Koesno (Sosrodihardjo) Sukarno

Koesno (Sosrodihardjo) Sukarno (1901 - 1970)

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Koesno Sukarno formerly Sosrodihardjo
Born in Soerabaia, Hindia Belandamap
Ancestors ancestors
[sibling(s) unknown]
Husband of — married in Yogyakarta Hindia Belanda (now Indonesia)map
Father of [private daughter (1940s - unknown)]
Died in Jakarta, Jakarta Pusat, Jakarta Raya, Indonesiamap
Profile last modified | Created 19 Aug 2014 | Last significant change: 20 Nov 2018
13:27: Nicolas LaPointe edited the Biography for Koesno (Sosrodihardjo) Sukarno (1901-1970). [Thank Nicolas for this | 1 thank-you received]
This page has been accessed 840 times.

Categories: Famous People of the 20th Century | Indonesian Politicians | Unconnected Notables | Indonesia, Unconnected Profiles | Indonesian War for Independence | Presidents of Indonesia | Surabaya | Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation | Indonesian Notables.


Contents

Biografi

Koesno (Sosrodihardjo) Sukarno is Notable.

(English version below)

Dr.(H.C.) Ir. H. Soekarno1 (ER, EYD: Sukarno, nama lahir: Koesno Sosrodihardjo) (lahir di Surabaya, Jawa Timur, 6 Juni 1901 – meninggal di Jakarta, 21 Juni 1970 pada umur 69 tahun) adalah Presiden Indonesia pertama yang menjabat pada periode 1945–1966. Ia memainkan peranan penting dalam memerdekakan bangsa Indonesia dari penjajahan Belanda. Ia adalah Proklamator Kemerdekaan Indonesia (bersama dengan Mohammad Hatta) yang terjadi pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945. Soekarno adalah yang pertama kali mencetuskan konsep mengenai Pancasila sebagai dasar negara Indonesia dan ia sendiri yang menamainya.[1]

Soekarno menandatangani Surat Perintah 11 Maret 1966 Supersemar yang kontroversial, yang isinya —berdasarkan versi yang dikeluarkan Markas Besar Angkatan Darat— menugaskan Letnan Jenderal Soeharto untuk mengamankan dan menjaga keamanan negara dan institusi kepresidenan. Supersemar menjadi dasar Letnan Jenderal Soeharto untuk membubarkan Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI) dan mengganti anggota-anggotanya yang duduk di parlemen. Setelah pertanggungjawabannya ditolak Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Sementara (MPRS) pada sidang umum ke empat tahun 1967, Soekarno diberhentikan dari jabatannya sebagai presiden pada Sidang Istimewa MPRS pada tahun yang sama dan Soeharto menggantikannya sebagai pejabat Presiden Republik Indonesia. [1]

Nama dan Ejaan

Ketika dilahirkan, Soekarno diberikan nama Kusno oleh orangtuanya.Namun karena ia sering sakit maka ketika berumur sebelas tahun namanya diubah menjadi Soekarno oleh ayahnya. Nama tersebut diambil dari seorang panglima perang dalam kisah Bharata Yudha yaitu Karna. Nama "Karna" menjadi "Karno" karena dalam bahasa Jawa huruf "a" berubah menjadi "o" sedangkan awalan "su" memiliki arti "baik".[1]

Di kemudian hari ketika menjadi presiden, ejaan nama Soekarno diganti olehnya sendiri menjadi Sukarno karena menurutnya nama tersebut menggunakan ejaan penjajah (Belanda) Ia tetap menggunakan nama Soekarno dalam tanda tangannya karena tanda tangan tersebut adalah tanda tangan yang tercantum dalam Teks Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia yang tidak boleh diubah, selain itu tidak mudah untuk mengubah tanda tangan setelah berumur 50 tahun. Sebutan akrab untuk Soekarno adalah Bung Karno. [1]

Kelahiran dan Ayah Ibu

Soekarno dilahirkan dengan seorang ayah yang bernama Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo dan ibunya yaitu Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai.Keduanya bertemu ketika Raden Soekemi yang merupakan seorang guru ditempatkan di Sekolah Dasar Pribumi di Singaraja, Bali.Nyoman Rai merupakan keturunan bangsawan dari Bali dan beragama Hindu, sedangkan Raden Soekemi sendiri beragama Islam.Mereka telah memiliki seorang putri yang bernama Sukarmini sebelum Soekarno lahir. Ketika kecil Soekarno tinggal bersama kakeknya, Raden Hardjokromo di Tulung Agung, Jawa Timur. [1]

1945 Merdeka

Setelah menemui Marsekal Terauchi di Dalat, Vietnam, terjadilah Peristiwa Rengasdengklok pada tanggal 16 Agustus 1945; Soekarno dan Mohammad Hatta dibujuk oleh para pemuda untuk menyingkir ke asrama pasukan Pembela Tanah Air Peta Rengasdengklok. Tokoh pemuda yang membujuk antara lain Soekarni, Wikana, Singgih serta Chairul Saleh. Para pemuda menuntut agar Soekarno dan Hatta segera memproklamasikan kemerdekaan Indonesia, karena di Indonesia terjadi kevakuman kekuasaan. Ini disebabkan karena Jepang sudah menyerah dan pasukan Sekutu belum tiba. Namun Soekarno, Hatta dan para tokoh menolak dengan alasan menunggu kejelasan mengenai penyerahan Jepang. Alasan lain yang berkembang adalah Soekarno menetapkan momen tepat untuk kemerdekaan Indonesia yakni dipilihnya tanggal 17 Agustus 1945 saat itu bertepatan dengan bulan Ramadhan, bulan suci kaum muslim yang diyakini merupakan bulan turunnya wahyu pertama kaum muslimin kepada Nabi Muhammad SAW yakni Al Qur-an. Pada tanggal 18 Agustus 1945, Soekarno dan Mohammad Hatta diangkat oleh PPKI menjadi Presiden dan Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia. Pada tanggal 29 Agustus 1945 pengangkatan menjadi presiden dan wakil presiden dikukuhkan oleh KNIP. [1]

Istri Sukarno

  1. Oetari (1921–23)
  2. Inggit Garnasih (1923–43)
  3. Fatmawati (1943–56)
  4. Hartini (1952–70)
  5. Kartini Manoppo (1959–68)
  6. Ratna Sari Dewi (1962–70)
  7. Haryati (1963–66)
  8. Yurike Sanger (1964–68)
  9. Heldy Djafar (1966–69)

Biography

( bahasa Indonesia)

First President of Indonesia, 1945-1967. This profile will focus on family issues. Please refer to the extensive Wikipedia article for details of his extensive political career.

Sukarno was of Javanese and Balinese descent. [2]

Name and Spellings

Many Javanese persons have only one name. This is the case with Sukarno. Sukarno may be seen addressed by other terms of respect or endearment:

President Sukarno
Bung Karno (Brother, or Comrade Karno)
Pak Karno (Mister Karno)

The name Sukarno means "Good Karna" in Javanese.

As a Dutch colony (Netherlands East Indies), Indonesia used Dutch spellings, i.e. "oe" for a "u" sound. Subsequently, Indonesian spellings were introduced but personal names often retained the Dutch spelling. Sukarno himself stated that he had become accustomed to spelling his name "Soekarno" and continued to use that spelling. [2]

He is sometimes referred to in foreign accounts as "Achmad Sukarno", or some variation thereof. The (entirely fictitious) first name was reputedly added by a British journalist, who felt his readers would be confused over someone with just a single name. [2]

"President Sukarno's birth name is actually Koesno Sosrodihardjo, he was born in Surabaya, East Java, on June 6, 1901." [3]

Birth and Parentage

The son of a Javanese primary school teacher, an aristocrat named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo, and his Balinese wife from the Brahman caste named Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai from Buleleng regency, Sukarno was born at Jalan Pandean IV/40 Surabaya, East Java, in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Following Javanese custom, he was renamed after surviving a childhood illness.[2]

1933 Arrest

On 1 August 1933 Sukarno was arrested for political activities and sent to the remote island of Flores with his family (including Inggit Garnasih). After an outbreak of malaria, he was moved to Bencoolen (now Bengkulu, on the western coast of Sumatra in February 1938, where he was located upon the arrival of the Japanese. "In Bengkulu, Sukarno became acquainted with Hassan Din, the local head of Muhammadiyah organisation, and he was allowed to teach religious teachings at a local school owned by the Muhammadiyah. One of his students was 15-year-old Fatmawati, daughter of Hassan Din. He became romantically involved with Fatmawati, which he justified by stating the inability of Inggit Garnasih to produce children during their almost 20-year marriage." [2]

1945 Independence

Upon Japanese surrender, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, and Sukarno was appointed as first president. He led Indonesians in resisting Dutch re-colonization efforts via diplomatic and military means until the Dutch acknowledgment of Indonesian independence in 1949.[2]

1943 Marriage to Fatmawati

In 1943, he married Fatmawati. They lived in a house in Jalan Pegangsaan Timur No. 56, confiscated from its previous Dutch owners and presented to Sukarno by the Japanese. This house would later be the venue of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945.[2]

During the war Sukarno divorced Inggit, who refused to accept her husband's wish for polygamy. She was provided with a house in Bandung and a pension for the rest of her life.

Sukarno's Marriages

  1. Siti Oetari (1921–23). In 1920, Sukarno married Siti Oetari, daughter of his landlord Tjokroaminoto.
  2. Inggit Garnasih (1923–43). A few years later in Bandung, Sukarno became romantically involved with Inggit Garnasih, the wife of Sanoesi, the owner of the boarding house where he lived as student. Inggit was 13 years older than Sukarno. On March 1923, Sukarno divorced Siti Oetari to marry Inggit (who also divorced her husband Sanoesi).
  3. Fatmawati (1943–56). And later on, Sukarno divorced Inggit also and married Fatmawati.[2]
  4. Hartini (1952–70). In 1954, Sukarno married Hartini, a 30-year-old widow from Salatiga, whom he met during a reception. His third wife, Fatmawati was outraged by this fourth marriage. She left Sukarno and their children, although they never officially divorced. Fatmawati no longer took up the duties as First Lady, a role subsequently filled by Hartini.[2]
  5. Kartini Manoppo (1959–68)
  6. Ratna Sari Dewi (1962–70)
  7. Haryati (1963–66)
  8. Yurike Sanger (1964–68)
  9. Heldy Djafar (1966–69)

Sukarno married Siti Oetari in 1920, and divorced her in 1923 to marry Inggit Garnasih, whom he divorced c. 1943 to marry Fatmawati.[46] Sukarno also married Hartini in 1954, after which he and Fatmawati separated without divorcing. In 1959, he was introduced to the then 19-year-old Japanese hostess Naoko Nemoto, whom he married in 1962 and renamed Ratna Dewi Sukarno.[47] Sukarno also married five other spouses: Haryati (1963–1966); Kartini Manoppo (1959–1968); Yurike Sanger (1964–1968); Heldy Djafar (1966–1969).[2]

Children

  1. Megawati Sukarnoputri, who served as the fifth president of Indonesia, is his daughter by his wife Fatmawati.
  2. Her younger brother Guruh Sukarnoputra (born 1953) has inherited Sukarno's artistic bent and is a choreographer and songwriter, who made a movie Untukmu, Indonesiaku (For You, My Indonesia) about Indonesian culture. He is also a member of the Indonesian People's Representative Council for Megawati's Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle.
  3. His siblings Guntur Sukarnoputra,
  4. Rachmawati Sukarnoputri and
  5. Sukmawati Sukarnoputri have all been active in politics.
  6. Sukarno had a daughter named Kartika by Dewi Sukarno. In 2006 Kartika Sukarno married Frits Seegers, the Netherlands-born chief executive officer of the Barclays Global Retail and Commercial Bank.
  7. Other offspring include Taufan and Bayu by his wife Hartini,
  8. and a son named Toto Suryawan Soekarnoputra (born 1967, in Germany), by his wife Kartini Manoppo.[2]

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Wikipedia (Indonesian) Soekarno. https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soekarno
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 Wikipedia. Sukarno. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sukarno. Accessed August 20, 2015
  3. History of Soekarno, the President of the Republic Indonesia. http://history-of-science.blogspot.com/2013/04/history-soekarno.html


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On 25 Jul 2016 at 18:37 GMT Abby (Brown) Glann wrote:

Hi Jack,

This profile is looking good. I would recommend making it 2 separate biographies rather than keeping sections together. It makes it very hard to follow, If you look at a profile like: http://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Cormier-77 it is much easier to read with the full translations together.

Glad you're branching out into other areas of the globe!



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