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22nd Tennessee Cavalry (Barteau's)

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22nd Regiment, Tennessee Cavalry (Barteau's)

Tennessee
22nd Regiment, Tennessee Cavalry (Barteau's), originally and often called 2nd Regiment, was organized in June, 1862, by consolidating the 1st and 7th Tennessee Cavalry Regiments (should be battalions). It was assigned to Ferguson's and T H Bell's Brigade and for the most part served in Northern Mississippi. The unit was active at Iuka, Corinth, Brice's Cross Roads, Fort Pillow, and Harrisburg. Later it moved with Hood back to Tennessee and in February, 1865, was consolidated with Wilson's 21st Cavalry Regiment (Wilson's) as the 21st and 22nd Consolidated Regiment. This command totalled 31 officers and 317 men in May and surrendered with the Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana.[1]

Officers

Colonel Clark R Barteau, Lieutenant Colonel George H Morton, and Majors O B Farris and William Parrish.[1]

Unit History

22nd (BARTEAU'S) TENNESSEE CAVALRY REGIMENT Originally and usually called 2nd Tennessee Cavalry Regiment. Also 2nd Tennessee Cavalry Battalion.

Official explanation of the confusion on the identity of the regiment. This was typical of many Confederate cavalry regiments formed in Tennessee and Mississippi. They changed their identity, including their Number, and many reports refer to them by their commander. Many of the Tennessee regiments recruited in West Tennessee in winter of 1863/1864, were given numbered units by Forrest's command but which were not recognized as official names by the Confederate War Department in Richmond. This explains regiments that have two numbered units. The 22 Tennessee Cavalry Regiment was commonly referred to as Barteau's Regiment. Here is his explanation.

Quote from Tennesseans in the Civil War, Vol 1.

Colonel C. R. Barteau, on a muster roll, not dated, but evidently in 1864, gave the following account of the confusion surrounding the organization of this regiment, which is typical of that of many other cavalry organizations: "I have stated that the regiment was organized June 6, 1863, but it is almost impossible to determine what is the proper date. It was organized and designated as the 2nd Tennessee Cavalry Regiment by Brigadier General Beall, June 13, 1862, with seven companies present, and three (not known) which he had ordered to report to it. He was immediately relieved of the cavalry command, the three companies did not report, and the regiment remained with seven companies until June 6, 1863, when three companies were added to it by Brigadier General Ruggles. I dated the organization of the regiment from this period, for the three companies (Captain Gurthay's Alabama Company, Captain Carpenter's Mississippi Company, and Captain Morphis's Tennessee Company, which were added by General Ruggles) did not report until the Alabama Company was again transferred by Brigadier General Ferguson to Colonel Boyle's Alabama Regiment, and the other two companies, which were operating near the Tennessee-Mississippi line, were allowed to go into other commands (during the time I was not in command of the regiment from July 12, 1863 until December 16). The regiment is not officially known at Richmond; no appointments have been made to it from the War Department. The original order of the organization was not forwarded by General Beall. He was captured at Port Hudson, and the original muster rolls, as well as the original order has been lost. No record of the organization of June 13, 1862 exists. At that time no organization less than a regiment could be received at Richmond. Captain N. Oswell dropped from (report torn) by order Brigadier General Ferguson and not yet returned from West

To this may be added the information that the original seven companies were a consolidation of 1st (MeNairy's) Battalion and 7th (Bennett's) Battalion (q.v.) In May, 1864, Brigadier General A. Buford assigned three more companies to complete the regiment, and finally on February 15, 1865, the War Department directed: "The organization of Barteau's Tennessee Cavalry Regiment made by the addition of the companies commanded by Captain 0. B. Fans, S. H. Reeves and B. Edwards by order of Brigadier General A. Buford is hereby confirmed to date from the 10th day of May, 1864. It will be known as the 22nd Tennessee Cavalry Regiment."

~~ end quote of Source~~

I hope that cleared this up---Not.

Commander

Colonel-Clark R. Barteau was undoubtedly a brave commander who lead his regiment and sometimes other regiments straight into the thick of the battle.

The regiment was with General Forrest in his running battle with a much larger Union force lead by Maj-Gen William Sooy Smith, which ended in the Battle of Okolona, February 20-21-22, 1864. Colonel Barteau shadowed the Union movement on its East flank. When the Union tried to hold a position at Okolona, Barteau lead a charge that hit the Union line as one brigade was forming in columns to fall back to New Albany and forcing General Sooy Smith to move his entire command.

The regiment took part in the capture of Fort Pillow on April 12, 1864, where Bell's brigade was placed temporarily under the command of Brigadier General J. R. Chalmers. Barteau moved his regiment down along the River on the north side of the elevated fort. Their small arms fire kept the Union tinclad NEW ERA (No. 7) away from approaching the bank in order to support the Union fort with artillery and in any rescue attempt. This action cut off any chance of retreat to the tinclad.

At the Battle of Brice's Crossroads (aka Guntown, near Tupelo), Col. Barteau lead his regiment around the north to get behind the Union center and routed them into a panic to flee over their only escape-- a single bridge over the Tishomingo Creek.

Another major engagement was the Battle of Harrisburg, July 13-15, 1864. Here the brigade had been increased by the addition of the 18th (Newsom's) Tennessee Cavalry Regiment. Barteau's Regiment suffered 66 casualties, including Colonel Barteau, who was wounded and furloughed.

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 National Park Service Soldiers and Sailors Database.
  • Tennesseans in the Civil War, Vol 1. Copyrighted © 1964 by the “Civil War Centennial Commission of Tennessee”.
  • Military Annals of Tennessee - Volume 1 - History of each Tennessee unit.
  • “Hancock's Diary” or "A History of the Second Tennessee Cavalry". by R. R. Hancock, Brandon Printing Co, 1887. 644 pages.
  • “The Campaigns of Gen. Nathan B. Forrest”. Gen Thomas Jordan and J. P. Pryor. Da Capo Press, 1996. 736 pages.
  • River Run Red by Andrew Ward, Viking Penguin, 2005. 530 pages
  • "Coming Like Hell!: The Story Of The 12th Tennessee Cavalry", by Waldon Loving, Writers Press Club, 2002, 230 pages. History of Green's 12 Tennessee Cavalry(CS).


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