John Rave
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John Wanįkšujᵋxųnųnįka Rave (1856 - 1917)

John Wanįkšujᵋxųnųnįka Rave
Born in Minnesota Territory, United Statesmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married 1891 in Nebraska, United Statesmap
Husband of — married about 1916 (to 1917) in Nebraska, United Statesmap
[children unknown]
Died in Thurston, Nebraska, United Statesmap
Profile last modified | Created 28 Nov 2020
This page has been accessed 144 times.
John was Ho-Chunk.
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Contents

Biography

Birth

John was born in 1856 in Minnesota Territory. His father was James Rave. (Find a Grave)

Name

The 1898 census gives his Hocąk name as Wa-nic-shutch-ho-no-nic-kaw, which is for Wanįkšujᵋxųnųnįka, "Little Young Red Bird", from wanįk, "bird"; šuc, "red"; xųnų, "young, small"; nįk, "little, small"; and -ka, a definite article suffix used in personal names. This appears to be an Upper Moiety ("Bird Clan") name. However, John Rave, as was well known, was a member of the Bear Clan (Radin 394), therefore this appellation must have been a nickname.

Marriages

In the earlier censuses, his wife is always referred to as "Mrs. Rave", which at least incidentally conceals any change in his wives' identity.

He was one of the men "married" to the polyandrous Sallie (or Allie) English, who kept the surname of one of her other husbands, William Baker. She was in the habit of changing her residence within the Winnebago Reservation fairly often. She was living with John Rave as her husband in 1893, 1898, 1900-1902, 1910, and 1913. (censuses)

In the last years of his life, in 1915 or 1916, he married the elderly widow of U. S. Grant. Apart from her Hocąk name, Wakąjaziwewįga, "Traveling Yellow Thunder", she was known only as "Mrs. U. S. Grant". She died a few years after John on 19 December 1924.

Religion

John Rave may be fairly described as the founder of the Native American Church (Peyote Cult) among the Hocąk (Winnebago) tribe. Oliver LaMere gives an account of John Rave's role:

John Rave belongs to the Bear clan, the members of which had
the functions of what might be called sergeants-at-arms. He and
his ancestors used to be in charge of the manupetci [mąnąpe-ci]
(i. e., the sergeants-at-arms lodge), to which all malefactors would
be brought for punishment.
Rave, although he belonged to this highly respected class of
people, was a bad man. He roamed from place to place. He has
participated in all the ceremonies of the Winnebago, the medicine
dance alone excepted. He had been married many times. Up to
1901 he was a heavy drinker. In that year he went to Oklahoma
and while there ate the peyote. He then returned to the Winnebago
and tried to introduce it among them, but none with the exception
of a few relatives would have anything to do with it. This did not
in any way discourage him, however, and he continued using the
peyote, now and then getting a few converts.
There was not very much religion connected with it in the begin-
ning and the reason people drank it was on account of the
peculiar effects it had upon them. Nevertheless these Peyote
people preached good things and gradually lost all desire for
intoxicating drinks or for participating in the old Winnebago
ceremonies. Then Rave began to do away with the old Indian
customs. About four or five years ago the membership in the
Peyote religion began to increase, for many people now noticed
that those connected with the Peyote cult were the only people
in the tribe leading a Christian life. (Radin 394)

Death

He passed away in 1917, and was buried in the James Rave Cemetery, Winnebago, Thurston County, Nebraska. His is the oldest grave in the cemetery. (Find a Grave)

Sources

  • 1886 Indian census; Roll: M595_311; Page: 32; Line: 9; Agency: Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1891 Indian census; Roll: M595_311; Page: 65; Line: 12; Agency: Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1893 Indian census; Roll: M595_312; Page: 36; Line: 25; Agency: Omaha And Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1898 Indian census; Roll: M595_312; Page: 20; Line: 17; Agency: Omaha & Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1900 Federal Census for Winnebago, Thurston, Nebraska; Page: 20; Enumeration District: 0187; Description: Winnebago Precinct; FHL microfilm: 1240941. United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 1854 rolls.
  • 1901 Indian census; Roll: M595_313; Page: 24; Line: 5; Agency: Omaha & Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1902 Indian census; Roll: M595_313; Page: 16; Line: 27; Agency: Omaha & Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1910 Federal Census for Winnebago, Thurston, Nebraska; Roll: T624_857; Page: 18B; Enumeration District: 0207; FHL microfilm: 1374870. Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910 (NARA microfilm publication T624, 1,178 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1913 Indian census; Roll: M595_664; Line: 7; Agency: Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1914 Indian census; Roll: M595_664; Line: 13 [William and Sallie Baker]; Agency: Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1915 Indian census; Roll: M595_665; Line: 9; Agency: Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1916 Indian census; Roll: M595_665; Line: 8 [John Rave]; Agency: Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1916 Indian census; Roll: M595_665; Line: 16 [William and Sallie Baker]; Agency: Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • 1917 Indian census; Roll: M595_665; Page: 45; Line: 15; Agency: Winnebago. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • Find a Grave, database and images (accessed 28 November 2020), memorial page for John Rave (1856–1917), Find a Grave Memorial no. 11489849, citing James Rave Cemetery, Winnebago, Thurston County, Nebraska, USA ; Maintained by Linda Harwell (contributor 47129105) .


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Categories: Ho-Chunk | Notables