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91st Pennsylvania at Antietam

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The 91st Pennsylvania Infantry joined a newly formed division on the 12th of September. Because other regiments were not properly equipped, they did not begin marching until the 14th. They were initially assigned to guard Frederick, Maryland, but on the 17th were ordered to join the Army at Antietam. They marched all night, arriving at dawn on the 18th. But McClellan decided not to attack on the 18th, and the Confederates left that night. They stayed for several days, during which William Reiff had a "ghastly adventure", which he later described in a letter to the National Tribune.


Organization of the Army of the Potomac (insofar as it was relevant to the 91st PA)

source: Official Records series 1 volume 19 part 1 at page 175

Organization of the Army of the Potomac, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, U. S. Army, Commanding, September 14-17, 1862.
[footnote:] 'This division was organized September 12, and reached the battle-field September 18. [end of footnote]
'First Brigade
'91st Pennsylvania, Col. Edgar M. Gregory.
'126th Pennsylvania, Col. James G. Elder.
'129th Pennsylvania, Col. Jacob G. Frick.
'134th Pennsylvania, Col. Matthew S. Quay.
'Second Brigade
'123d Pennsylvania, Col. John B. Clark
'131st Pennsylvania, Lieut.Col. William B. Shaut.
'133d Pennsylvania, Col. Franklin B. Speakman.
'155th Pennsylvania, Col. Edward J. Allen.

Humphreys' statement (division commander)

source: Official Records series 1 volume 19 part 1 pages 370-373


'Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

'Mr. SECRETARY: I beg leave to submit the following statement in connection with my request for a court of inquiry to investigate the subject to which the statement refers. I will endeavor to be as brief as a complete representation of the facts will admit.

'On Friday, the 12th of September, 1862, being in Washington, I was sent for at 11.30 o'clock a.m. by Major-General Halleck, and asked by him if I was ready to take command of a division in the field (of new troops) to pass through Washington that day. I expressed my readiness gladly to do so, and march within an hour. I was referred to the commander of the corps of which the division was to form a part, General Porter, with whom I had two or three minutes' conversation in the street, being informed in that time that I should take command of the division as it passed through Washington that day, which it would do about 3 o'clock p.m., entering the city by the Long Bridge; that staff officers of the brigade commanders would report to me as the brigades (two in number, eight regiments, about 7,000 men) entered the city; that I should march on the road to Rockville, and would receive further orders on the march; that I must see that my command was provided with rations, forage, and requisite ammunition, and something was said about defective arms of part of the command. It was enjoined on me to keep my troops fresh on the march, and this point was dwelt upon in almost every order I received on the route. The position of our army and that of the enemy I was not informed of, nor of the degree of probability of a battle. I had no staff officers, but assumed the authority to take with me Lieut. C. McClellan, New York Volunteers, and took also my son, Mr. H. H. Humphreys, as an aide. I made application for staff officers, but could obtain none. At 3 o'clock p.m. I was ready to move, but the troops did not begin to reach the city until 7 o'clock p.m., and the First Brigade was not bivouacked near Columbia College, where I ordered them, until near midnight. The Second Brigade was not bivouacked until between midnight and morning, the last regiment reaching the ground at daybreak. Upon learning from the staff officer sent to report to me from the First Brigade, Captain Quay, assistant adjutant-general, that it had an insufficient supply of rations, I ordered that they should be obtained at daylight, that knapsacks and overcoats and surplus officers' baggage should be stored, and the brigade be prepared to march at sunrise. Colonel Allabach, commanding Second Brigade (who had no brigade staff), reported to me in person near 9 o'clock p.m., and from him I learned that his brigade had no rations whatever; that at least two regiments had arms utterly unserviceable; that there were 900 stand of arms in the brigade with nipples or hammers broken, and that they were breaking every day, and were in other respects defective. Part of this I had learned already by telegraphic dispatch from General Whipple, [page 371] and had immediately obtained authority from the ordnance officer, Captain Benton, to exchange as many as it was necessary. I took Colonel Allabach to Captain Benton and arranged that the two regiments should be supplied with new arms and accouterments from the arsenal, the regiments to march there at daylight. Colonel Allabach was ordered to send for rations as well as arms at daylight, store knapsacks, extra baggage, a large camp equipage, and be ready to march at sunrise. Both brigades were ordered to obtain as much forage as they could carry, and both drew forage. At sunrise Saturday, the 13th, I sent Lieutenant McClellan to see if my orders were complied with; he returned, informing me of the facts I have just stated in regard to the time of arrival of the regiments at their bivouac, and that none of the supplies I had ordered had yet been obtained; further, that there were other deficiencies than those I had learned, of a serious character, among them that the Second Brigade had no wagons for ammunition and no supply train, and the First Brigade but eight wagons for supply trains. Some regiments had one ambulance and others none. None of the wagons of the Second Brigade had arrived, nor did they arrive until near midday. By my representations to the chief quartermaster, Colonel Bucker, eight wagons were furnished during the day to the First Brigade. Twenty wagons were sent from Alexandria to the Second Brigade, reaching it late Saturday afternoon. Upon proceeding to the brigades, I found that one of the regiments of the Second Brigade, the one that reached bivouac at daylight, had had no rations the day before, and had none then. Its arms and those of another regiment, of the same brigade, were as unserviceable as those of the two regiments whose arms I had directed to be changed. I found this by inspection. I found a regiment of the First Brigade, the One hundred and thirty-fourth [Pennsylvania], with the same unserviceable arms, Austrian rifles; these were represented to me as unserviceable by General Tyler, commanding the brigade, and I found them to be so.

'I immediately obtained authority from the War Department to change all these arms, and it was done, but not until late at night. The ammunition for the five regiments had also to be changed with the arms; nor were the rations obtained, knapsacks, overcoats, camp equipage, and private property, with which the regiments were overloaded, stored until 8 or 9 o'clock p.m. Several of the regiments had no shelter tents, but a full regulation supply of common tents, which it was impossible to transport. Some got shelter tents, others could not obtain them. I was ordered [sic] to store knapsacks, overcoats, extra camp kettles, &c., officers' baggage, and everything that would impede the march.

'The Second Brigade, I was informed afterward, was on the march from near one fort to another when it received the order to march to Washington and report to me, and had left from one-half to two-thirds of its provisions, ammunition, forage, &c., at the old camp, and when it reported to me had no ammunition but what the men carried on their persons, from 50 to 60 rounds each. Finding how unprepared the command was, I first postponed the march to 9 o'clock a.m., then to noon, but afterward found it was impossible to move the command that day. I received communications during Saturday from the corps commander respecting my line of march, and enjoining upon me the great desideratum of keeping the troops fresh on the march, and to have plenty of rations and forage.

'I was requested also to endeavor to obtain two squadrons of cavalry from General Heintzelman. I informed the corps commander of all I had done, and received his unqualified approval of it. It must be recollected that all these troops (except one regiment, the Ninety-first Pennsylvania [page 372] Volunteers) were new troops that had just entered the service, and that the five regiments I have noted regarded their arms as worthless. Four of the regiments had been inspected by Colonel Torbert, New Jersey Volunteers (now brigadier-general, Volunteers, I understand), under General Casey's order; and I learned from the colonels of the regiments that he had reported them worthless; in fact, he pronounced them no better than clubs. These same arms were subsequently inspected by another officer, by General Casey's order, who pronounced the same opinion upon them. Raw troops, with arms they had no confidence in, could be of no service.

'I marched at daylight Sunday, the 14th of September, and reached Monocacy Depot, near Frederick, Tuesday afternoon. Here I obtained (as ordered) such supplies of rations and forage (very little of the latter) as could be obtained, and, upon sending to Frederick, found orders awaiting me to take a position in front of Frederick, to protect it, and to watch the approach from the left (from Harper's Ferry, then in possession of the enemy). On Wednesday morning, the 17th, I examined the country in front of Frederick, selected a position for the division, arranged with the military commander of Frederick to station vedettes on certain roads in advance; arranged at the telegraph office to have the earliest information from the telegraph toward Harper's Ferry, and was returning to camp to move my division to the position selected, when I received, about 3.30 o'clock p.m., orders from General McClellan to move forward. This I did immediately, and had marched 5 miles, when, at sunset, I received another order to join the army (then at Antietam) the next morning, at daylight if possible. The men were unaccustomed to marching, and were foot-sore; but I marched all night, and at an early hour the next morning was in position at Antietam, having marched more than 23 miles. I was cordially greeted by the commander of the corps and by General McClellan, both of whom fully approved all I had done.

'I beg leave to return for a moment. On Friday night, as soon as I learned the condition of the division, as to rations, arms, means of transportation, and lateness of arrival, I wrote to General Cullum, chief of staff of Major-General Halleck, informing him of it, and kept him advised of everything I did on Saturday. I had in reply at least two notes, but no indication of dissatisfaction with what I had done until 4 o'clock p.m., when I received a note, written by General Halleck, stating, in substance, that if General Humphreys did not join his division in the field immediately he would be arrested for disobedience of orders. I had just finished everything it was possible for me to do; nevertheless, I examined the condition of the command to see if it was possible to move that night, but, finding it impracticable, I did not march until daylight the next morning, the hour at which I had stated to General Cullum I should march. Whether the note referred (in connection with a recent order) to the fact of my being about the Departments in the city, or to my being at my house in the city to get lunch, or to my action in supplying the division, I did not, and do not now, distinctly understand. As soon as I found we should be encamped a few days at Sharpsburg, I went to the corps commander, and, repeating what I had done, asked that if there was anything in which I had erred that (sic) he would point it out to me. I was assured that all I had done was fully approved as the very best the circumstances admitted. I then laid before him the note I had received from Major- General Halleck and stated my intention to take official action upon it. From this, however, I was dissuaded. Further, my conduct had me with unqualified approval from the army as well as the corps commander, and I was under the impression [page 373] also that the campaign was to be immediately continued, and that there was no time then for such investigations.

'The reason for making, at the present time, a request for an investigation is given in the letter transmitting this statement.

'I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

'A. A. HUMPHREYS, Brigadier-General, Commanding Division.'


source: Samuel Penniman Bates. History of Pennsylvania volunteers, 1861-5. Harrisburg: B. Singerly, state printer, 1869-71. 5 volumes. 'Ninety-first regiment', volume 3, pages 186-187.

'The regiment remained on duty at Alexandria until the 21st of August, when it was relieved by the Ninety-fourth New York, and ordered to duty with the First Brigade,* Second Division, Fifth Corps, then on its way from the Peninsula to join General Pope's army, and encamped near Cloud's Mills, Virginia. Remaining in camp until the 28th, it was detailed to escort a train of eighty-seven wagons to Fairfax Court House, and had proceeded as far as Annandale, when it was ordered back to camp. On the evening of the 29th it was marched back to Fort Ellsworth, remaining that night and the following day, and on the morning of the 1st of September was moved to Fort Stevenson and encamped, on the 12th to Columbia College, and on the 15th started on the Maryland Campaign, arriving at Antietam on the morning of the 18th, after a tedious march, having been on duty the greater part of the time along the Monocacy Creek. Until the 16th of October it remained [page 187] in camp in Maryland, when the Third Division, with a part of the Second, crossed the Potomac, and proceeded on a reconnoissance up the valley. At Shepherdstown the enemy was encountered in some force, and a spirited skirmish ensued, in which his forces were driven across the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which had been destroyed. As the column retired the rebels followed closely, and at Shepherdstown it was ordered to about face and meet them; but they retired without risking an engagement, and the command returned to camp.'

(note to page 186): '*Organization of the First Brigade, General E. B. Tyler; Third Division, General A. A. Humphreys; Fifth Corps, General Fitz John Porter; Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel Edgar M. Gregory; One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, James G. Elder; One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Jacob G. Frick; One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel Matthew S. Quay.'

'Telegraphic news'

source: 'Telegraphic news', Richland County Observer (Richland Center, Wisconsin), 10 October 1862, page 3

'Telegraphic News


'Baltimore, Sept. 29.--The American's correspondent says:


'At Shepardstown Ferry, on this side of the Potomac, there are over 200 wounded rebel prisoners, guarded by the 91st Pa. regiment, and under care of six rebel surgeons. The men are desperately wounded. ...'

court martial of John Groff

court-martial record, National Archives and Records Administration, record group 153 (Records of the Judge Advocate General (Army)), John Groft, 25 March 1863, LL 231

(Note Robert Chism's testimony that the march to Antitam was 'very tiresome')

'The Court then proceeded to the trial of John Groft, private of company "K" 91st Regt Penna Vols., who, having heard the order convening the Court read, was asked whether he had any objection to any of the members of the Court named therein, replied [sic] in the negative.

'The Court was then, in his presence, duly sworn by the Judge Advocate, and the Judge Advocate duly sworn by the President of the Court.

'The prisoner John Groft private of company "K" 91st Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers was then arraigned on the following charge and specification; viz.


'Specification.--In this, that the said Private John Groft of Co "K," 91st Regt Penna Vols. did desert his company while on the march from Frederick City Md to Antietam Creek Md. this on or about the 17th day of September 1862 And the said Private John Groft of Co "K" 91st Regt Penna Vols. was returned by order of Lt. Col. Doster Provost Marshal of Washington D.C. on the 5th day of February 1863 And returned to his company on the 7th day of March 1863.

'To which Charge and Specification the prisoner pleaded as follows:

'To the Specification.--Not Guilty.

'To the Charge.--Not Guilty.

'All persons required to give evidence were required to withdraw and remain in waiting until called for.

'2nd Lieut. Howard W. Shipley of Company "G" 91st Regt Penna Vols a witness for the prosecution, was duly sworn and testifies as follows: viz.

'Witness.--I had just been transferred to the Company before the charge was made out. I know nothing at all of the circumstances.

'Question by Judge Adovcate. When you came to the company, how was John Groft reported on the morning reports?

'Answer. He had been dropped from rolls and morning reports entirely.

'Question by Judge Advocate. Do you know whether he was ever reported as a deserter?

'Answer. Not from my own knowledge.

'Question by Judge Advocate. Is the prisoner here, John Groft private of Coy "K" 91st Regt P.V.?

'Answer. I cannot say. I have been transferred to the coy from Coy "G" since his alleged desertion.

'Question by Judge Advocate. Why did you prefer the charge?

'Answer. I was ordered to do so by the commander of the regiment. A slip of paper came from Provost Marshal's Head Quarters, which had on it what the charge was, by whom arrested, and when arrested; that was all I believe.

'Question by Judge Advocate. Do you remember by whom the arrest was made, according to the paper referred to?

'Answer. Lt. Col. Doster.

'Question by Court. When did the prisoner rejoin his coy and regiment?

'Answer. I cannot say the exact date, sometime near the first of this month.

'2nd Sergeant George G. Coster, Co "K" 91st Regt Penna Vols a witness for the prosecution being duly sworn testifies.

'Question by Judge Advocate. Is the prisoner here, John Groft private Company "K" 91st Regt Penna Vols?

'Answer. Yes Sir, he is the prisoner.

'Question by Judge Advocate. State to the Court what you know of the absence and alleged desertion of the prisoner? [sic]

'Answer.--All I know in regard to his absence is, as acting 1st Sergeant my duty to [sic] call the roll at the end of each march, at tattoo and reveille, and calling his name on the roll I noticed he did not answer. That was on the 18th of September on the field of Antietam Md I never heard more of him, but heard he had fallen out of the ranks. I knew that his health was bad, he had been thrown from a horse whilst on duty at or near Pohick Church, his ancle [sic] was either broken or sprained.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--How long before he fell out of the ranks on the march to Antietam was it that he was thrown from his horse?

'Answer.--I did not see him fall out of the ranks. I was at the right of the Company and it was dark. About three months; the latter part of June, if I am not mistaken.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Did you report him at any time as a deserter and when?

'Answer.--I cannot tell exactly; I marked him as absent without leave some weeks after he missed roll call; I was then ordered to report him as a deserter by the Captain in making out my morning report.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Did you know the prisoner before he enlisted in the service of the United States?

'Answer.--No Sir, I had never seen him.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Do you know the age of the prisoner?

'Answer.--No Sir, I do not know his age.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--What was the general character of the prisoner before his leaving the company?


'Question by Judge Advocate.--Did he at any time during the march ask permission to fall out of the ranks or complain of his leg?

'Answer.--I think he did ask permission but I am not positive; I had heard him complain of his leg from the day we left Washington, 14th of September. He complained that he was exhausted and I asked one of the fifers of the company Mathew McFetridge to carry his gun for him a while and he did.

'Question by Court.--Did he ever in your hearing say anything of his intention to desert?

'Answer.--Not that I can recollect.

'Question by Court. Was he in uniform or in citizens [sic] dress when he returned to his company and regiment?

'Answer. In citizens [sic] clothes.

'Quest by Court.--Do you know of his being in any hospital after he fell out on the march to Antietam?

'Answer.--No, I do not.

'Robert Chism, 4th Sergeant, Company "K," 91st Regt Penna Vols a witness for the prosecution was then called in and duly sworn.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Is the prisoner here, John Groft, private of company "K" 91st Regt Penna Vols?

'Answer.--Yes Sir, he is.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--State to the court what you know of the absence and alleged desertion of the Prisoner? [sic]

'Answer.--All I know about it is that he left the company somewhere between Monocacy river and Antietam creek on the march to Antietam, on or about the 17th of September.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Do you know whether he had permission to leave the company?

'Answer.--No sir, I do not. I heard that he had, I don't know it.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Do you know for what purpose he left the Company?

'Answer.--No Sir.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Did you hear him complain on that march of being exhausted?

'Answer.--Yes Sir; I heard him say that he could not march any further with his foot, several times.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Do you know what was the matter with his foot?

'Answer.--Yes sir, he got thrown off a horse, got his foot sprained. I cannot recollect the time, it was on the Telegraph road from Alexandria to Occaquan creek.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Was that March to Antietam a tiresome one or not?

'Answer.--I do not know what it was to any one else, but it was a very tiresome [sic] to me.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Did you know the prisoner before he enlisted?

'Answer.--No Sir, I did not.

'Question by Court.--Did the prisoner at any time in your hearing prior to that march, say anything about his leaving the company or intending to leave it?

'Answer.--Not that I can remember of.

'Question by Court.--How old is the prisoner?

'Answer.--I do not know.

'Question by Court.--When did he rejoin the company?

'Answer.--On or about the 7th of March he came to the regiment from Division Head Quarters.

'Question by Court.--Do you know or have you heard of him being at any hospital whilst absent?

'Answer.--I heard that he was in a hospital in some village, I cannot remember the name. I heard one of the Sergeants of the company say so, cannot say which one it was.

'Question by Court.--Do you know about where the village is?

'Answer.--In Maryland somewhere on the route between Washington and Antietam Creek.

'Question by Court.--Do you know of your own knowledge or by letter where the prisoner was during any part of the time that he was absent from his company and regiment, and if so state where? [sic]

'Answer.--No I do not I have heard that letters came either from him or his mother to some members of the company. I never saw the letters.

'The prosecution here closed. John F. Casner, Captain of company "K" 91st Regt Penna Vols a witness for the defense was then called and duly sworn.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Is the prisoner here, John Groft, private company "K" 91st Regt Penna Vols. [sic]

'Answer.--He is.

'By Judge Advocate.--State to the Court what you know of the absence and alleged desertion of the prisoner.

'Witness.--It was on the 17th September 1862 we left Monocacy creek about half past three in the afternoon marched on towards Antietam; while we were on the march some distance, I don't know how far we had got, Groft came to me and said to me that he could not get along, that his leg hurt him, or words to that effect. I then told him to go to the rear and ask Dr Knight if he could put him in the ambulance and I supposed he had got in for I did not see anything more of him.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--What was the first you heard of him after that and when did you hear it?

'Answer.--The first I heard was some months after, that I heard anything more of him (sic). I then heard that he was in Philadelphia.

'Question by Court.--Did you ever hear him say that he was going to desert?

'Answer.--No, I don't think I did.

'Question by Defence.--Did you ever receive any paper or document concerning this case from the War Department or Adjutant General's Office at Washington, D.C.?

'Answer.--I received a document through the Regimental Head Quarters.

'Question by Court.--Have you such document with you? if so show it to the Court.

'The document was then produced by the witness and handed to the Court. The document purported to be a letter from the father of the prisoner to Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secy of War, with endorsements referring it to the commanding officer of 91st Regt Penna Vols. The court was cleared for deliberation on the propriety of admitting this document as evidence, and it was finally ruled out.

'The examination of witness was then resumed.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Do you know or did you ever hear that the prisoner was in any hospital after the march to Antietam?

'Answer.--Not after the march.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--Do you know of his having made exertions to get back to his regiment or company prior to his arrest?

'Answer.--I do not.

'Question by Judge Advocate.--What was the general character of the prisoner before the march to Antietam?


'Question by Judge Advocate.--What time of day was it that you told him to go to the rear, on that march?

'Answer.--I think it must have been about dusk, as near as I can recollect.

'Question by Court.--Do you know the age of the prisoner?

'Answer.--I think he was about nineteen when he was enlisted. I think that was the age he gave me.

'The examination of the witness here close, and the hour of 3 P.M. having arrived, the Court adjourned to meet again tomorrow March 26th at 10 o'clock A.M.

'Head Quarters 2nd Brig, 3rd Div, 5th Corps

'March 26th 1863

'10 o'clock A.M. In consequence of the illness of Major Joseph Anthony, President of the Court, the requisite number of members of constitute a Court could not be convened.

'Head Quarters 2nd Brig 3d Div, 5th Corps

'March 27th 1863

'The Court met at 10 o'clock A.M. Same members present as at last sitting. Case of Private John Groft continued. Private John Dortt company "K" 91st Regt Penna Vols. a witness for the defense was then called and duly sworn.

'Question by Defense.--How long have you known Private John Groft?

'Answer.--Four years.

'Question by Defence.--Have you lived near his house, and do you know his father and mother?

'Answer.--We lived in the same house. I know his father and mother.

'Question by Defense.--Did you ever hear either of them say how old their son John was?

'Answer.--I heard his mother say that on the 10th of March he was 14 years of age. It was about two years ago it was before I enlisted.

'The accused having no further testimony to offer, the case was submitted to the Court by the Judge Advocate without further remarks. The Court was then cleared for deliberation, and having maturely considered the evidence adduced find the accused, Private John Groft, of company "K" 91st Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, as follows.

'Of the Specification.--Guilty, with the exception of the word "desert" for which substitute the word "leave".

'Of the Charge.--Not Guilty.--but guilty of "Absence without leave".

'And the Court do therefore sentence Private John Groft, company "K" 91st Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers:--"To forfeiture of all pay and allowances due him to date, to do

[a page appears to be missing here]


'4.--John Groft private company "K" 91st regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers:--


'Specification.--In this, that the said private John Groft of Co "K" 91st Regt Penna Vols did desert his company while on the march from Frederick City Md to Antietam Creek Md, this on or about the 17th day of September 1862. And the said private John Groft of Co. "K" 91st Regt Penna Vols was returned by order of Lt. Col. Doster Private Marshal of Washington D.C. on the 5th day of February 1863 and returned to his company on the 7th day of March 1863

'To which Charge and Specification the accused private John Groft Company "K" 91st Regiment Penna Vols, pleaded as follows.

'To the Specification.--"Not Guilty."

'To the Charge.--"Not Guilty."

'The Court having maturely considered the evidence adduced finds the accused:--

'Of the Specification.--Guilty, with the exception of the word "desert" for which substitute the word "leave."

'Of the Charge.--"Not Guilty--but Guilty of Absence without leave."

'And the Court does therefore sentence private John Groft company "K" 91st Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers:--"To forfeiture of all pay and allowances due him to date to do police duty for four hours per day, Sundays excepted, for ten days and to attend to all company and regimental duties required, and make good the lost time at the expiration of his term of enlistment."'

other sources

  • Thomas Walter. 'Personal recollections and experiences of an obscure soldier'. Grand Army Scout and Soldiers' Mail volume 3 # 35, 9 August 1884, page 2
  • Joseph Welch. 'Address of Chaplain Joseph Welch'. In Pennsylvania at Gettysburg: Ceremonies at the dedication of the monuments erected by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to Major-General George G. Meade, Major-General Winfield S. Hancock, Major-General John F. Reynolds, and to mark the positions of the Pennsylvania commands engaged in the battle. Volume 1: 1914, pp.500-507.
  • William C Reiff. 'His worst scare'. National Tribune 22 August 1895, page 3, column 2.

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