal and sang at the coronation of King Charles II of England.[3]Henry the elder had three sons: Edward, Henry and Daniel. Daniel Purcell,[4] the youngest of the brothers, was also a prolific composer who wrote the music for much of the final act of The Indian Queen after Henry Purcell's death. Henry Purcell's family lived just a few hundred yards west of Westminster Abbey from 1659 onwards.[5] After his father's death in 1664, Purcell was placed under the guardianship of his uncle Thomas, who showed him great affection and kindness.[6] Thomas was himself a gentleman of His Majesty's Chapel, and arranged for Henry to be admitted as a chorister. Henry studied first under Captain Henry Cooke,[7] Master of the Children, and afterwards under Pelham Humfrey,[8] Cooke's successor.[9] The composer Matthew Locke was a family friend and, particularly with his semi-operas, probably also had a musical influence on the young Purcell. Henry was a chorister in the Chapel Royal until his voice broke in 1673, when he became assistant to the organ-builder John Hingston, who held the post of keeper of wind instruments to the King.[10] Purcell is said to have been composing at nine years old, but the earliest work that can be certainly identified as his is an ode for the King's birthday, written in 1670.[11] (The dates for his compositions are often uncertain, despite considerable research.) It is assumed that the three-part song Sweet tyranness, I now resign was written by him as a child.[12] After Humfrey's death, Purcell continued his studies under Dr John Blow. He attended Westminster School and in 1676 was appointed copyist at Westminster Abbey.[13]Henry Purcell's earliest anthem Lord, who can tell was composed in 1678. It is a psalm that is prescribed for Christmas Day and also to be read at morning prayer on the fourth day of the month.[14] In 1679, he wrote songs for John Playford's Choice Ayres, Songs and Dialogues and an anthem, the name of which is unknown, for the Chapel Royal. From an extant letter written by Thomas Purcell we learn that this anthem was composed for the exceptionally fine voice of the Rev. John Gostling, then at Canterbury, but afterwards a gentleman of His Majesty's Chapel. Purcell wrote several anthems at different times for Gostling's extraordinary basso profondo voice, which is known to have had a range of at least two full octaves, from D below the bass staff to the D above it. The dates of very few of these sacred compositions are known; perhaps the most notable example is the anthem They that go down to the sea in ships. In gratitude for the providential escape of King Charles II from shipwreck, Gostling, who had been of the royal party, put together some verses from the Psalms in the form of an anthem and requested Purcell to set them to music. The challenging work opens with a passage which traverses the full extent of Gostling's range, beginning on the upper D and descending two octaves to the lower.[15]In 1679, Blow, who had been appointed organist of Westminster Abbey 10 years before, resigned his office in favour of Purcell.[16] Purcell now devoted himself almost entirely to the composition of sacred music, and for six years severed his connection with the theatre. However, during the early part of the year, probably before taking up his new office, he had produced two important works for the stage, the music for Nathaniel Lee's Theodosius, and Thomas d'Urfey's Virtuous Wife.[17] Between 1680 and 1688 Purcell wrote music for seven plays.[18] The composition of his chamber opera Dido and Aeneas, which forms a very important landmark in the history of English dramatic music, has been attributed to this period, and its earliest production may well have predated the documented one of 1689.[19] It was written to a libretto furnished by Nahum Tate, and performed in 1689 in cooperation with Josias Priest, a dancing master and the choreographer for the Dorset Garden Theatre. Priest's wife kept a boarding school for young gentlewomen, first in Leicester Fields and afterwards at Chelsea, where the opera was performed.[20] It is occasionally considered the first genuine English opera, though that title is usually given to Blow's Venus and Adonis: as in Blow's work, the action does not progress in spoken dialogue but in Italian-style recitative. Each work runs to less than one hour. At the time, Dido and Aeneas never found its way to the theatre, though it appears to have been very popular in private circles. It is believed to have been extensively copied, but only one song was printed by Purcell's widow in Orpheus Britannicus, and the complete work remained in manuscript until 1840, when it was printed by the Musical Antiquarian Society under the editorship of Sir George Macfarren.[21] The composition of Dido and Aeneas gave Purcell his first chance to write a sustained musical setting of a dramatic text. It was his only opportunity to compose a work in which the music carried the entire drama.[22] The story of Dido and Aeneas derives from the original source in Virgil's epic the Aeneid.[23] Soon after Purcell's marriage, in 1682, on the death of Edward Lowe, he was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal, an office which he was able to hold simultaneously with his position at Westminster Abbey.[24]] His eldest son was born in this same year, but he was short-lived.[25] His first printed composition, Twelve Sonatas, was published in 1683[26][27] For some years after this, he was busy in the production of sacred music, odes addressed to the king and royal family, and other similar works.[28][29]In 1685, he wrote two of his finest anthems, I was glad and My heart is inditing, for the coronation of King James II.[30] In 1690 he composed a setting of the birthday ode for Queen Mary, Arise, my muse[31] and four years later wrote one of his most elaborate, important and magnificent works – a setting for another birthday ode for the Queen, written by Nahum Tate, entitled Come Ye Sons of Art.[32]In 1687, he resumed his connection with the theatre by furnishing the music for John Dryden's tragedy Tyrannick Love. In this year, Purcell also composed a march and passepied called Quick-step, which became so popular that Lord Wharton adapted the latter to the fatal verses of Lillibullero; and in or before January 1688, Purcell composed his anthem Blessed are they that fear the Lord by express command of the King. A few months later, he wrote the music for D'Urfey's play, The Fool's Preferment. In 1690, he composed the music for Betterton's adaptation of Fletcher and Massinger's Prophetess (afterwards called Dioclesian)[33] and Dryden's Amphitryon. In 1691, he wrote the music for what is sometimes considered his dramatic masterpiece, King Arthur, or The British Worthy .[34] In 1692, he composed The Fairy-Queen (an adaptation of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream), the score of which (his longest for theatre)[35]Indian Queen followed in 1695, in which year he also wrote songs for Dryden and Davenant's version of Shakespeare's The Tempest (recently, this has been disputed by music scholars[36]), probably including "Full fathom five" and "Come unto these yellow sands".[37]The Indian Queen was adapted from a tragedy by Dryden and Sir Robert Howard.[38] In these semi-operas (another term for which at the time was "dramatic opera"), the main characters of the plays do not sing but speak their lines: the action moves in dialogue rather than recitative. The related songs are sung "for" them by singers, who have minor dramatic roles. Purcell died in 1695 at his home in Marsham Street,[39] at the height of his career. He is believed to have been 35 or 36 years old at the time. The cause of his death is unclear: one theory is that he caught a chill after returning home late from the theatre one night to find that his wife had locked him out. Another is that he succumbed to tuberculosis.[40] Purcell is buried adjacent to the organ in Westminster Abbey. The music that he had earlier composed for Queen Mary's funeral was performed during his funeral as well. Purcell was universally mourned as "a very great master of music." Following his death, the officials at Westminster honoured him by unanimously voting that he be buried with no expense in the north aisle of the Abbey.[41] His epitaph reads: "Here lyes Henry Purcell Esq., who left this life and is gone to that Blessed Place where only His harmony can be exceeded."[42] Purcell fathered six children by his wife Frances, four of whom died in infancy. His wife, as well as his son Edward (1689–1740) and daughter Frances, survived him.[43] Frances the elder died in 1706, having published a number of her husband's works, including the now famous collection called Orpheus Britannicus,[44] in two volumes, printed in 1698 and 1702, respectively. Edward was appointed organist of St Clement's, Eastcheap, London, in 1711 and was succeeded by his son Edward Henry Purcell (died 1765). Both men were buried in St Clement's near the organ gallery.

compositions

Purcell worked in many genres, both in works closely linked to the court, such as symphony song, to the Chapel Royal, such as the symphony anthem, and the theatre.[45] Among Purcell's most notable works are operas

  • Dido and Aeneas (1688),
  • Dioclesian (1690),
  • King Arthur (1691),
  • The Fairy-Queen (1692)
  • Timon of Athens (1695)

compositions

  • Hail! Bright Cecilia (1692),
  • Come Ye Sons of Art (1694)

Funeral Sentences and Music

  • Funeral of Queen Mary (1695).

Legacy

Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music. He is generally considered to be one of the greatest English composers; no later native-born English composer approached his fame until Edward Elgar, Ralph Vaughan Williams, William Walton and Benjamin Britten in the 20th century.

Sources

  1. According to Holman and Thompson (Grove Music Online, see References) there is uncertainty regarding the year and day of birth. No record of baptism has been found. The year 1659 is based on Purcell's memorial tablet in Westminster Abbey and the frontispiece of his Sonnata's of III. Parts (London, 1683). The day 10 September is based on vague inscriptions in the manuscript GB-Cfm 88. It may also be relevant that he was appointed to his first salaried post on 10 September 1677, which would have been his eighteenth birthday.
  2. Holman, Peter and Robert Thompson. "Henry Purcell (ii)," Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 17 March 2006), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  3. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Purcell, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 658–659.
  4. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Purcell, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 658–659.
  5. Zimmerman, Franklin. Henry Purcell 1659–1695 His Life and Times. (New York City: St. Martin's Press Inc., 1967), 34.
  6. Westrup, J. A. Purcell. (London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1975), 8.
  7. Burden, Michael. The Purcell Companion. (Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press, 1995), 55.
  8. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Purcell, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 658–659.
  9. Burden, Michael. The Purcell Companion. (Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press, 1995), 58.
  10. Zimmerman, Franklin. Henry Purcell 1659–1695 His Life and Times. (New York City: St. Martin's Press Inc., 1967), 34.
  11. Zimmerman, Franklin. Henry Purcell 1659–1695 His Life and Times. (New York City: St. Martin's Press Inc., 1967), 29.
  12. Westrup, J. A. Purcell. (London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1975), 8.
  13. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Purcell, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 658–659.
  14. Zimmerman, Franklin. Henry Purcell 1659–1695 His Life and Times. (New York City: St. Martin's Press Inc., 1967), 65.
  15. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Purcell, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 658–659.
  16. Runciman, John F. (1909). Purcell. London: George Bell & Sons. OCLC 5690003.
  17. Runciman, John F. (1909). Purcell. London: George Bell & Sons. OCLC 5690003.
  18. Harris, Ellen T. Henry Purcell's Dido and Aeneas. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987), 6.
  19. Runciman, John F. (1909). Purcell. London: George Bell & Sons. OCLC 5690003.
  20. Hutchings, Arthur. Purcell. (London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1982), 54.
  21. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Purcell, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 658–659.
  22. Harris, Ellen T. Henry Purcell's Dido and Aeneas. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987), 6.
  23. Harris, Ellen T. Henry Purcell's Dido and Aeneas. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987), 11.
  24. Hutchings, Arthur. Purcell. (London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1982), 85.
  25. Westrup, J. A. Purcell. (London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1975), 41.
  26. "No. 1872". The London Gazette. 25 October 1683. p. 2.
  27. "No. 1874". The London Gazette. 1 November 1683. p. 2. Announcements of the publication of Purcell's Sonata, first for subscribers, then for general purchase
  28. "No. 1928". The London Gazette. 8 May 1684. p. 2.
  29. "No. 2001". The London Gazette. 19 January 1684. p. 2. Announcements of the publication of Purcell's Ode for St Cecilia's Day, first performed, 22 November 1683
  30. Hutchings, Arthur. Purcell. (London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1982), 85.
  31. Tore Frantzvåg Steenslid (2004). "Arise, my muse". steenslid.com. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  32. Westrup, J .A. Purcell. (London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1975), 77.
  33. Muller, Julia, Words and Music in Henry Purcell's First Semi-Opera, Dioclesian, Edwin Mellen Press, New York, 1990
  34. Hutchings, Arthur. Purcell. (London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1982), 54.
  35. Hutchings, Arthur. Purcell. (London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1982), 55
  36. Westrup, J. A. Purcell. (London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1975), 80.
  37. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Purcell, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 658–659.
  38. Hutchings, Arthur. Purcell. (London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1982), 55
  39. Zimmerman, Franklin. Henry Purcell 1659–1695 His Life and Times. (New York City: St. Martin's Press Inc., 1967), 266.
  40. Westrup, J. A. Purcell. (London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1975), 85.
  41. Westrup, J. A. Purcell. (London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1975), 86.
  42. Shay, Robert; Thompson, Robert (2006). Purcell Manuscripts: The Principal Musical Sources. p. 137. ISBN 978-0521028110. The distinctive nature of the symphony song, a genre as closely linked to the court as the symphony anthem was to the Chapel Royal, 16 is underlined by the principal concordance of the longer works in R.M. 20.h.8, Lbl Add. 33287
  43. Runciman, John F. (1909). Purcell. London: George Bell & Sons. OCLC 5690003
  44. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Purcell, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 658–659.
  45. Melvin P. Unger, Historical Dictionary of Choral Music, Scarecrow Press 2010, ISBN 978-0-8108-5751-3 (p.93)


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