06 Oct 1936 Assault & Robbery of Philip G. Bouska of Great Falls, Montana

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Date: 6 Oct 1936 to 15 Mar 1937
Location: Cascade, Montana, United Statesmap
Surname/tag: Bouska
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Philip Bouska's Shack, where the incident occurred, as published in the Great Falls Tribune

As of Tuesday, 6 Oct 1936, Philip G. Bouska, a 75-year-old farmer originally from Iowa, who’d resided in Great Falls, Montana for about 35 years, was residing in a small shack on the southern outskirts of the town, where he was raising chickens to make a living in his old age. On the day in question, Bouska had been in town to sell some of his chickens, for which he received $22.[1][2] Some time after he returned home & retired to bed, he said he was awoken by a knock at the door.

On the other side of the door were 28-year-old Ray Brooks & 30-year-old Paul Miller, rodeo followers & performers (described in at least one place as “clowns”), who were also engaged as agricultural laborers, & described as “transients,” without a home, in the newspaper.[3] Ray “Blackie” Brooks, known by the alias of Sam Bolton, a native of Washington State, was an ex-convict whose criminal record included arrests in Washington & Nevada for intoxication, robbery & assault, with a conviction for the lattermost of those in Washington, where he was also declared a parole violator.[2][4][5][6] Paul Clinton “Buck” Miller was a native of Bozeman, Montana, & had formerly worked as a painter in Fort Peck, MT. Though not convicted, Miller had been arrested previously for intoxication & assault.

According to a written confession later made by Miller, he & Brooks had been drunk & continuing to drink in town the entire day, up until 8 P.M., when they went with their friend Wes Stone to his house, & it was there that Brooks suggested they steal chickens from Bouska’s property.[2][4] In his discussions with the police, Bouska suggested that his assailants must have been aware of the money he had made that day in town, as the only possible incentive they would have had to target him, but whether this was the case or not is uncertain.

Upon Bouska opening the door, Brooks stepped into the doorway, &, according to Bouska, asked if there was a man there named Mr Carey, or possibly Mr Kelly. When Bouska said that there was not, Brooks began choking him, followed by striking him about the head & body with a lead pipe. Hearing the commotion, Miller joined Brooks inside the shack & the two were continuing to assault Bouska, kicking him on the ground, according to Bouska’s account (Miller claimed to not recall details exactly because of his drunkenness). Bouska was pleading with them, telling them to take anything, & leave his person alone. By the end, in addition to extensive cuts & bruises, Bouska ended up with five broken ribs, & had been stripped of some of his clothing, left unconscious on the ground in a pool of blood.[7][2][4] According to Miller, he talked Brooks into discontinuing the assault, upon which they took $2 from Bouska, though Bouska initially reported all $22 missing. By the time of the trial, it was stated that most of the money had been obscured under a tablecloth, & that was why it hadn’t also been taken. Brooks grabbed a watch, of Swiss make, & Miller took Bouska’s double-barrel, 10-gauge shotgun, fearing the man might manage to take it & try to shoot them with it.[1][2][8]

According to his later testimony, Bouska claimed to have regained consciousness at some point while his body was being dragged across the ground, but in what manner this may have occurred was never specified. He also initially believed there was a third man involved in attacking him, but it seems to later have been determined that this was not the case.[7] Brooks & Miller left, throwing the shotgun off the side of the road, & returning to Stone’s house, where they resumed drinking.

The next morning, Bouska awoke on the ground, in the pool of his blood, & crawled to his doorway, from which he called out for help, attracting the attention of a neighbor, C. O. McOmber, who brought another neighbor, painter Charles Lucas, to try to assist & provide first aid to Bouska. They found the shack, splattered with blood, in a state of disarray, with objects thrown about, & a can of oil spilt on the floor. Bouska’s face was battered, barely able to open his eyes, with his neck badly swollen, & groaning in pain. Going into town, Lucas alerted Bouska’s son Ed to what had happened, & it was Ed who brought news of the matter to Deputy Sheriff C. C. Johnson.[7][2]

Interior of Bouska's shack following the incident, as published in the Great Falls Tribune

Bouska was admitted to Columbus Hospital in Great Falls, where his condition was reported as serious later that day.[7][2] The attending physician feared he may have internal injuries, & it was the next day that it was reported that Bouska was receiving surgical attention.[9]

County Sheriff Guy Palagi & Deputy Johnson brought in Brooks & Miller from Stone’s house for questioning the day after the incident.[3][1][10] A piece of gum & some threads stuck to the bottom of Miller’s shoe left a distinctive mark in footprints near the shack, & Brooks’s had been splashed by the oil in the shack, which helped lead the Sheriff to the pair.[2]

Two days after the incident, the attending physician reported that Bouska was improving, & though his injuries were extensive, he was now in “fair” condition.[1] After another day went by, it’s reported he is sleeping & faring well. The Sheriff speaks with the press, saying he & Johnson are working on the case constantly, & that it has been difficult due to Bouska being unable to give a full description of the perpetrators, though Brooks & Miller were still in custody.[10]

On 13 Oct, a week after the assault, Paul Miller signed a written confession to the crime in front of several witnesses.[8][11] As published in the local newspaper, the confession read as follows:
“On Oct. 6, 1936, Ray Brooks and I were downtown drinking all day. At about 8 p.m. Wes Stone and his wife met us downtown. I was drunk and don’t remember exactly where. We all got in Stone’s car and drove out to his place, where we had a few more drinks. Then Ray and I decided to go and steal one of the old man’s chickens. When we got down there Ray Brooks went into the old man’s shack. I stayed outside. I heard a noise like someone scuffling and then heard Ray say ‘what is the matter, are you afraid?’ Then I went in and saw Ray hit the old man two or three times. I do not remember hitting the old man but if I did it was not more than once. I then told Ray, ‘For God’s sake lay off! Let’s go.’ When I first went in, the old man was out of the bed and Ray was hitting or choking him, and the old man fell on the bed. Then Ray hit him again, and I told him to lay off. The old man said, ‘You can have anything I’ve got, if you will let me alone. Here is all my money—$2.’ He handed the sack to me with the $2 in it. Then I heard something mentioned about a watch but I did not see it. I took the shotgun so that he would not shoot us, and then threw it down the side of the road. Ray and I then went to Stone’s house and right after we all went to town. We stayed around town until after the beer parlors closed and then returned to Stone’s house. The next afternoon Sheriff Palagi came out there and arrested us. This is the truth as much as I can remember of what happened that night. I had been drinking all day.”[2][4][5][12]

A day after Miller’s confession, Brooks’s past criminal record is uncovered & revealed to the public. When confronted about his record, & with Miller’s confession, Brooks admits to beating & robbing Bouska of just $1, expressing a willingness to plead guilty, but remaining “non-committal” about the details. His confession is made in the presence of Palagi, Johnson, Deputy John Dwyer, & a reporter, Fred Martin. Despite the confessions from both men, the Sheriff continued investigating, due to inconsistencies surrounding the amount of money stolen, the possibility of a third assailant, & the still-missing shotgun & watch.[4][8][5]

On 27 Oct, County Attorney C. F. Holt files charges of assault & robbery with intent to kill against both men in the District Court, with Judges H. H. Ewing & W. H. Meigs presiding over Miller & Brooks’s cases, respectively, each setting bail at $2,000.[5][13][6][12]

Mugshots of Paul Miller & Ray Brooks published in the Great Falls Tribune

On 1 Nov, Philip Bouska & his family published an advertisement in the newspaper, thanking Sheriff Palagi & his staff for their work in catching the culprits.[14]

Miller’s trial comes nearly four weeks later, on 28 Nov, with the state being represented by Chief Deputy County Attorney J. Paul Freeman. Miller pleads guilty, & his court-appointed attorney, H. B. Hoffman, argues for leniency on the grounds that his association with Brooks was the sole reason Miller was involved in the incident, & that he was not primarily responsible for the crime. Judge Ewing expressed displeasure at sentencing anyone to time in prison but also stated plainly that, had Bouska died, Miller would likely face life imprisonment. He then sentenced Miller to five years imprisonment at the State Prison in Deer Lodge.[12][15][16][17][18] Given that Miller is not listed in that facility as of the 1940 Census, he seems to have been granted parole.

Mugshot attached to state prisoner descriptions record

The day after Miller’s sentence, while going on a walk, the mostly-recovered Bouska discovers his shotgun, which had been obscured by the sand, now revealed by the wind. The Sheriff & Deputy Dwyer come by & take the gun into evidence. The watch that Brooks & Miller stole remained elusive, & it’s unclear if it was ever recovered.[17][18]

On 17 Dec, County Attorney Holt updated the charges against Brooks to acknowledge his prior convictions. Under state law, at the time, the charge of assault correlated to a prison sentence from 5 to 20 years, but in the case of prior conviction, the minimum sentence was increased from 5 to 10. With the case now before Ewing instead of Meigs, bail was increased to $5,000.[19]

Brooks pleads not guilty to the charges on 15 Jan 1937, having been appointed attorney Otto B. Kotz to represent him. The trial date is set for the spring jury term, in March.[20] However, at some point between this date & the trial date, a newly-elected County Attorney, Phil G. Greenan, moves for a dismissal of the charge, due to a lack of evidence that Brooks had intended to kill Bouska. Judge Ewing accepts the motion for dismissal.

The charges are refiled again on 8 Mar, now as assault in the first degree & robbery, with intent to commit a felony, & the case is now put before District Judge Stewart McConochie of Lewistown. Brooks maintains his not guilty plea, still represented by Kotz, while Greenan is joined by his Chief Deputy Leo Graybill in representing the state, with the trial set for the next day.[21] However, jury selection ends up taking longer than expected, with the defense using up all of its allotted challenges, & the trial is moved to 10 Mar.

At the conclusion of jury selection, the following members are chosen:[22]

  • Percy Brees
  • J. W. Ferguson
  • Ralph R. Halliday
  • L. M. Haverty
  • J. T. Josephson
  • Fred W. Miller
  • M. E. Millious
  • George Osterman
  • Thomas Prewitt, Sr.
  • Charles Reid
  • Abe Thompson
  • Richard Verrell

On the first day of the trial, Bouska is called to the stand as the first witness, recounting the incident. In his testimony, he described the man who choked him as “a creature with paws rather than hands” &, pointing at the defendant, proclaimed “that is the creature—Brooks.” Following Bouska were McOmber, Ed Bouska, & another of his neighbors, M. W. Edwards, who each testified as to the state that Bouska was in the morning after. The final witness of the first day was Paul Miller, who had agreed to testify against Brooks, but instead surprised everyone in the courtroom by repudiating his previous confession. In his testimony, Miller claimed instead that he had been far too drunk to recall anything from the evening in question, & accused the Sheriff of inducing him to make his confession.[22]

On the second day of the trial, Brooks’s signed confession is brought into evidence. Palagi, Johnson, Dwyer & Martin are all called to the stand to testify as to the confession as an attempt to impeach Miller’s testimony from the day before. Palagi & Graybill both speak to the promises that Miller had made to them before the trial, that he would testify against Brooks. The defense objected to the introduction of records proving Brook’s earlier conviction, but the judge allowed them anyway. Palagi testified that Brooks had been a difficult prisoner, attempting to cause disturbances, & at one point had to be “calmed with water from a hose.” The state then rested, with defense expected to present evidence the next day.[23][24]

On the third day of the trial, the defense surprised the court by not introducing any new testimony or witnesses, including Brooks himself. Instead, Kotz argued his confession had been made in duress, that he hadn’t been identified beyond doubt, & targeted Miller’s confession as well. Kotz also moved for a dismissal of the case on the grounds of insufficient evidence, but McConochie denied this request. The case was given to the jury at 5:30 P.M., & Brooks was found guilty that evening, with the decision delivered to a packed courtroom, & sentencing set for 2 P.M. on the following Monday, 15 Mar.[25][26][27][28][29]

That day, sentencing began as scheduled. Judge McConochie began by outlining the facts of the case & trial, & thanked Kotz for his service to the court in his appointment. He then gave the chronology of the trial, & the jury’s decision, before asking the defense if they could provide any reason for judgment to not coincide with the decision of the jury. Kotz moved that it be set aside due to the verdict not agreeing with the facts of the case, but this was denied. He then moved to arrest judgment because the charge failed to substantiate a “public offense.” This was argued between him & Greenan but ultimately overruled by McConochie. As a final attempt, Kotz provided what he claimed were “mitigating facts” to be taken into account. Kotz is quoted as follows:
“The information given to me by the defendant is that he was a member of a family of 14 children, being the second youngest. His education extended up to a part of the fifth grade. At the age of 16 or 17 years he commenced working as a logger in Washington. While in Washington he was convicted of assault in the second degree and burglary in the second degree. He was sentenced to 3 to 15 years and served about 26 to 27 months. He was then paroled.”

Kotz then said that Brooks told him his wife had left him, taking a daughter with her, but leaving their son with him. He went to California & Nevada, & contends that he largely contributed to the support of both his mother & son. He came to Montana in 1935. Kotz added that Brooks had been drunk on “cheap moonshine whiskey” for several weeks before the assault, having entered a state he called “alcohol crazy.” Finally, Kotz said Brooks had an opportunity to escape after he’d been arrested by Palagi but hadn’t taken it.

McConochie then delivered sentencing:
“Ray Brooks, alias Sam Bolton, the court wants to say that you were very ably defended by a hard working and capable attorney. The court has no comment to make in reference to the offense, although the testimony during the trial speaks for itself. It was a crime without an excuse, as the court sees it.”

Brooks was ordered to be returned to the Sheriff, to be brought to the State Prison at Deer Lodge, where he was sentenced to 40 years imprisonment, with no chance of parole due to his former conviction.[30]

Relevant Individuals

  • Mr & Mrs J. R. Andrews - a couple killed in an automobile accident in the same area on the same evening
  • Edward F. “Ed” Bouska - son of the victim; is informed of the incident by Lucas, & is responsible for informing the authorities
  • Philip G. Bouska (1861-1951) - 75-year old farmer raising chickens at a shack south of Great Falls; victim of the assault.
  • Percy Brees - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • Ray Brooks (alias Sam Bolton) - rodeo follower, performer, & ex-convict & parole violator who was primarily responsible for the assault & robbery of Philip Bouska
  • Mr. Carey (or “Kelly”) - a potentially fictitious person that Bouska claims his assailant was asking for prior to assaulting him.
  • John Dwyer - a Deputy in Sheriff Palagi’s purview, who was present at Brooks’s confession, & accompanied the Sheriff in picking up Bouska’s lost firearm; later testifies in trial.
  • M. W. Edwards - a neighbor of Bouska’s who testifies at Brooks’s trial as to Bouska’s condition following the assault.
  • H. H. Ewing - District Judge who tries Miller, & before whom Brooks later appears.
  • J. W. Ferguson - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • J. Paul Freeman - Chief Deputy County Attorney of Cascade County, who represents the state in the case against Miller. Position is held by Leo Graybill by the time of Brooks’s trial.
  • Leo C. Graybill - Chief Deputy County Attorney of Cascade County, who joins Greenan in representing the state during Brooks’s trial.
  • Phil G. Greenan - Cascade County Attorney, following C. F. Holt, who filed new charges against Brooks & represented the state during the trial.
  • Ralph R. Halliday - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • L. M. Haverty - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • H. B. Hoffman - attorney appointed by District Court to represent Paul Miller in his trial.
  • C. F. Holt - Cascade County Attorney, who filed initial charges alleged against Brooks & Miller; later replaced by Phil Greenan
  • C. C. Johnson - Deputy Sheriff of Cascade County, who is directly informed of the assault by Bouska’s son, Ed.
  • J. T. Josephson - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • Otto B. Kotz - attorney appointed by District Court to represent Ray Brooks in his trial.
  • Charles Lucas - a neighbor of Bouska’s, who works as a painter, & was called upon by McOmber to provide first aid to the injured man & later informs victim’s son
  • Fred Martin - a local newspaper reporter who was present at Brooks’s signed confession, who testified at his trial
  • Stewart McConochie - District Judge at Lewistown, MT, who tries Brooks’s case.
  • H. J. McGregor - a doctor who testifies at Brooks’s trial as to the nature of the beating that Bouska had experienced.
  • C. O. McOmber - a neighbor of Bouska’s, who he calls for upon regaining consciousness & provides first aid; later testifies at trial.
  • W. H. Meigs - District Judge before whom Brooks initially appears, though his case is later assigned to two other judges.
  • Fred W. Miller - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • Paul Miller - rodeo follower & performer who participated in the assault & robbery of Philip Bouska
  • M. E. Millious - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • George Osterman - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • Guy Palagi - Sheriff of Cascade County
  • Thomas Prewitt, Sr. - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • Charles Reid - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • Wes Stone - a friend & drinking companion of Brooks & Miller’s, who is said to have been with the assailants bother prior to, & following the attack on Bouska.
  • Abe Thompson - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial
  • Richard Verrell - member of the jury in Brooks’s trial


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 “Aged Victim of Assault Is Improved.” Great Falls Tribune, 9 Oct. 1936, p. 20, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93244983/aged-victim-of-assault-is-improved/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 “Man Confesses to Assault on Aged Great Falls Man.” Great Falls Tribune, 14 Oct. 1936, p. 14, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93249786/man-confesses-to-assault-on-aged-great/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  3. 3.0 3.1 “Old Man Beaten and Robbed; Two Are Held.” The Independent-Record, 8 Oct. 1936, p. 10, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93240727/old-man-beaten-and-robbed-two-are-held/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 “Admits Aiding in Assault on P. Bouska, 75.” Great Falls Tribune, 15 Oct. 1936, p. 7, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93254168/admits-aiding-in-assault-on-p-bouska/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 “Men Charged with Assault; Bond Is Set.” Great Falls Tribune, 28 Oct. 1936, p. 14, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93254585/men-charged-with-assault-bond-is-set/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  6. 6.0 6.1 “Assault and Robbery Charges Are Filed.” The Billings Gazette, 29 Oct. 1936, p. 12, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93255203/assault-and-robbery-charges-are-filed/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 “Three Robbers Beat Aged Man to Get Money.” Great Falls Tribune, 8 Oct. 1936, p. 10, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93242084/three-robbers-beat-aged-man-to-get-money/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 “Sheriff Gets Written Confession in Beating.” The Billings Gazette, 15 Oct. 1936, p. 16, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93254210/sheriff-gets-written-confession-in/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  9. “Bouska at Columbus Hospital for Surgical Attention.” Great Falls Tribune, 8 Oct. 1936, p. 10, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93239319/bouska-at-columbus-hospital-for/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  10. 10.0 10.1 “Probe Is Continued in Bouska Assault.” Great Falls Tribune, 10 Oct. 1936, p. 7, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93245818/probe-is-continued-in-bouska-assault/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  11. “Confesses Assault.” The Missoulian, 14 Oct. 1936, p. 1, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93252700/confesses-assault/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 “Miller Admits He Attacked Aged Man; Gets Prison Term.” Great Falls Tribune, 29 Nov. 1936, p. 10, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93255568/miller-admits-he-attacked-aged-man/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  13. “Assault Alleged.” The Independent-Record, 29 Oct. 1936, p. 10, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93254614/assault-alleged/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  14. “Notice to the Public.” Great Falls Tribune, 1 Nov. 1936, p. 15, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93255249/notice-to-the-public/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  15. “Pleads Guilty.” The Billings Gazette, 2 Dec. 1936, p. 7, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93255844/pleads-guilty/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  16. The Independent-Record, 3 Dec. 1936, p. 8, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93255874/the-independent-record/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  17. 17.0 17.1 “Wind Uncovers Shotgun Stolen by Assailants.” Great Falls Tribune, 30 Nov. 1936, p. 10, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93255740/wind-uncovers-shotgun-stolen-by/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  18. 18.0 18.1 “It’s an Ill Wind That Blows Nobody a Stolen Shotgun.” The Independent-Record, 1 Dec. 1936, p. 6, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93255807/its-an-ill-wind-that-blows-nobody-a/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  19. “Suspect Will Face Added Charges Here.” Great Falls Tribune, 18 Dec. 1936, p. 12, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93256818/suspect-will-face-added-charges-here/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  20. “Brooks Denies Assault Count; Bond Is Fixed.” Great Falls Tribune, 16 Jan. 1937, p. 12, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93256958/brooks-denies-assault-count-bond-is/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  21. “New Charge of Assault Filed Here.” Great Falls Tribune, 9 Mar. 1937, p. 14, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93257107/new-charge-of-assault-filed-here/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  22. 22.0 22.1 “Witness in Brooks Assault Trial Repudiates His Story.” Great Falls Tribune, 11 Mar. 1937, p. 16, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93257538/witness-in-brooks-assault-trial/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  23. “State Rests Case in Trial on Assault Charges Here.” Great Falls Tribune, 12 Mar. 1937, p. 20, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93257926/state-rests-case-in-trial-on-assault/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  24. “Assault Case at Great Falls May Be Ended Today.” The Missoulian, 12 Mar. 1937, p. 10, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93257639/assault-case-at-great-falls-may-be/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  25. “Brooks Guilty of Assault on Aged Great Falls Man.” Great Falls Tribune, 13 Mar. 1937, p. 12, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93317126/brooks-guilty-of-assault-on-aged-great/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  26. "Guilty of Assault." The Missoulian, 13 Mar. 1937, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93317205/guilty-of-assault/
  27. "Great Falls Man Declared Guilty." The Montana Standard, 13 Mar. 1937, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93317312/great-falls-man-declared-guilty/
  28. "Great Falls Jury Finds Ray Brooks Guilty." Billings Gazette, 14 Mar. 1937, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93317805/falls-jury-finds-ray-brooks-guilty/
  29. “Surprise Move by Defense in Trial of Assault Case.” The Missoulian, 13 Mar. 1937, p. 9, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93317628/surprise-move-by-defense-in-trial-of/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.
  30. “40-Year Sentence Imposed on Ray Brooks for Assault.” Great Falls Tribune, 16 Mar. 1937, p. 16, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93320345/40-year-sentence-imposed-on-ray-brooks/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.

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