Scarborough was one of the most prominent of the early English settlers of the Accomac Shire of the Virginia Colony, now the Eastern Shore of Virginia.
Scarborough at various times served as Speaker of the House of Burgesses, on the Governor's Council, county sheriff, lawyer, planter, surveyor, firearms dealer, cattle rancher, merchant, ship owner, Accomack Justice, and militia colonel. 
The county was abolished for a time in 1670 as Gov.William Berkeley wanted to arrest Col. Edmund Scarburgh for the murders of some native chiefs. This was one of the incidents which led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676. Scarburgh claimed immunity from prosecution as members of the General Assembly (a Burgess) was immune to arrest. In order to circumvent this immunity, Berkeley declared the county formation to be nullified. When Scarburgh died the county was re-created in 1671. It was not until 1940 that the county received the k at the end of its name to become Accomack County.
Near the end of his career, Scarborough helped survey the border between the Eastern Shore of Maryland and the Eastern Shore of Virginia, the Calvert-Scarborough Line, moving it substantially northwards to keep his own holdings within the colony of Virginia.
Edmund married in about 1634 at Accomack County to Mary (Unknown). She may have been Mary Cade or Harmar (Cade or Harmar?)
Note: Several genealogical references state that Edmund Scarborough II, was married to "Mary Littleton" (or to "Mary Charleton"). Additional information implies that Edmond Scarburgh (Scarborough) had a mistress, or at the very least, a very close associate by the name of Ann Toft.
Ann Toft was a mistress of Col. Edmund and is said to have bore him three daughters during the 1660s.
Children of Col. Edmund Scarborough and his wife, Mary:
Sarah Scarborough, ; m Judge James Henry and had 3 sons & 3 daughters
Children of Col. Edmund Scarborough and his mistress, Ann Toft:
Death and Legacy
Col. Edmund died before 23 May 1671 at Hedra Cottage, Accomack County, Virginia Colony. He was buried at the Scarborough Graveyard, Accomack County, Virginia, USA
Colonel Edmund Scarborough
April 9, 2007
Colonel Edmund Scarborough (1617 - 1671) was an influential early settler of Virginia and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1642 to 1671, the year of his death.
Scarborough was born in England; his father, Edmund Scarborough (1584-1635), was a barrister and graduate of Caius College, who emigrated to Virginia with his family, circa 1628.
On April 28, 1651, Scarborough led a raid of some fifty men, on the nearby Pocamoke Indian village after convincing the settlers that the Indians planned to attack. At least one historian doubts the veracity of his story and suggested that he may have invented the story in order to raise enough men for the attack the village. After capturing some of the villagers and binding them in changes the Indians did start attacking the English. In May all the men involved in the action were called to appear in court for their illegal actions.
By 1663 Col. Scarborough had become an enemy of the Quakers located in Accomack County, Virginia (including Ambrose Dixon). After the group of Quakers moved to Maryland where they were offered more religious freedom, Col. Scarborough used his positions as commander of His Majesty's Forces on Virginia's Eastern Shore and Surveyor-General of the Virginia Colony to lead a force of men into Maryland and claim the area for Virginia. Scarborough escaped condemnation for his actions thanks to his influence at the court of Charles II; his brother, Charles Scarborough, was the king's physician.
His eldest son would drown as an adult in the York River on September 21, 1739.
Notes on Edmund Scarburgh:
Name: Edmund SCARBROUGH
ALIA: Edmund /Scarbrugh/
Title: Lt. Col.
Birth: 1618 in London, England [Sic. = October 1617 in Yorkshire]
Death: 1671 in Eastern Shore of Virginia [Accomack Co.]
Occupation: Merchant, tobacco planter, land speculator, operator of a shoe factory, a prewery , a salt monopoly & owner of 7 ships - also, a British Army Officer.
Event: AKA (Facts Pg) Edmund Scarburgh
Event: Title/position Lt. Col.
Event: Title/position Justice of the county court, Sheriff
Event: Title/position Member of House of Burgesses
Event: Title/position Speaker of the House of Burgesses
Event: Title/position BET. 1655 - 1671 Surveyor General of Virginia
Residence: Occahonnock House, 3000 acres 6 miles up the Chesapeake Bay from Nassawaddox
Col. Edmond Scarburgh, Jr.
(October 1617 - May 23, 1671) [= He died of smallpox]
Edmond Scarburgh, III (1647 - 1712) + Elizabeth Edwards (???? - ????)
Drawing of Col. Edmund Scarburgh from the book, Squires and Dames of Old Virginia, by Evelyn Kinder Donaldson, 1950.
According to Robert B. Scarborough's book, SCARBOROUGHS..., Col. Edmond Scarburgh came to America with his father. He was called "Conjurer" by the Indians and he established a flourishing trade commerce.
According to Squires and Dames..., of his many endeavors, Col. Edmond Scarborough owned several trading vessels. During the 1650's, his boats with names like "Deliverance," "Mayflower," "King David" helped to further his enterprises. In particular, he had a shoe factory that used moose skins to produce a very fine shoe. These skins came from what is now known as Maine.
The Colonel took his business very seriously. On a trading trip in 1651 to the Indians on the Delaware River, his vessel "Sea Horse" was boarded and taken by the Dutch. He returned the favor the next year when his sloop "Ye Hobby Horse" captured several Dutch trading vessels and their crews. When his actions were questioned by his son Charles, the Colonel "practically told him to mind his business and that he would take care of the Dutch in his own way." It should have been obvious: the action lessened competition and increased his personal fleet!
Evelyn Donaldson writes: "In 1671, just 40 years after coming to Virginia as a boy with his immigrant parents, the doughty colonel died, a victim of smallpox, and lies buried in a small plot of ground near Hedra Cottage. The state of Virginia has placed a marble marker to mark the spot. His brother, Charles, in England was knighted August 15, 1669. Sir Charles outlived Edward some thirty years. And so we note a great difference in the lives of the two brothers. Edmund was tempestuous and would fight at the drop of a hat. Charles was peaceful and gentle, taking life with a quiet suavity. His biographers say he died of gentle decay. Edmund Scarborough however built a dynasty in America which was heard from in every generation. He left his widow Mary Littleton Scarborough and five children very well-to-do."
According to Ron Sweeney's email of May 21, 2000 as shown in Edmund Scarborough Generations 1 through 3 section at website: http://www.esva.net/ghotes/scarb/scarb.htm, "In 1652, Col. Scarbrough planned to return to England for good. He sold the following ocean going ships to William Burton of Boston, Mass: 1) The Deliverance, 2) The Mayflower, 3) King David, 4) The Sea Horse, 5) The Holly Horse, 6) The Ann Clear, and 7) The Artillery."
It is unknown at this time if he did go back to England for a visit. He is buried in "Seaside", Accomack County, VA as is his wife, Mary.
Note: sons Charles and Edmond apparently were Colonels also!
Notes for LT. COLONEL EDMOND SCARBOROUGH II:
Col. Edmond Scarborough, the second son of Captain Edmond and Hannah Butler came to America with his father. He married Mary Littleton, [sic; see Mary] daughter (actually his sister) of Col. Nathaniel Littleton, in England, and patented vast tracts of land in Virginia. (Mary Scarborough did not come over with her husband, but arrived in 1640, brought over by her husband, Edmond Scarborough, of Accomac, according to Greer.) He held the highest offices within the gift of the people, and the Crown, and was the most distinguished member of the family, as well as the most spectacular. There are many traditions concerning him and his high handed actions in Colonial Virginia, some of which were called unscrupulous. He was called "Conjurer" by the Indians, who hated and feared him, and was anathema to the Puritans and Quakers, whom he considered his special enemies.
The Scarboroughs were the largest land owners on the Eastern Shore, and with their powerful connections, exercised almost feudal powers in the Colony. Though there were many clashes with Colonial authorities, and sometimes with the mother country, Col. Edmond Scarborough was able to avoid serious punishment because of the influence of his brother, Sir Charles Scarborough, Court Physician at the Court of St. James. When under fire in Virginia, he conveniently removed temporarily to Maryland, where he had large holdings, or to New England, where his ships were constantly in port. (Owned a ship called Mayflower but not Pilgrim's Mayflower.) As Surveyor-General, Col. Scarborough fixed boundary lines that suited his convenience, and was able to extend the southern boundary of Accomac County in order to include his home, which normally would lie in Northampton County, if the two counties were equally divided. He still owned land in Northampton, after the division of the two counties, and was the King's Collector of Quit Rents, among his other official duties under the Crown.
When Col. Edmond Scarborough surveyed and marked the boundary between Maryland and Virginia, Governor Calvert, of Maryland, was vigorous in his protest. A new survey was finally made, called the Calvert-Scarborough Line, ratified by the Legislatures of the two states, and recognized in 1688 as the boundary line.
Col. Edmond Scarborough was indeed a versatile man. He not only managed his large plantations, with his many slaves and servants, and had heavy official duties with his various Colonial offices, but he was interested in many of the colony's early manufacturing ventures. He had the exclusive right to make salt, had one of the earliest shoe factories, and malt plants, and carried on an extensive shipping business. He was also an able lawyer, and a power in the Courts. Though an ardent Royalist, it has been said that would undoubtedly have joined Bacon in his Rebellion, as his son, Col. Charles Scarborough, did had he lived a few years longer, for he was an avowed enemy of Governor Berkeley, with whom he had many clashes. Col. Charles Scarborough was joined in his allegiance to Bacon by his cousin, William Scarborough, though his brother, Captain Edmond Scarborough, remained loyal to Governor Berkeley. After the death of Bacon, and the collapse of the rebellion, Col. Charles Scarborough escaped with only a fine, while his cousin, William Scarborough, was sentenced to death and his property confiscated, March 16, 1677. The defection of Col. Charles Scarborough was evidently forgiven, for in 1692 he was the Naval Officer and Collector for the Eastern Shore, under Governor Andros, and served until 1698. His father, Col. Edmond Scarborough, had held this office during his lifetime, and the son of Col. Charles, Henry Scarborough, succeeded his father in 1699.
This fiery Col. Edmond Scarborough, with all of his faults was a remarkable man of his day, for in spite of his unbridled violence, and will, his loyalty to Virginia and her institutions could not be questioned. Among his many offices were the following: Member of the House of Burgesses, 1642-1671; Speaker of the House of Burgesses, 1645; Justice of Northampton County; Sheriff in 1666; Surveyor General for Virginia, 1665-1671, and numerous offices in the Church. He died circa 1673 and is probably buried on his estate on Occahannock Creek, where his home, called Hedrick Cottage, was still standing a few years ago. The neck of land between Craddocks Creek, and Occahannock Creek was called Scarborough's Neck.
(Southern Kith and Kin, p. 16-18)
Resided in Northampton and at "Seaside",Accomac Counties, Virginia. Was appointed Major Surveyor General of the Colony of Virginia in 1666-1667 by King of England via a warrant to Edward Earl of Carendon, Lord Chancellor; held position until death in 1671. Also was Surveyor General in 1655. Served in House of Burgesses 1642, 1644-1645, 1647, 1652, 1659, 1660-1661; Speaker of House of Burgesses 1645. Appointment BET 1666/1671 Major Surveyor General of Colony of Virginia
Subj: [SCARBOROUGH-L] From the Book- Complete Book of Emigrants 1607-1776
Date: 12/30/99 7:14:54 PM Eastern Standard Time
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Ralph McNabb)
Nov. 10, 1668
Petition of David Fairvacks of London, Merchant, Edmond Scarborough of Virginia, Merchant, borrowed money from him which he promised to repay after his arrival in Virginia; he has now been there many years and has built up a large estate which he settled on his children but the petitioner has not been repaid.
He was baptized October 2, 1617 in St. Martins, London, England.(908) He accompanied his parents to Virginia, while his elder brother Charles remained in England to complete his education. At the death of Captain Edmund Scarborough, he assumed the responsibility of settling his fathers affairs in Virginia. On November 28, 1635 he patented 200 acres of land on Magothy Bay in Accomac County- "fifty acres for his late father, Captain Edmund Scarborough, fifty acres for the personal venture of his mother, Hannah Scarborough, fifty acres for his own personal venture, and fifty acres for the transportation of one servant called Robert Butler." This was the first of many land patents issued to Col. Edmund Scarborough; in subsequent years he acquired lands totaling more than 46,500 acres, and became the largest landholder on the Eastern shore of Virginia. Col. Edmund Scarborough was a vindictive Indian baiter, an intolerant persecuter of the Quaker settlers in the area, and a totally unscrupulous politician and business man. On the other hand, he was totally fearless, a gifted orator, a shrewd lawyer, an accomplished surveyer and engineer, and a highly successful planter and merchant. He served a number of terms in the house of Burgesses (where for a time he was speaker), was sheriff of Northampton County, played a major role in drawing up the famous "Northampton Protest", and for many years was Surveyer-General of Virginia, in which capacity he surveyed the boundry between Virginia and Maryland on the Eastern Shore. He erected on his estates a malt house, a shoe factory, and a salt works, and he was the owner of numerous ships with which he carried on an extensive trade with England, New England, the Netherlands and the West Indies. He was the first to import Negro Slaves of any number into Virginia. The Colonel was constantly involved in quarrels with his neighbors and business associates. At one time (July 1653) his conduct was such that he was charged with treason and piracy and forced to flee the colony. In a little over a year, however, he was back in Virginia, and incredibly enough, within a few months gained back everything he had lost and more. From this time to the restoration (1660) he was on the best terms with Governor Bennett and the Parliamentary authorities - indeed, his eldest son Charles later married Governor Bennett's daughter Elizabeth. With the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, Scarborough's influence and power increased still more, and he consistantly flouted the laws, refused to pay his debts, and blithely disregarded the decisions of the courts and the mandates of Governor William Berkely. The influence of his brother Sir Charles Scarborough at the English court seems largely to account for the Colonel's immunity.
Date: Sun, 21 May 2000 01:37:36 EDT
Subject: The Ships of Edmund Scarbrough
I found the following reference on the GHOTES site under "History of the E.S." then scroll down to "Tidbits about the E.S." as Follows:
In 1652 Col. Scarbrough planned to return to England for good. He sold the following ocean going ships to William Burton of Boston, Mass.:
1. The Deliverance
2. The Mayflower
3. King David
4. The Sea Horse
5. The Holly Horse
6. The Ann Clear
7. The Artillery
The reason this is of interest to me is that we have a reference stating that Daniel Isham (Esham) was brought to Northampton Co. from London in 1652 on the bark Mayflower a ship owned by Edmund Scarbrough. This reference was obtained from the MD archive by one of the above addressees but has since vanished.
This find on Ghotes is the first verification I have seen that Edmund Scarbrough was a ship owner and did indeed own a bark named Mayflower. "Early Virginia Immigrants" by George Cable Greer sites Thomas Teakle as the sponsor of Daniel's trip for which he received the usual fifty acres. Daniel was indentured to Derman MacCloud and five years later received a cow called "Sweet Lips" for his servitude. This is proven by the will of MacCloud.
As to the question "is this the original Mayflower" the answer is No.
The orignal Mayflower was declared unseaworthy and salvaged in London in the Late 1620's. This ship was refered to as a Bark. I have no Idea what class the Pilgrims Mayflower may have been. There were apparently many ships and boats of various kinds called the Mayflower, The May Flower and so on. [NOTE by Chet Snow: The "original" Mayflower that sailed to Plymouth Bay in 1620 was later disassembled and made into a barn; the timbers still stand at Jordans, near Beaconsfield, England. I personally saw the barn in 2005.]
Best Wishes to all,
Date: Sun, 21 May 2000 02:00:09 EDT
Subject: (no subject)
Just a note: A bark is a 3 to five masted "Tall" ship (bigger than a schooner.) In the 1800's they were used to transport bananas and other goods up the Chesapeake from the Carribean to Baltimore. They are some still around today...
Gail M. Walczyk
Date: Wed, 26 Jul 2000 02:19:23 EDT
Subject: Confrence question update
This is an update on the question posed at the conference in regard to Col. Edmund Scarburgh having "two" sons with the name Charles. This theory would not alter the genealogy of those people whose lines that run through the Charles, son of Col. Edmund, who married Elizabeth Bennet's genealogies.
Stories about: The Scarburghs
For very interesting reading about the Scarburgh/Scarborough family go to this site:
Here's another cite for Tabitha Scarburgh, who was the wife of John Smart. It seems that she was married to Smart before 12 Jul 1653. See the third line of the below deed:
Walcyzk, Frank V., Northampton County VA Orders, Deeds & Wills 1651-1654 Book IV, (Coram, NY Peter's Row) p 129.
(Original Page 152)
To all Christian people whom these presents shall come or concern greeting, these presents may certify that I Edm. Scarburgh of the County of Northampton in Virginia, merchant, have (as in part of a person for my daughter Tabithia now wife unto John Smart) and do by these presents freely give and grant unto the said John Smart all that tract of land belonging unto me at Maggattey Bay in this county, with all the housing and necessarys there unto belonging and all the cattle there on of what age, nature, or quality so ever (except two cows properly belonging unto John Dollinge) freely for his heirs, execs, and admins to possess and enjoy forever without any trouble, molestation or disturbance from me, my heirs, execs, or admins. More over I do here acknowledge to have in my possession three heffers, three yearlings and one bull (being the increase of a beast of my daughter Tabitha her own) all which I the said Edm. Scarburgh do here by for my self, heirs, execs, and admins deliver unto the said John Smart (his heirs, execs, or assignes) freely and really as my firm act and deed without and deception or mental reservation witness my hand and seal this twelfth day of July anno dom 1653.
Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of us Tho. Johnson, Tho. Teackle, and John Dollinge
Recorded 27 die September 1653 per me Edm. Mathews clk cur
Col. Edmund Scarburgh
Accomac County was abolished for a time in 1670. Governor William Berkeley, wanted to arrest Col. Edmund Scarburgh for the murders of some native chiefs. This was one of the incidents that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676. Scarburgh claimed to be a Burgess for Accomac, and members of the General Assembly were immune to arrest. So, to circumvent this situation, Governor Berkeley nullified the law that created the county. This eliminated Scarburgh's protection from being arrested. When Scarburgh died in 1671, the General Assembly re-created Accomac County.
Special Notes: Several references state that Edmund Scarborough, II was married to a "Mary Littleton" or to a "Mary Charleton." Additional information implies that Edmond Scarburgh had a mistress, or at the very least, a very close business associate by the name of Ann Toft.
↑ 1.01.1 Eldridge, William Henry. Henry Genealogy: The Descendants of Samuel Henry of Hadley and Amherst, Mass., 1734-1790, and Lurana (Cady) Henry, His Wife. With an Appendix Containing Brief Accounts of Other Henry Families. (Press of T.R. Marvin & Son, 1915) Archive.org (Page 204).
↑ Wise, Jennings Cropper (1911). Ye Kingdome of Accawmacke, or The Eastern Shore of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Richmond, Virginia: The Bell Book and Stationery Co.
Categories: 1617 births
↑ Kukla, Jon (1981). Speakers and Clerks of the Virginia House of Burgesses, 1643–1776. Richmond, Virginia: Virginia State Library. ISBN 0-88490-075-4.
It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Edmund by comparing test results with other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA.
Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree: