Cornelius was born about 1772 in St. Mary's Hundred, St. Mary's county, Maryland, the son of Abraham Rhodes and Mary Gough.  He was mentioned in his father's 1797 will when he and his brothers, William and James, were left the residue of the estate after other bequests.
According to St Mary's county records, on 30 October 1815, Cornelius Rhodes and his wife, Margaret, sold property to Joseph Maryman for all of their right to "Margaret's Fields", "Margaret's Forest","Beard's Choice", and "Speedwell".
The earliest record of Cornelius Rhodes in the Missouri Territory was on December 7, 1819 when he attended an estate sale of Lucy Moore in the District of Ste Genevieve where he purchased the following: 16 bushels of wheat for $12.00; 1 crib of corn (225 bushels) for $91.00; 1 white face heifer for $16.00; misc. wheat sifts for $5.00. Total worth of merchandise purchased $124.00.
In November of 1820 Perry County was organized from the southern portion of Ste Genevieve County (formerly Cinque Hommes township of Ste Genevieve). The first county courthouse meeting was May 21, 1821. Cornelius Rhodes was named the first Justice of the Peace of the new County.
On August 10, 1821 Missouri admitted to the union as a slave state. Two slave transactions document Cornelius' presence in Perry County around this time. On November 14, 1821 Cornelius sold an 8 year old boy to Father Joseph Rosati (who would later become the 1st Bishop of St. Louis) of Saint Marys Seminary in Perry County Missouri for a sum of $225.75. Almost a year later in September of 1822, Rosati, acting an agent for Bishop Dubourg (Bishop of Louisiana and the two Floridas), bought a negress, Rachel from Rhodes for $454 REFERENCE Bishop Rosati and Biship Dubuoug to see the influence of these men in the early Catholic Church in the United States.
Cornelius is to be found in court records in Perry County in a deed written on August 18, 1839 and recorded on March 27, 1840. "Cornelius Rhodes and his wife Mary Riley Rhodes, Benedict Riley and his wife Ann, William Manning and wife Sarah, and Elizabeth Manning widow of James Manning, all heirs of Henry Riley, to Rezin L. Bishop....land ... near Grand Tower in Perry County." (Book 3, Page 290).
He passed away on May 24, 1844, in Perry County, Missouri,at the age of 72.
Cornelius Rhodes' probate of 1844 mentions his children, Robert of Kentucky, John, Sylvarius and William, residents of Louisiana, Henry J. deceased., Joseph, Polly, the wife of Benedict Tucker, Cornelius residing in Ste Genevieve, Mo; Eliza, wife of Peter Tucker, Mary, the wife of Harrison Fowler, residents of Perry co., Mo.; Margaret, a resident of Perry co., Mo.
About 1772 - Birth - St. Mary's County, Maryland.
May 1, 1797 - Marriage - Married to Anastasia S. Mattingly in St. Mary's County, Maryland.
1803 - Louisiana Purchase
1804 - Louisiana Purchased divided into District of Louisiana and Territory of Orleans.
October 31, 1807 - Marriage - Cornelius married to Margaret Clarke in St. Mary's County, Maryland.
1812 - Louisiana admitted to Union - was former Territory of Orleans. District of Louisiana (Louisiana Territory) renamed to Missouri Territory. Area to be Perry County named Cinque Hommes Township of newly organized Ste Genevieve County.
October 30, 1815 - Land Sale - Cornelius Rhodes and his wife, Margaret, sold property to Joseph Maryman for all of their right to "Margaret's Fields", "Margaret's Forest","Beard's Choice", and "Speedwell".
1818 - St Marys Barrens Church founded - in Perryville of Missouri Territory by Joseph Rosati and Vincentian missonaries from Bardstown Kentucky.
December 7, 1819 - Attends Sale in Missouri - Cornelius attends estate sale in District of Ste Genevieve in Missouri Territory.
August 10, 1821 - State of Missouri admitted to United States - Perry County created from Ste Genevieve County (SG one of 5 original counties of Missouri Territory).
September 5, 1821 - Slave Sale - Cornelius sells slave girl Rachel to John Layton for $150 to secure debt owed to Layton. Slave was returned once debt paid off. Both of Cinque Hommes Township of Perry County. 
November 14, 1821 - Slave Sale - Cornelius to Joseph Rosati CM slave boy; Saint Marys Seminary; Perry County Missouri
September 1822 - Slave Sale - Cornelius (parishioner of St. Marys Barrens Church) to Bishop Dubourg (Louisiana and 2 Floridas), negress Rachel.
1822-23 - St. Marys Assumption Parish Census - Perry County Missouri - Cornelius listed as partly behind on ssessment.
1830 - United States Federal Census - In the 1830 census, Cornelius Rhodes is listed as living in Ste Genevieve, Ste Genevieve County, Missouri, with his family. Enumerated were two free white males, 10 thru 14; 2 free white males, 15 thru 19; 1 free white male, 20 thru 29; and 1 free white make, 50 thru 59. Also in the household were 2 free white females, 5 thru 9; and 1 free white female, 50 thru 59. There were a total of 9 people in the household.
October 1, 1830 - Marriage - Married to Mary Magdalene Riley Wimsatt in Perryville, Perry County, Missouri.
September 13, 1838 - Land Sale - Cornelius sells lot in village of New Bourbon in Ste Genevieve County (New Bourbon was a village on the bluff overlooking the Mississippi River bottoms 1.5 miles south of present day Ste Genevieve on Highway 61 - nothing remains of it). 
1840 - United States Federal Census - In the 1840 census, Ancestry has Cornelius indexed as Cornelious Roder, living in Perry County, Missouri. The household is listed as having one free white male, 15 thru 19; one free white male 20 thru 29; one free white male, 60 thur 69; two free wite females, 15 thur 19 and one free white female, 60 thu 69. Two people are employed in agriculture and there are 6 total people in the household.
May 24, 1844 - Death - Perry County, Missouri
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