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Broadway Historic District National Register of Historic Places

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NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 10024-0018 (Oct. 1990) United States Department of the Interior National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form

BROADWAY HISTORIC DISTRICT – NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTIES

The Broadway Historic District contains a good collection of historic resources that represent the development along Broadway, as it transitioned from a sparsely inhabited transportation route of pioneers to become a major automobile era artery. The contributing resources span from Lancaster's initial settlement and development in the early to mid-nineteenth century to its socio-economic growth and maturity in the decades surrounding the turn of the twentieth century. Resources in the historic district are primarily residential, with several buildings constructed to serve that residential population such as churches and civic buildings, and while many houses were transformed into commercial functions around 1900, the area still maintains a residential scale and feeling.

The historic district is located within the village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, roughly 11 miles east of the city of Buffalo, and covers an area of approximately 43-acres centered along Broadway. It contains a grouping of mostly late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, 1 ½ to 2 ½-story wood frame and masonry buildings, the majority of which are residential in form and use. There are several buildings dating back to the early- to mid- nineteenth century. Several residential buildings were converted over time for commercial purposes, reflecting the changing landscape of the village of Lancaster caused by the automobile age. Broadway (initially East Main Street) has historically been the main east-west route between Buffalo to Alden since the early nineteenth century, and over time, its original residential character evolved into a stretch of businesses, institutions, and residences associated with prominent citizens of Lancaster as the village’s commercial and civic core expanded.

The village of Lancaster is approximately 2.65 square miles in area centered on two main intersecting thoroughfares: Broadway (U.S. Route 20) running east to west and Central Avenue beginning at Broadway and running north to the Town of Clarence. The overall character is that of a village, more rural than urban. Cayuga Creek and its narrow tributary, Plumb Bottom Creek, meander east to west through the village center, just north of the proposed district. The Broadway Historic District is located along Broadway just east of Central Avenue and continues to the eastern boundary of the village; Plumb Bottom Creek forms the northern boundary, the village line is the eastern boundary, and the rear property lines make the southern boundary. Lots tend to vary in size, but are generally rectangular in shape, with the shorter side fronting Broadway. The streetscape along Broadway is generally consistent. Broadway is approximately 40-feet wide, mostly asphalt paved, with single lanes each way and a central turning lane.Granite curbs, grass strips and concrete sidewalks flank the road and front the buildings. Landscape conditions vary along Broadway Street, but the lots typically have front and side yards of varying sizes, large trees and some paved parking areas.

The nominated district consists of 85 contributing resources and 42 non-contributing resources. Of the contributing resources, 48 are primary and 22 are secondary buildings. Of the non-contributing resources 20 are primary and 21 are secondary buildings, and 1 is a structure. A total of 15 contributing resources were previously listed on the National Register of Historic Places, with 12 of them as primary buildings. Previous National Register designation in this area focused solely on individual resources, and many were designated through a multiple property registration; this nomination seeks to clean up the numerous individual listings along Broadway and bring a larger context to what is a group of historically and thematically related buildings. The majority of contributing resources were constructed in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century primarily in the Colonial Revival, Queen Anne and Italianate styles. Properties determined to be noncontributing are severely altered in materials and have lost key character-defining features or were constructed outside the period of significance. The properties surrounding the Broadway Historic District either represent a different period of construction or do not have the same level of architectural detail and integrity. The Broadway Historic District meets the registration requirements outlined in the Historic and Architectural Resources of the Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York Multiple Property Documentation Form. The MPDF outlines two historic contexts for the village of Lancaster, the first being Settlement and Development of the Village of Lancaster, 1807-1849. The second is the Socioeconomic Growth and Maturity of the Village of Lancaster, 1850-1949. While properties within the district span both historic contexts, they predominately are associated with the later period. The district’s resources fall into four property types: Property Type I: Residential Architecture; Property Type II: Commercial and Industrial Architecture; Property Type III: Religious Architecture; and Property Type IV: Public- and Private-Sector Civic Architecture.(1) The majority of buildings within the Broadway Historic District fall into Property Type I: Residential Architecture, and meet the registration requirements, which states, Property Type I resources must exhibit readily identifiable features of particular architectural styles and/or must be associated with particular development patterns within the Village. In order to qualify for listing, residences must be directly associated with one of village's historic contexts, must have been constructed during the Period of Significance, and must possess architectural features and emblematic of the era of construction. They must possess a high degree of integrity, retaining the form, massing and detailing which define the individual style of architecture, and additions or alterations must be shown not to have resulted in a loss of those features which define the historic character of the building.(2)

Other resources also meet the registration requirements of Property Type II: Commercial and Industrial Architecture; Property Type III: Religious Architecture; and Property Type IV: Public- and Private-Sector Civic Architecture, which are all comparable to those previously noted.

BROADWAY

The village of Lancaster is centered around two main intersecting thoroughfares, Broadway (U.S. Route 20) running east to west and Central Avenue beginning at Broadway and running north to the Town of Clarence. Broadway, formerly variously known as Buffalo Road, Cayuga Creek Plank Road and East Main Street, was the first major thoroughfare in the Village of Lancaster. It was constructed by the Holland Land Company in 1808 as a dirt road following an Indian trail that connected what is now Alden to the east and Buffalo to the west, running through the heart of what would become the village of Lancaster. Originally, Buffalo Road and East Main Street were located north of Cayuga Creek, but a series of floods pushed the creek northward until it became necessary for travelers to change their route.(3) When heading west through the village to Buffalo, one would begin on East Main Street, turn north onto Central Avenue, west on West Main Street, and south on Aurora Street to reach Broadway Street. East Main Street was renamed Broadway with the construction of the "Broadway Cut Off" in 1936. The "Broadway Cut Off" refers to a road reconfiguration project in which Broadway was extended to cross Cayuga Creek at the foot of Central Avenue to connect with East Main Street.This new traffic pattern eliminated east-west through traffic along the traditional commercial corridors of West Main Street and Central Avenue, and increased traffic on Broadway. As a result of the increase in commercial traffic along Broadway, a number of residential buildings were converted for use as commercial properties, creating a residential and commercial area with the character of a residential neighborhood. Broadway is now also known as U.S. Route 20. As a part of a major thoroughfare, Broadway carried a variety of modes of traffic over time, starting as a pedestrian route and later accommodating wagons, carriages, streetcars and automobiles. This transition is reflected in secondary buildings ranging from barns to carriage houses to automobile garages that accommodated vehicles of each era. The Broadway streetscape, despite a shift into commercial uses, generally retains its historic residential quality. The street is asphalt paved, with a single lane in each direction centered by a turning lane, and features granite curbs, grass strips and concrete sidewalks. Sidewalks are generally 6' in width and are punctuated with driveways. Landscape varies along Broadway, but properties typically have front and side yards of varying sizes, large trees and some paved parking areas. Several more secondary perpendicular streets intersect.

ARCHITECTURE

The architecture of the Broadway Historic District reflects the popular styles during the period of significance from ca. 1831 to 1940. Since Broadway was one of the earliest roads and major thoroughfares in the village of Lancaster, formerly the Cayuga Creek settlement, early buildings were constructed along it. These tended to be small and modestly embellished cottages, often in the Greek Revival style. While several buildings from the settlement and development period still exist, including the Presbyterian Church (1832-1833) at 5461 Broadway and the Carpenter-Draper (ca. 1831) house at 5455 Broadway, the majority of them were torn down to make room for larger high-style buildings in the following decades. Beginning in the 1850s, there was a construction boom along Broadway (then East Main Street), due to the influx of Dutch immigrants, and new buildings were generally grander in scale and detail. As the village became wealthier with improved transportation and industrial growth, larger plots of land were further subdivided and buildings continued to fill in along Broadway. The majority of contributing buildings within the district were constructed between 1870 and 1920. With the growing popularity of the automobile and the draw of suburban living, a few contributing buildings in the district were built specifically for uses related to the automobile (i.e. car dealership, gas station). Also, several residences found new uses as commercial properties in the decades after the 1930s and were modified with additions.

Contributing buildings within the district are typically 1 ½-stories to 2 ½-stories with stone foundations, constructed of brick or wood frame with wood clapboard siding, and with asphalt shingle roofs. While the majority were constructed for residential use, there are several commercial, religious, and civic structures, scattered throughout the district. Popular architectural styles of the 1830s-1940s are found throughout the district, predominately featuring the Italianate style with bracketed cornices, Queen Anne style with the asymmetrical decorative facades, and the Colonial Revival style with symmetrical rectilinear massing. Most of the residential buildings were built by unknown builders, and were likely built using pattern and style books or possibly may have been “kit houses.” Several of the more prominent buildings were architect-designed including the W.W. Johnson designed Trinity Episcopal Church at 5448 Broadway, the Mann & Cook designed Lancaster Masonic Lodge Hall at 5479 Broadway, the E.B. Green designed Brost Building at 5490 Broadway, and the Hudson & Hudson designed Lancaster Municipal Building at 5423 Broadway.

RESOURCES

There are a total of 85 contributing resources in the Broadway Historic District. Of the contributing resources, 48 are primary and 22 are secondary buildings. These contributing resources are commercial, residential, religious and institutional.

A total of 15 contributing resources within the district have previously been listed on the National Register of Historic Places, 12 of which are primary buildings. They are as follows:

  • 5423 Broadway – Lancaster Municipal Building (1940)
  • 5440 Broadway – Miller Mackey House (ca. 1900)
  • 5454 Broadway – Clark Lester House (ca. 1891)
  • 5481, 5483, 5485 Broadway – Bruce-Briggs Brick Block (ca 1855)
  • 5497 Broadway – Lancaster Masonic Lodge Hall (1916-1919)
  • 5500 Broadway – Liebler-Rohl Gasoline Station (ca. 1935)
  • 5539 Broadway – Dr. John J. Nowak House (ca. 1930)
  • 5556 Broadway – Zuidema-Idsardi House (ca. 1870)
  • 5565 Broadway – Herman B. VanPeyma House (ca. 1890)
  • 5653 Broadway – John Richardson House (ca. 1840)

The following list, organized by property address in numerical order and split into even and odd numbers, provides a brief description of each individual property included in the district. When determining an individual building's status as "contributing" or "non-contributing" to the district, the date of construction, massing, and integrity of materials and historic character were the primary factors considered. Some level of modifications and updates are common here, typically replacement siding, windows, modern additions and/or porches. These modifications reflect the continued use of these buildings for decades; changes in building materials alone do not necessarily render a building non-contributing to the district as long as it retains its overall historic character and form. Buildings that are non-contributing are generally those that have been significantly and irreversibly altered in form and material, or have lost key character defining features. There are two resources less than 50 years old, which are non-contributing since they are outside the period of significance.

PROPERTY LIST

Total Contributing Primary Buildings: 48 Total Non-Contributing Primary Buildings: 20 Total Number of Primary Buildings: 85 Total Number of Contributing Secondary Buildings (barns, carriage houses, garages, etc.): (22) Total Number of Non-Contributing Secondary Buildings: 21 Total Number of Objects: 0 Total Number of Structure: 1 Non-Contributing 15 Resources Previously National Register Listed

5440 Broadway ca. 1900, 1963 addition Miller-Mackey House National Register Listed, 1999, contributing primary building 2 ½-story Colonial Revival-style residence of brick construction, with stone foundation, a multiple roof system including a truncated hipped asphalt shingle roof on the main building. The roof is penetrated by a series of dormers with curvilinear heads trimmed with a series of modillions and a dentil band. The façade incorporates a 4-bay arrangement, with a 2-story bay window on the east side. Principal entrance is centered on the façade, and is shielded by a hipped-roof veranda with modillions under the eaves and supported by clustered tapered columns with acanthus leaf capitals. Fenestration is flat-topped, primarily with 1/1 sash. A side entrance has been inserted into a forward-projecting bay of wood construction on the east elevation, above which is a second story bay window. Large 1-story flat roof concrete block addition at rear of original building.

5448 Broadway ca. 1880; 1928 Trinity Episcopal Church Architect: W. W. Johnson Contributing primary building Gothic Revival-style church building of red brick with a stone foundation, a steeply-pitched front-gable asphalt shingle roof, a brick entry porch which appears to have been an addition on the façade, and incorporating a Tudor-arched entrance with recessed double wood doors. Corners on the façade are trimmed with buttresses which terminate in stone pinnacles. Side elevations are defined with buttresses, and fenestration is nearly all lancet-arched glazed with religious art glass. Originally-constructed corner bell tower at the south-west corner of the building, since was removed for structural failure, and a new Tudor Revival-style entry was built to replace the original entrance. A modern parish hall addition on the north elevation was donated by the daughter of parishioner and State Senator George A. Davis (1896-1906) who lived nearby.

5454 Broadway ca. 1891 Clark-Lester House National Register Listed, 1999, contributing primary and contributing secondary building 2 ½-story Queen Anne-style residence of wood construction, stone foundation, finished in weatherboard and decorative wood shingling, cross-gable asphalt shingle roof, also featuring bay windows on the side elevations and a second story gable-roofed balcony on the façade. The main façade is three bay windows width, with a shed-roof porch supported by Eastlake-style turned posts and enclosed within a spindle wood balustrade. Some portions of the eaves incorporate brackets with drip pendants. The pediment of the gable on the façade is penetrated by paired multi-light windows and is finished in imbricated shingling. Red brick furnace and fireplace chimneys rise through the roofline. The property includes a 2-story carriage house with a steeply pitched hipped roof capped with a pinnacle and penetrated by paired contemporary overhead doors and a second story service entrance.

5460 Broadway ca. 1900 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2 ½-story hipped with cross-gables roof frame vernacular residence; stone foundation, wood clapboard siding, asphalt shingle roof. A 1-story wrap around veranda is in the angle of the ell, supported by plain wood posts, a turned spindle balustrade is located along the roof of the porch. Fenestration is flat-topped, 1/1, except for an oversized window on the façade which had a multi-light configuration. What appears to be an enclosed shedroof porch is at the rear. Associated with the property at the end of a paved driveway is a 1 ½- story gable-end-oriented garage of wood construction, with a large overhead garage door.

5466 Broadway ca. 1976 Lancaster Public Library Non-contributing primary building (outside period of significance) Modern library building finished in brick with a gabled roof penetrated by dormers on the side elevations and oversized windows on the façade.

5470 Broadway ca. 1900 Michael Seeger House Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2 ½-story Shingle-style residence of wood and brick construction, with the first story finished in brick, a frontgable roof with gabled dormers on the side elevations. The building is three bays in width, with second floor bay windows above a shed-roof porch which is enclosed with operable sash and features a centered pediment. The porch is accessed through a single door with a glass panel flanked with sidelights. The pediment of the gable is penetrated by a paired window unit and features a concave return on the cornice. At the rear of the property is a substantial carriage house of two stories, with a truncated hipped roof capped with a louvered cupola, with an attached multi-bay garage. This dependency appears to date from the original construction of the house.

5472 Broadway ca. 1910 Seeger Store Building Contributing primary building 2 ½-story American Foursquare commercial building with the first story finished in buff-colored brick and the second in wood shingles, capped with a hipped roof and a centered gable dormer on the façade with paired 6/1 windows. The original storefront consists of display windows with a recessed entrance and transoms on the Broadway side and a large display window with transom on the School Street elevation. The storefront appears little altered from the original. Two doors access the east elevation. A 1-story porch is on the north elevation.

5476/5478 Broadway ca. 1909 Young Brothers Store Building Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (loss of architectural integrity) 2 ½-story commercial building finished in orange brick, with a jerkinhead-gable roof penetrated by hipped dormers. Portions of the original two storefronts on the first story were in-filled during converting for office use. The upper façade appears generally unaltered, incorporating a multi-bay configuration penetrated by flattopped windows which rest on rock-faced sills and are capped with stone lintels. The side elevations are penetrated by similar window forms. Property includes non-contributing 2-story cross gable secondary apartment building/garage with altered fenestration, vinyl siding, asphalt shingle roof. Property has 7 School Street address.

5482 Broadway ca. 1900 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity) 2-story front-gable frame vernacular residence with vinyl siding, asphalt shingle roof with an orange brick furnace chimney penetrating the ridge of the roof. Features a full width enclosed entry porch with side entry door. Fenestration is flat-topped, 1/1, with some replacement sash. The pediment of the gable on the façade exhibits a full return of the cornice, and is trimmed with imbricated shingles and features a centered 3-part window. Some fixed exterior shutters are noted. On the east elevation is a 1-story bay window.

5486 Broadway ca. 1890 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2-story 3-bay front-gable frame residence with vinyl siding, asphalt shingle roof, an enclosed front porch of artificial stone, now painted, with the entrance offset, suggestive of a corresponding entrance on the interior and a side-passage interior plan. Fenestration is flat-topped, with multi-light replacement sash. On the east elevation is a 2-story bay window. Near the rear on the east elevation is a forward-projecting hip-roofed addition with a secondary access door. Property includes a 3-bay automobile garage with overhead doors.

5490 Broadway ca. 1935 Brost Building Architect: E. B. Green Contributing primary building 1-story former automobile dealership finished in brick, with a 3-bay façade and a centered entry. The building exhibits Neo-Classical Revival-style elements including the pilasters which define the bay spacing on the façade. The pilasters are paired, with stylized capitals, and terminate in a classically-derived frieze, above which is a brick parapet. The large display windows have been retained on the façade and the side elevations. At the rear of the building on the north elevation, is a non-historic masonry addition.

5494 Broadway ca. 1920 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity); non-contributing secondary building 2-story vernacular residence of wood construction with a side-gable roof and a prominent exterior gable-end chimney on the east gable end, faced with large stone. The easternmost bay of the first story incorporates a hiproofed oriel window, with multi-light sash on all three sides. The second story incorporates paired windows; all fenestration is flat-topped, without notable ornament. It appears that at least two additions have been made to the rear, likely more than 50 years of age. The first story of the façade is faced in permastone and the second story with vinyl siding. Contemporary concrete block secondary building at rear.

5496 Broadway ca. 1910 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity); non-contributing secondary building 2 ½-story front-gable vernacular residence of wood construction, vinyl and asbestos shingle siding, asphalt shingle roof. Half width open entry porch with wooden supports and spindle work balustrade, contemporary entry door. Fenestration is flat-topped, with replacement sash, including a 3-part window on the first story of the façade. At least two additions are on the north elevation. Property includes 1-story hipped-roof garage.

5500 Broadway ca. 1935 Liebler-Rohl Gasoline Station Constructed By: John D. Rademacher National Register Listed, 1999, contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (loss of architectural integrity)(4) Very small scale Tudor Revival-style example of roadside architecture, with the exterior surfaces finished in stucco and simulated half-timbering, incorporating a multiple hipped roof finished in slate with the tile coping, and a red brick furnace chimney on the west elevation. Building is irregular in form with angled corners and a 1-story bay window in the façade, beside which is the principle entrance to the building, incorporating a semicircular-arched door enframed with brick, with a distinctive multi-light center panel. Center panel is carried to a large window on the east elevation, above which is a semi-circular window. Offset on the façade is a stylized hipped dormer, finished in half-timbering, with a circular clock in the pediment. The area around the building is asphalt-paved and behind the historic filling station is a 1 ½-story frame former automobile service garage, which has since been converted to commercial building, constructed close to the Extending date of the filling station.

HOLLAND AVENUE INTERSECTS

5512 Broadway ca. 1880 Maute House Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2-story front gable-frame vernacular residence, wood shingle siding, asphalt shingle roof. 3-bay arrangement and the main entry offset on the east side. Front and side porches supported by clustered attenuated Doric columns and enclosed within solid wood balustrades. Projecting 1-story bay on west elevation. Fenestration is flat-topped, 2/2, with fixed exterior shutters. At the rear of the lot is a 1-story 1-bay gable-end-oriented historic brick garage.

5518 Broadway ca. 1910 Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2 ½- story Colonial Revival vernacular residence of wood, with a front-gable roof, wood clapboard siding, and a stylized Palladian motif in the pediment of the gable on the façade. Pediment exhibits a full return of the cornice. 2-bay façade with the principal entrance offset on the east side. Hip-roofed front porch with the replacement wrought iron supports and balustrade and a replacement masonry floor. Cantilevered inglenook on east elevation. Fenestration flat-topped, without notable ornament. At the rear of the lot is a non-historic wood garage.

5522 Broadway ca. 1890 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity) 2 ½-story Queen Anne-style former residence, converted for commercial use, with a dominating hexagonal tower on the southwest corner which is trimmed with imbricated shingling and capped with a bellcast domical roof. The offset entrance features a small shed-roofed porch, and wooden balustrade, contemporary entry door. Side-gable roof with an undersized hipped dormer on the façade. Fenestration is generally flat-topped, 1/1 replacement windows without notable ornament.

5524 Broadway ca. 1910 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity) 2 ½-story American Foursquare of wood construction with a hipped roof, hipped dormers, and an enclosed shed-roofed front porch. Vinyl siding, asphalt shingle roof. 1-story extended shed-roofed bay on west elevation. Fenestration flat-topped, 1/1, without notable ornament.

5528 Broadway ca. 1900 Contributing primary building 2 ½-story cross-gable frame vernacular residence with elements of Italianate and Queen Anne styling; vinyl siding and asphalt shingle roof. The main entrance is offset on the façade with a contemporary door.

SCHOOL STREET INTERSECTS

across the façade is a Doric veranda supported by single and paired columns which rest on a replacement concrete block base. It appears that a portion of the original wrap-around veranda has been enclosed.

Fenestration is flat-topped, with replacement sash and some exterior fixed shutters. On the façade, the eaves are trimmed with a series of stylized Italianate-style brackets, and a corbelled brick chimney penetrates the roofline. A 2-story addition has been built on the rear. On the west elevation is a 2-story bay window, matching that on the east elevation

5532 Broadway ca. 1955 Non-contributing primary building (outside period of significance) 1-story Ranch-style commercial building finished in red brick, with a hipped roof and a 3-bay façade which incorporates a centered entry accessed by a small stoop and enframed within a stone surround. Fenestration is flat-topped, set singly and in pairs, with replacement sash.

5538 Broadway ca. 1900 Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2 ½-story Colonial Revival-style residence finished in brick and wood shingles, with a side-gable roof and an interior gable end red brick chimney on the west gable end. The roofline on the façade is penetrated by paired gable dormers within which are set round arched windows with keystones. Centered on the façade is a gabled oriel, with partial returns of the cornice and a Palladian window. The first story is finished in brick, with a centered entrance flanked by sidelights. Matching bay windows are on the outer bays of the façade, finished in wood with paneled bulkheads. Red brick first story of the façade and buff-colored brick for the side elevations. Most fenestration is flat-topped, 1/1, without notable trim. Partial returns of the cornice on the gable ends and round-arched windows on the pediments. Property includes a non-historic garage with an overhead garage door.

5542 Broadway ca. 1900 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2 ½-story Shingle-style residence of wood construction, with shingle siding, asphalt shingle roof. The sidegable roof is penetrated by a gabled dormer with “kicked” eaves and a 2/2 window in the east side of the façade. Extending across the façade is a Neo-Classical Revival-style Doric veranda supported by plain columns and enclosed within a turned spindle balustrade. A 2-story projecting bay is on the west elevation. Some window replacement is evident. Roof features single central dormer with front gable and flared eaves.

Behind the property is a 2 ½--story carriage house of wood construction with a front-gable roof and partial returns of the cornice on the gable ends. The first floor of the carriage house is penetrated by paired openings with overhead garage doors.

5548 Broadway ca. 1910 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2 ½-story side-gable Colonial Revival-style house with a 3-bay façade and the main entrance offset on the east side. The main entrance is accessed by a replacement brick stair and is shielded by a segmental-arched hood which is supported by oversized curvilinear brackets which rest on Doric posts. A distinctive side porch supported by clustered Doric columns is one the east elevation, and on the west elevation is a 1-story sunroom with French doors and multi-light windows; the sunroom rests on a brick foundation. Fenestration is flattopped, with both French windows and double-hung sash. An exterior gable-end red brick chimney is on the west gable end, and the roofline on the façade is penetrated by a set of three matching gabled dormers. What appears to be a 1-story addition is on the east gable end, and a substantial non-historic deck has been built along the rear elevation. Property includes a 2-bay side-gable-roof garage with overhead garage doors.

5552 Broadway ca. 1890 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2 ½-story gable-end-oriented Colonial Revival-inspired residence of wood construction, finished in wood clapboard and asbestos shingles, with a 2-bay façade and the main entrance offset. Fenestration is flat-topped, 1/1, including paired windows in the pediments of the gable on the façade. Some windows exhibit exterior fixed shutters. Extending across the façade is a shed-roof front porch with an offset pediment over the entry; a portion of the porch near the entry has been enclosed with operable sash and a glass door opens onto an open portion of the porch. The porch is supported by plain wood posts and enclosed within a solid wood balustrade. A 1-story bay window is on the west elevation, built on a foundation of rock-faced concrete block. An exterior fireplace chimney of orange brick is located on the west elevation.

Associated with the property is one of the communities finest historic carriage houses, an essentially square building behind the house finished in wood clapboard, with a truncated hipped roof capped with a louvered cupola.

5556 Broadway ca. 1870 Zuidema-Idsardi House National Register Listed, 1999, contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2-story side-passage Italianate-style residence of wood construction, finished in wood clapboard, with and Lshaped façade and a multiple hipped roof system which incorporates a truncated hipped roof on the façade. Main portion of the façade has three bays in width, with flat-topped windows and window surrounds featuring entablatures and brackets. The eaves are trimmed with paired brackets, and a wrap-around veranda extends across the façade and a portion of the west elevation. The veranda is supported by Eastlake-style turned posts trimmed with sawn brackets and also features a turned spindle balustrade along with an upper balustrade. A 1-story bay window is on the west elevation, with window surrounds similar to those on the rest of the house. At the rear of the property is a side-gable roofed barn of wood construction, finished in board-and-batten with hinged garage doors and a round-arched window facing Broadway.

5558 Broadway Street ca. 1921 Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2 ½-story Colonial Revival-style side-gable roofed residence of wood construction with vinyl siding, and a 3-bay façade. The main entrance is centered on the façade, enframed within a pedimented frontispiece with classically derived ornament. Fenestration is flat-topped, with multi-light replacement sash. The eaves on the façade are trimmed with stylized modillions, and pilasters define the corners. On the west elevation is an offset exterior gable end red brick chimney, flanked by fixed 6-light windows. A side entrance is located on the west side, accessed through a glassed-in porch. Appended to the east elevation is a non-historic garage with an overhead garage door. At the rear of the lot is a 1-story non-historic garage with an overhead garage door.

5564 Broadway ca. 1900 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2-story cross-gable residence of wood construction and modest Queen Anne styling, with wood clapboard siding, asphalt shingle roof. Extending across the façade and wrapping around a portion of the west elevation is a hip-roof Doric veranda. Recessed entry door with transom window. Fenestration is typically 1/1 double hung, with carved wooden window, topped with decorative pediment, first story features large fixed multi-light window. Two-story bay window at side elevation Associated with the property is one of Lancaster’s distinctive carriage houses, this one with two overhead garage doors, replacement windows, and a truncated hipped roof capped with a louvered cupola with a reversed bellcast hipped roof and weathervane.

5572 Broadway ca. 1900 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity) 1 ½-story vernacular cottage of wood construction with a front gable roof, with an early shed-roof addition on the north elevation. The main entrance is offset on the façade and is shielded by a modest pedimented hood supported by plain wood posts. Fenestration is flat-topped, generally 1/1, with a sliding window at the gable end.

COURT STREET INTERSECTS

5580 Broadway ca. 1900 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity) 2 ½-story vernacular building with a cross-gable roof and what appears to be two additions on the north elevation. Original building incorporates a 2-bay upper façade with a centered gable penetrated by paired windows; the pediments of the gable on the side elevations are penetrated by similar windows. Fenestration is flat-topped, with a replacement sash and exterior fixed shutters. The first story is finished in T-111 and the second story in vinyl siding. A shed-roof porch supported by plain wood posts extends across the façade. The first story has been converted for office space and the original storefront has been removed.

5588 Broadway ca. 1870 Contributing primary building; one contributing secondary building; one non-ontributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2-story vernacular residence of brick construction with modest Italianate styling, with the larger wing consisting of a 2-story gable-end-oriented section beside which is a set-back 1-story wing with a porch; stone foundation, asphalt shingle roof. Enclosed entry porch with multi-light sash and centered pediment over the doorway. Segmental-arched fenestration as well as round-arched sash, with the round-arched sash retaining the original operable shutters and the segmental-arched windows having exterior fixed shutters. There appears to be several additions in the rear elevations both of wood and brick construction. An exterior fireplace chimney on the west elevation has been capped at the roofline. Associated with the property are two dependencies at the rear of the lot, one a hipped-roof garage with a single door and an overhead garage door, and the other a side-gable-roofed dependency of indeterminate age and usage.

5592 Broadway ca. 1900 Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2 ½-story vernacular residence of brick construction, front-gable roof and a red brick chimney along the interior of the west elevation. Façade is three bays in width, with the main entrance offset on the east side. Extending across the façade is a shed-roofed porch, supported by replacement wood posts. Fenestration is segmental-arched, with flat-topped 6/6 sash, above which, in the pediment of the gable, are paired roundarched windows. Fenestration in the side elevations is flat-topped, and a smaller scale 2-story wing of brick construction, dating from early in the history of the property, is built on the north elevation. Associated with the property is a non-historic hip-roofed wood frame garage accessed by a gravel driveway.

5600 Broadway ca. 1890 Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2-story Italianate-style residence of wood construction, with cross-gable roof and a 2-story rearward-projecting ell on the north elevation; wood clapboard siding, asphalt shingle roof. Paired Italianate-style brackets and dentils are under the eaves on the main portion of the house. Fenestration is flat-topped, 2/2, with some of the district’s most elaborate window head incorporating pedimented heads and a variety of sawn trim. Extending across the façade and wrapping around a portion of the west elevation is a Doric veranda supported by plain Doric columns with a corner access defined by a pediment. What appears to be an early enclosure of a portion of the porch includes a fixed-light window of art glass. A 1-story veranda, perhaps a later addition, is on the northern part of the west elevation, with spindle work supports and balustrade. Property includes 1 large front-gable 2-bay garage of new construction.

5604 Broadway ca. 1900 Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2-story cross gable vernacular residence of wood construction and a 1-story rearward-projecting wing on the north elevation, stone foundation, aluminum siding, asphalt shingle roof. In the angle of the ell on the façade is a small shed-roof porch. Fenestration is flat-topped, with pedimented window head, 2/2 wood sash, and exterior fixed shutters. Associated with the property is a 2-bay gable-end oriented non-historic garage with paired overhead garage doors.

5608 Broadway ca. 1900 Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2 ½-story Queen Anne style residence of wood construction, finished in asbestos shingles, with a hipped roof penetrated by gables finished in imbricated shingling with curvilinear ornament and bargeboard. The façade is two bays in width, with the main entrance offset on the west side. A 2-story bay window is located on the west elevation and a 1-story bay window is on the east elevation. Extending across the façade is a shed-roof porch with a pediment at the corner. Fenestration is flat-topped 1/1 replacement, without notable ornament. Associated with the property is a 1-story non-historic 2-bay automobile garage.

5614 Broadway ca. 1880 Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2 ½-story 3-bay side-gable vernacular residence of brick, with the main entrance offset on the east side of the façade. A somewhat smaller scale 2-story wing is on the east elevation, set back from the plane of the main house. Two interior gable-end red brick chimneys are on the west gable end and a single interior brick chimney is on the east gable end or the smaller section. Fenestration is segmental-arched, with extended stone sills and brick voussoirs; the windows incorporate flat-topped sash. Several additions have been made to the property including a modern addition of 1-story on the west gable end. A non-historic shed-roof porch extends across a portion of the façade. Property includes non-historic flat-roof garage.

WASHINGTON STREET INTERSECTS

5622 Broadway ca. 1870 Contributing primary building 2 ½-story vernacular residence of brick construction with modest Italianate styling, front- gable and wing. Exterior gable-end red brick chimney rises on the east elevation. The wing features a large shed roof dormer with two small 1/1 windows. Fenestration of round-arched windows and segmental-arched windows, with some 4/4 wood sash retained. A historic veranda, which extends across the wing portion of the façade, retains its original Doric columns which rest on a concrete porch floor. The main entrance is offset on the front-gable oriented section, features historic wooden double doors and transom above. In the gable end is an undersized round-arched window. Attached on the north elevation is a garage and breezeway combination of wood construction, and features a single overhead garage door.

5630 Broadway ca. 1900 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2 ½-story vernacular residence of wood construction with modest Queen Anne styling, with a cross-gable roof and a 2-bay façade with the main entrance offset on the east side, suggestive of a side-passage interior plan. One “Queen Anne” sash has been retained on the façade. Extending across the façade is a 1-story veranda with a hipped roof and a pediment over the main entrance. Veranda is supported by battered wood posts and is enclosed within a replacement turned spindle balustrade. An original 1-story bay window is on the east elevation, what appears to be a historic 1-story addition is on the rear, and a 1-story rectangular bay is on the east elevation. Fenestration is flat-topped, including, in the pediment of the gable, a stylized Palladian window. Associated with the property is a 1-story 2-bay garage with a hipped roof.

5636 Broadway ca. 1890 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2-story vernacular residence of wood construction, with a hipped truncated roof and a modest Italianate-style cornice which incorporates undersized brackets trimmed with drip pendants. The main façade is three bays in width, and includes a 1-story oriel window on the west side and a modest hipped roof entry porch on the right side. A similar side porch is on the west elevation. Both porches are supported by plain wood posts and enclosed within plain spindle wood balustrades, which appear to date from well after the original construction of the house. Fenestration is flat-topped, with decorative wood elements at the corners. Associated with the property is a ca. 1920 hipped-roof wood frame garage finished in shiplap siding.

5642 Broadway ca. 1921 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 1 ½-story Tudor Revival-style red brick cottage with a side-gable roof and a stepped forward-projecting entry bay on the façade which incorporates a semi-circular Medieval-style wooden door with strap hinges, enframed with brick trim. The entry bays are finished in stucco and half-timbering. A wall dormer is on the west side of the façade. Fenestration is flat-topped, with multi-light windows including casement sash and double-hung windows with wood shutter. Original copper scuppers and downspouts have been retained. Behind the house is a 1-½-story garage of wood construction with a steeply pitched roof, finished in wood siding

5648 Broadway ca. 1840 Kintz-Seeger-Batt House Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2-story cross gable frame residence which, in its present form, exhibits characteristics of the Craftsman style, although it is thought that the original house was built for the Kintz family as a vernacular Greek Revival-style house ca. 1840. Features a wrap around entry porch and sunroom. An eastern-projecting gable-roofed section incorporates multiple windows and rearward-projecting section includes in its design paired wall dormers with exposed rafter tails. A wrap-around veranda is on the rear as well. Associated with the property is a 1-½-story multi-bay garage and an outdoor gazebo accessed from a paved driveway.

5654 Broadway ca. 1920 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity); non-contributing secondary building 2-story American Foursquare double house of wood construction, with a hipped roof and hipped dormer centered on the façade and exposed rafter tailed under the eaves, asbestos siding. Porch removed recently, two separate contemporary entry doors at first story and single door at second story. At the rear of the lot is a 1-story front-gable residence, with a 3-bay façade and a centered entrance.

5658 Broadway ca. 1920 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 1½-story Craftsman style bungalow with a side-gable roof, an interior gable-end red brick chimney, and a substantial shed dormer on the façade. The roof extends beyond the plane of the building to shield a sunroom on the west side of the façade and an open porch on the east side of the façade. The porch is supported by battered wood posts and enclosed within a solid wood balustrade. Fenestration is flat-topped, with multi-light replacement sash. On the east gable end is a 1-story bay window which may or may not be original to the house. At the rear of the property is a 2-story gambrel-roofed barn with gable-end orientation and original doors.

BROADWAY – SOUTH SIDE (odd)

5423 Broadway 1940 Lancaster Municipal Building/Lancaster Village Hall Architect: Hudson & Hudson National Register Listed, 1999, contributing primary building The Municipal Building for the village of Lancaster is an Art Moderne-styled institutional building finished in buff-colored brick with a symmetrical façade and a forward-projecting center pavilion defined by brick pilasters. On the west side of the façade is a large garage bay housing fire equipment. Building is restrained in its detail, with windows enframed within limestone surrounds and a limestone beltcourse extending across the uppermost portion of the façade. The interior contains municipal offices. In 1989-1990, an addition was constructed on the rear of the building to accommodate the installation of an elevator.

5427/5429 Broadway ca. 1850 Contributing primary building 2-story front gable masonry vernacular commercial building, with an altered storefront, which retains the traditional window-to-wall ratio with four large storefront windows flanked by contemporary entry doors. The upper façade incorporates a 3-bay configuration, with flat-topped windows resting on extended stone sills and capped with plain stone lintels. Similar fenestration is found on the side elevation. A somewhat smaller 2-story addition is built on the rear, penetrated by segmental-arched windows with flat-topped window sash. This addition creates an L-shaped footprint and the hip-roofed back porch is in the angle of the ell.

5437 Broadway ca. 1880 Depew Lancaster Moose Lodge No. 1605 Contributing primary building This is a former residential building converted for fraternal use, including the construction of several institutional additions at the rear. The original building is a 2-story hipped frame vernacular building; aluminum sided, asphalt shingle roof. It features a full width veranda that has been enclosed with a series of windows, with a central entry and pediment. The façade is five bays in width, and all fenestration is flattopped, 4/4 wood sash double hung. The large 2-story rear addition is generally constructed of brick and concrete block, with a flat roof.

5441 Broadway ca. 1860 Contributing primary building 2-story former residential building, converted for professional offices, is a front gable frame building with stone foundation, vinyl siding, asphalt shingle roof featuring paired Italianate-style brackets under the eaves. The principal entrance is offset on the east side of the façade, and features a forward-projecting segmentalarched entry bay, with classically derived ornament, entry door features sidelights. An oversized 3-unit window is on the west side of the façade. Other windows are typically 1/1 units. A 1-story addition is on the east elevation, and a 1-story oriel has been added on the west elevation. A somewhat smaller 2-story section is on the rear, retaining a significantly earlier 9/9 window.

5443 Broadway ca. 1939 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 1 ½-story Craftsman-style cottage of brick construction, with a multiple pitched side-gable roof and what appears to be an enclosed front porch, above which is a hipped dormer finished in wood shingles. A side entrance is on the east elevation, along with a 1-story oriel window. The east side incorporates a semi-circulararched hood. Fenestration is flat-topped, with multi-light sash, and some windows exhibiting exterior fixed shutters. A historic garage of brick construction, with a hipped roof and paired garage doors, is at the rear of the lot.

PARK BOULEVARD INTERSECTS

5453 Broadway ca. 1831 Thayer-Eli-Zurbrick House Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2-story 3-bay front-gable and wing frame vernacular residence with Greek Revival influences; stone foundation, wood clapboard siding, asphalt shingle roof, with the main entrance offset on the east side of the façade. Fenestration is flat-topped, with multi-light sash and exterior operable louvered shutters. Extending across the façade is a hip-roofed porch, supported by attenuated Doric posts, and enclosed within a plain spindle-wood balustrade. A small-scale side-gable addition is on the east elevation, complete with entry door and sidelights, and a small 1-story hipped roof addition ifs found on the west side. A 2-story gable-end-oriented garage is linked to the house through a covered breezeway south of the main building.

5455 Broadway ca. 1831 Carpenter-Draper House Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 1-story cottage with elements of the Greek Revival incorporated into its design. Building incorporates a truncated hip roof with a wrap-around veranda; stone foundation, wood clapboard siding, asphalt shingle roof. A roof balustrade, which originally existed on the building, has been restored. The main entrance is offset on the west side of the façade, and features a double-paneled door. Fenestration is flat-topped, with a 4/4 wood sash double hung and modest surrounds. The original open east side of the veranda was enclosed in the early 1950’s. The veranda is enclosed with a modest wrought iron balustrade, and is supported by plain wood posts and pediments at the main entry door and east side. Property includes 1-story hipped roof garage.

HEATHER LANE INTERSECTS

5461 Broadway 1832-1833; 1925; ca. 1960 additions(5) Presbyterian Church Contributing primary building Federal-style church building of wood construction, with a symmetrical 3-bay façade, capped by a panel balustrade with a 3-stage bell tower above. Façade features a centered entrance within a classically derived frontispiece flanked by windows with entablature heads. Second story of the façade incorporates a Palladian motif in the center, flanked by flat-topped windows with blind-arched windowheads. Pilasters are found between windows and at the corners of the facade. The eaves are trimmed with modillions, and the side elevations incorporate flat-top windows with lancet-arched tracery and religious art glass. A brick addition is located on the west side of the rear, dedicated to the memory of Pastor Waith who had served the church from 1851-1911.

LAKE AVENUE INTERSECTS

5477 Broadway ca. 1924 B.P.O.E. Lodge/Potter's Hall Contributing primary building 3-story masonry former fraternal building built in a restrained version of Neo-Classical Revival-style with a symmetrical 3-bay façade and a centered entrance shielded by semi-circular dome and enframed within a stone frontispiece. Pilasters define the base facing and are capped with modest stone capitals above which is a continuous stone beltcourse which extends around the sides of the building. The building terminated in flat roof with a parapet with triangular pediments centered on the façade and side elevations. Beneath the pediment on the façade is a date stone bearing the legend “B.P.O.E.” Windows in the raised basement have been filled with glass block, other windows are typically single or paired 1/1 units.

5481-5485 Broadway ca. 1855 Bruce-Briggs Brick Block Constructed for: George Bruce National Register Listed, 1999, (3) contributing primary buildings; contributing secondary building(6) Locally distinctive Greek Revival-style masonry row house consisting of three side-passage units of three bays each. The building is 3-stories in height, with French windows on the first-story, conventional windows on the second story, and “eyebrow” windows accessing the upper story. The building incorporates a side-gable roof trimmed with Italianate-style brackets with a small return of the cornice on gable ends. Historic brick chimneys penetrate the slope of the roof, which is also penetrated by parapets from each of the individual units. Fenestration is flat-topped, with windows set on extended stone sills and capped with plain stone lintels. The entries to the building are accessed by masonry stoops. The rear incorporates a 1-story addition of wood construction along with a bay window, all of which is finished in board-and-batten. At the rear of the lot is a 1-story wood-frame garage with a steeply pitched roof and two sliding garage doors.

5487 Broadway Street ca. 1910 Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2 ½-story Colonial Revival-style residence converted for professional office use of wood construction, asbestos siding, with a side-gable “kicked” roof and partial returns of the cornice on the gable ends. It appears that an originally open front porch has been partially enclosed as entrance for a professional office. The remaining portion of the front porch includes Doric columns, a dentil band and modillions. There are two separate wooden entry doors, one panel with multi light sidelights, and the second with multiple lights. Fenestration is flat-topped, with multi-light sash and some exterior operable shutters. It appears that a 2-story addition has been made on the west elevation and that a 1-story addition has been made on the rear, although these both appear to date prior to 1960. Property includes large front gable non-historic garage.

5489 Broadway ca. 1955 Non-contributing primary building (outside period of significance) 1-story professional office building finished in red brick. L-shaped in form, with a 1-story bay window centered on the façade, along with a glass enclosed “windbreak” on the east elevation. Fenestration is flattopped, without notable ornament.

5497 Broadway 1916-1919 Lancaster Masonic Lodge Hall; Depew Lodge No. 823, Free and Accepted Masons Architect: Mann & Cook National Register Listed, 1999, contributing primary building Monumental Greek Revival fraternal building finished in rock-faced stone, with a gable roof and a full Doric portico extending across the façade. The entrance is accessed by a series of masonry steps flanked by cast-iron light standards. The pediment is trimmed with triglyphs, metopes, and incorporates a full return of the cornice with an art glass window centered. The tetrastyle portico is supported by fluted columns and fluted pilasters against the building. The building is three bays in width, with a centered entrance. Fenestration is flat-topped and semicircular-arched, typically 1/1, and a side entrance on the west elevation incorporates a semi-circular hood. Portions of the limestone for the construction were donated from Maute Foundry. Despite a 1940s fire, the building was rehabilitated shortly thereafter.

5505 Broadway ca. 1987 Faith United Methodist Church Non-contributing primary building (outside period of significance) This is a non-historic side-gable church building finished in red brick, with a side-gable roof and semicirculararched windows glazed with religious art glass. Includes modest bell tower with finial.

CHURCH STREET INTERSECTS

5511 Broadway ca. 1920 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2 ½ story residential/commercial building with elements of the Craftsman style, with the first story finished in red brick and the upper stories in decorative wood shingles. Building incorporates a front-gable roof with a jerkinhead gable on the façade. The side elevation incorporates a gable dormer with exposed rafter tails. The façade features large contemporary storefront windows with blind transoms, and a corner entry door with and oversized brick column at the corner. The second story incorporates a pair tripartite windows, each 3/1 wood sash double hung. and paired windows in the pediment of the gable. Access to the second story is on the west elevation, featuring a single door enframed within sidelights. A 1-story gable-end-oriented garage of wood construction, finished in shiplap siding with a single overhead garage door is behind the subject-property, accessed from Church Street.

5513 Broadway ca. 1900/1960 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity) This appears to have begun as a 2-story front gable residential building, to which was added a 1-story flat roofed stuccoed addition on the façade.

5521 Broadway ca. 1890 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2-story vernacular cross-gable frame residence with stone foundation, vinyl siding, asphalt shingle roof. Features enclosed front porch in the angle of the ell on the façade. A somewhat smaller 2-story wing extends rearward on the south elevation, accessed by another enclosed porch. Fenestration is flat-topped, 1/1, with replacement sash. No other notable ornament. A 1-story hip-roofed garage of wood construction with two overhead garage doors is located behind the house, accessed from Lombardy Street.

LOMBARDY STREET INTERSECTS

5533 Broadway ca. 1890 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 2-story Colonial Revival-style residence of wood construction, finished in asbestos shingles, with a hipped roof and an asymmetrical façade, incorporating a recessed entryway enframed within a frontispiece with fluted Doric columns. The main entrance also incorporates a transom and sidelights. Fenestration is flat-topped, with multi-light windows set singly and in groups. On the east side of the façade is a double window unit opening onto a stairwell, glazed with art glass and capped with a semi-circular fan motif. A 2-story bay window is on the east elevation, along with a side porch whose first story is supported by Doric columns and the second story enclosed within a wood balustrade. The eaves are trimmed with a series of modillions. What appears to be a 1-story hip-roofed addition is on the south side of the west elevation. Associated with the house is a 1-story garage of wood construction, with a steeply pitched hipped roof and original hinged garage doors.

5537 Broadway ca. 1937 Contributing primary building 1 ½-story masonry Tudor Revival-style former residence converted for dental offices. Multiple-roof system, including a front-gabled entry-bay and hipped roof with the original wood door enframed within a stone frontispiece. Fenestration is flat-topped, with multi-light replacement sash. The roofline is penetrated by a series of hipped roof dormers. An attached 2-car garage with an overhead garage door is located on the east side of the façade.

5539 Broadway ca. 1929-1930 Dr. John J. Nowak House National Register Listed, 1999, one contributing primary building; (2) non-contributing secondary buildings (outside period of significance) (7) 2 ½-story hipped-roof masonry Spanish Colonial Revival-style residence converted for use as a nursing home finished in orange brick, and capped with a distinctive multiple roof system finished in red tile. The symmetrical entry façade is oriented towards the east and incorporates a centered entrance shielded by a pedimented ionic portico with semi-elliptical entrados. Fenestration is flat-topped and round-arched, and the corners of the building are trimmed in corbelled brick quoins. Several front gable and hipped dormers penetrate the roofline. A second-story porch has been added above a sunroom on the north elevation. The building is interconnected with 1-story institutional additions. Property includes flat roofed, non-historic institutional building with three bay garage and small-scale contemporary side-gable outbuilding secondary building, cannot be seen from the street.

5559 Broadway ca. 1840 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 1 ½-story front-gable Colonial Revival-style residence with masonry construction in the front and frame construction in the rear portion: stone foundation, asphalt shingle roof. Extending across the façade is a raised porch, supported by Doric columns, with spindle work balustrade, historic entry door with transom and sidelights. Fenestration is typically segmental-arched, with multi-light sash. On the second story of the façade is a stylized Palladian window. The west elevation incorporates two wall dormers finished in imbricated shingling. Non-historic cross gable additions, 2-stories in height, finished in weatherboard and shingles, are at the rear. These additions are compatible with the character of the building. A 1-story hip-roofed garage with sliding garage doors stands behind the house.

5565 Broadway ca. 1890 Herman B. VanPeyma House National Register Listed, 1999, contributing primary building; non-contributing structure, non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) (8) 2 ½-story cross gable frame residence, eclectic in its design, incorporating elements of Queen Anne, Shingle, and Stick styles; stone foundation, wood clapboard siding, asphalt shingle roof. Features wrap-around veranda occupying a portion of the west side of the façade, with Doric columns and wooden balustrade. A substantial 2 ½ story bay window, capped with a hexagonal roof is on the east elevation, along with an exterior red brick chimney. Fenestration is generally flat-topped, with multi-light sash; an elliptical window is located in the pediment of the gable on the veranda facing Broadway Street. Associated with the property is a 1-story open-side carport south of the house along with a non-historic gableroofed dependency (garage/shed).

BURWELL AVENUE INTERSECTS

5575 Broadway ca. 1947 Calvary Chapel Non-contributing primary building (outside period of significance) 1-story front gable church finished in permastone, with what appears to be an added entry wing on the façade, side entry. Windows typically multi-light flat topped replacement windows in semi-circular arch openings.

5585 Broadway ca. 1890 Contributing primary building; non-contributing secondary building (outside period of significance) 2 ½-story hipped-with-cross-gable roof frame Queen Anne vernacular residence; stone foundation, vinyl siding, asphalt shingle roof. Two entry doors, suggesting the property has been converted for double occupancy. A 1-bay, 2-story front porch extends across the eastern portion of the façade. The 1st story of the porch is open with plain wooden supports and solid vinyl sided balustrade, 2nd story is fully enclosed. The western portion of the front facade feature a 2-story bay window capped with a gable dormer with small paired windows. The west elevation is distinguished by a 2 ½ bay window. A 1-story attached garage is behind the property. Property includes non-historic gambrel roof garage.

5587 Broadway ca. 1890 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity) 2 ½-story vernacular frame residential building, with a front-gable roof and a 2-story bay window on the east elevation. Extending across the façade is a shed-roof front porch with an offset pediment over the main entrance. The porch is supported by replacement wood posts and is enclosed within a replacement wood balustrade. Fenestration is flat-topped, with multi-light replacement sash, including window units set singly and in pairs. Some exterior fixed shutters have been installed. What appears to be an enclosed back porch or addition on the rear is evident, along with a non-historic shed roof porch. Earlier survey data indicates that the fenestration has been altered significantly, although the principal massing of the building remains unaltered.

5593 Broadway ca. 1900 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity) 2 ½-story front gable frame vernacular residential property which has been converted to multi-tenant residential use; stone foundation, vinyl siding, asphalt shingle roof. Includes side entry with shed hood. Windows typically sliding or casement vinyl replacement units.

WOODLAWN AVENUE INTERSECTS

5601 Broadway ca. 1880 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity); non-contributing secondary building This property appears to be a single-story vernacular residence to which a variety of additions were made over a long period. Very little of the original property is evident. Now it is a 1 1/2-story vernacular residence. A 1-story, 2-car garage is built onto the property and is accessed from the intersecting street. Other additions include additions of wood, 1 and 1 ½ stories in height, finished in a variety of materials. Associated with the property is a 1-story gable-end oriented garage of wood construction.

5605 Broadway ca. 1927 Contributing primary building; contributing secondary building 1 ½-story Craftsman-style cottage finished in red brick, with a hipped roof and hipped dormers on the façade and the rear elevation. Extending across the façade is a 1-story hip-roofed porch supported by oversized brick piers and enclosed within a solid brick balustrade. Fenestration is flat-topped, 1/1, with some transoms. Windows are set singly and in groups. Rising along the east elevation is an exterior fireplace chimney flanked by somewhat undersized windows. A glass-enclosed rear porch is on the house. Associated with the property is a 1-story brick garage appearing to be built at the time of the house, with a single overhead garage door.

5615 Broadway ca. 1870 Koopmans-Hoffeld House Contributing primary building 2-story 3-bay Italianate-style residence of brick construction, with a low-pitched hipped roof penetrated by several red brick chimneys. The eaves extend beyond the plane of the building and are supported by paired Italianate-style brackets. Three oval eyebrow windows along the cornice. Fenestration is generally roundarched, with 1/1 sash. Extending across the façade is a 1-story Neo-Classical Revival-style Ionic veranda supported by a series of plain wood columns and enclosed within a turned spindle balustrade. Several additions to the property, including a 1-story flat roof addition on the west elevation and others on the rear.

5623 Broadway ca. 1954 Non-contributing primary building (outside period of significance) 1-story Ranch-style residence finished in brick, with a low-pitched side-gable roof penetrated by a substantial red brick fireplace chimney. 1-car integral garage is on the east elevation.

5631 Broadway ca. 1860 Contributing primary building 2-story hipped-roof masonry Italianate-style residence, stone foundation, asphalt shingle roof. Features a 3-bay façade and a main entrance offset on the west side of the façade, enframed within an entryway with sidelights and a transom. A 1-story porch extends across the façade, supported by replacement wood posts and enclosed within a replacement spindle wood balustrade. Fenestration is flat-topped, 2/2 and 1/1 with stone sills and lintels. The eaves extend beyond the plane of the building and are trimmed with paired brackets embellished with drip pendants. Some corbelling of the brick on the façade, historic additions of wood extend along the rear elevations.

5635 Broadway ca. 1957 Non-contributing primary building (outside period of significance) 1-and 2-story side gable frame Ranch-style residence finished in buff-colored brick and vinyl, with a 2-car garage occupying a portion of the façade. Fenestration is flat-topped, and a bow window with diamond-shaped panes is on the west side of the façade.

5639 Broadway ca. 1920 Contributing primary building 1 ½-story Craftsman-style front gable cottage, with an exterior brick chimney on the west elevation, along with a hip-roofed porch which extends across the façade, supported by wood posts and enclosed within a solid wood balustrade. A dentil band is under the eaves on the façade. Fenestration is flat-topped, some tripartite casement windows and some with exterior fixed shutters. The main entrance is offset on the east side of the façade, enframed within a modest frontispiece.

5643 Broadway ca. 1900 Contributing primary building 2 ½-story front gable frame vernacular residence incorporating a shed-roofed veranda which extends across the façade and wraps around a portion of the west elevation. The porch is supported by plain wood posts and enclosed within a replacement wood spindle balustrade. The main entrance is offset on the façade, suggestive of a side-passage interior plan. Fenestration is flat-topped, 1/1, with original window heads and decorative window surrounds. It appears that two historic additions have been made to the rear.

5647 Broadway ca. 1870 Non-contributing primary building (loss of architectural integrity) 2-story 4-bay vernacular brick residence with a side-gable roof penetrated by an interior gable-end red brick chimney on the east gable end. Historic fenestration is flat-topped, with stone sills and some stone lintels. The original front porch has been replaced by a modern brick addition. A 2-story non-historic addition with a garage has been added on the rear.

IVY WAY INTERSECTS

5653 Broadway ca. 1840, 1868 John Richardson House National Register Listed 1999, contributing primary building; 1 contributing secondary building 2-story front-gable and wing vernacular residence of brick construction and modest Italianate detailing, a hipped-roof porch extending across much of the façade, supported by Doric columns which rest on paneled wood bases. The porch is enclosed within a replacement turned spindle balustrade. Fenestration incorporates both round and segmental-arched windows, 4/4 and 2/2, many with original exterior operable louvered shutters which correspond to the form of the window. A small shed dormer is on the east portion of the façade, allowing light into the second story. Associated with the property is a historic 1 ½ story frame barn with clapboard siding and sliding barn door.

THE BROADWAY HISTORIC DISTRICT – STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:

SUMMARY

The Broadway Historic District, located along a portion of the major thoroughfare of Broadway, reflects nearly the entire history of the village of Lancaster, from its roots as an early residential settlement to its transformation into a twentieth century auto-centric suburb of the city of Buffalo. Broadway initially developed in the early 1800s as an early, relatively upscale residential corridor in the village of Lancaster. While the area has become characterized by more commercial use in the twentieth century, the area retains much of its original residential qualities intermixed with religious, civic and some purpose-built commercial buildings. Broadway was the first major artery through the village of Lancaster and, therefore, was one of the first streets to be developed. While a few buildings in the district date back to Lancaster's settlement period in the early 1800s, many of these early buildings were later replaced with larger, more substantial architecture as the village's wealth and population increased. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, Lancaster saw significant population growth and prosperity in the village as a direct result of advancements in transportation. This increased wealth is evident in the increasing number of high-style buildings constructed in these decades. However, Lancaster, like many smaller American communities, experienced a decline in development beginning in the mid-1930s, due in part to the economic crisis of the Great Depression. With the construction of the "Broadway Cut Off" in 1936, a road reconfiguration project, Broadway became streamlined for the automobile, causing travelers to bypass the traditional commercial downtown on nearby Central Avenue. The increase of traffic and decline of the traditional downtown commercial core shifted commercial development to Broadway. Several buildings were updated for commercial uses, including some that directly serviced the use of automobiles, and several contemporary buildings were constructed. Despite the evolving uses along the Broadway corridor, the Broadway Historic District retains much of the original architectural integrity and historic character.

The Broadway Historic District is significant under Criterion A in the area of Community Planning and Development as an example of an early residential thoroughfare that has transitioned into a more commercial use. The district is also eligible under Criterion C in the area of Architecture as an intact collection of mostly residential buildings representing architectural trends common between ca. 1831 and 1940. As one of two major thoroughfares in the village, the development of Broadway reveals the impact of advancements in transportation technologies on the village of Lancaster, as a whole, throughout its history. Broadway thrived, along with the rest of the village, as new advancements in transportation allowed for industrial development and population increase. The increase of wealth and population of the village, especially in the decades surrounding the turn of the twentieth century, spurred the construction of a number of buildings along Broadway. As these buildings were constructed for the wealthiest and most influential people in Lancaster in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, there is a notable collection of relatively high style buildings. Buildings within the Broadway Historic District are primarily in the Colonial Revival, Italianate, and Queen Anne styles, reflecting the popular styles and tastes during the era of development.

PERIOD OF SIGNIFICANCE

The period of significance for the Broadway Historic District encompasses the years in which the majority of architectural development occurred, between ca. 1831 and 1940. This period spans nearly 110 years, and represents the growth and gradual prosperity of the village as found along Broadway from the early settlement period ca.1831, to the peak of wealth around 1900, and eventual stagnation around 1940. The period of significance begins ca. 1831, which marks the date in which the first existing buildings were constructed within the district, the Carpenter-Draper House at 5455 Broadway, the Thayer-Eli-Zubrick House at 5453 Broadway, and the Presbyterian Church at 5461 Broadway. However, the majority of contributing primary buildings within the district were constructed between 1870 and 1930, demonstrating the substantial growth along Broadway in the decades surrounding the turn of the twentieth century. The period of significance includes the notable construction of the "Broadway Cut Off" in 1936, which connected Broadway to East Main Street. This event marked a radical transformation in the physical street plan of Lancaster, one that shifted from the pedestrianoriented community to one that began to cater to automobile traffic. This project was part of a larger commercial reorganization occurring in Lancaster. Additionally, the "Cut Off" caused a shift in commercial development from the traditional commercial core along West Main Street and Central Avenue to Broadway, along which residential buildings were converted for commercial use. The period of significance ends in 1940, with the construction of the Hudson & Hudson designed Art Moderne Lancaster Municipal Building. This was the last significant architect-designed building in the district, signaling the end of a development period characterized by wealth and prosperity. By 1940, Lancaster faced an era of decline in development of its traditional downtown sector that had started during the Great Depression in the 1930s and was exacerbated by the increasing freedom and geographic range that came with the automobile in the 1940s.

The period of significance spans two distinct waves of development as documented in the historic contexts of Settlement and Development of the Village of Lancaster 1807-1849 and Socioeconomic Growth and Maturity of the Village of Lancaster, 1850-1949, in the village Multiple Property Documentation Form (MPDF). The first context describes the early development of the village of Lancaster from 1807, the approximate date of the first European settlement in what was to become the village of Lancaster, to 1849, the date of the Village of Lancaster's official incorporation. During this initial development era, Broadway was first laid out, and several residences and a religious building within the district boundaries were constructed, associated with the first settlers and development of the village. The early residences tend to be small in scale and are designed in a vernacular Greek Revival style likely taken from pattern and style books that became widespread. While they have been modified over time as styles changed and progressed, they still retain high levels of their original architectural integrity. The second historic context describes a second wave of development in the village of Lancaster from 1850 to 1949. This marks a period of great economic growth and success in Lancaster which is evident in the relatively high style architecture and higher quality of building materials. Many of the buildings of the village constructed during the early settlement period, including along Broadway, were replaced at this time by more substantial architecture in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Buildings constructed during this era featured popular architectural styles, some of which are associated with regionally prominent architects and builders.

SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE VILLAGE OF LANCASTER (1807-1849)

NOTE: Much of the information provided in this brief history of the Village of Lancaster has been summarized and paraphrased from the more thorough historical background presented in the related Multiple Property Documentation Form, Historic and Architectural Resources of the Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York. The present day village of Lancaster was originally known as the Cayuga Creek settlement. The fertile soil and proximity to Cayuga Creek would eventually allow the early settlement to become first a thriving farming area and then an industrial community. Though the first settler, Edward Kearney, built his log house in 1807, the land was still densely forested and difficult to transverse. The establishment of transportation routes in the early nineteenth century was vital to initial growth at the site of the present village of Lancaster as a small trade center for the local agricultural community. In the earliest times, the area was reached by various Indian trails, including the Iroquois Trail (now Route 5). In 1808, the Holland Land Company constructed a dirt road from Alden to Buffalo, through what would become the village of Lancaster, which greatly improved accessibility to the small settlement. This road was first known as Buffalo Road and subsequently called Cayuga Creek Plank Road, Main Street (both east and west), and finally Broadway within the village of Lancaster. The road was originally constructed as a dirt road, just wide enough for a wagon, but later became a wooden road, consisting of logs with wood planks running lengthwise nailed to the logs, hence the name "Cayuga Creek Plank Road."(9)

This road would become one of two main thoroughfares through the village, the other being Central Avenue. Once roads were established, the settlement began to grow thanks to Cayuga Creek, which was ideal for hydro power. Milling was one of the first industries in the area, and mills were located along the creek. Improvements to transportation modes and systems continued to be important for the early development of the Lancaster. During the initial settlement period, other than walking, a horse carriage was the primary means of transportation to and from the developing village and its neighbors. The Pioneer Line was established in 1827 as a stagecoach service which ran along Broadway from Buffalo to Lancaster and then eastward. This brought travelers through the heart of what would become the commercial downtown and created a need for goods and services along the route. At the site of the present-day Lancaster Municipal Building (NR, 1999), at the foot of Central Avenue, Edward Kearny built a tavern known as the American House (demolished 1930), which became a popular stop among those traveling the stagecoach line. This sparked the growth of a small commercial district in the settlement because, as travelers stopped to rest, they often were in need of services and goods, and businesses were established to accommodate these needs. Early businesses included a post office, general stores, and hotels.(10) The owners of these businesses established the early residences in the settlement.

Perhaps the most significant catalyst for the village's population growth and development occurred in 1842 with the establishment of the Buffalo & Attica Railroad, north of the village line. This railroad greatly improved transportation of goods and people to and from Lancaster.(11)

It was likely that the northern portion of Central Avenue (formerly Railroad Street), which would become one of the main thoroughfares in Lancaster, developed during the 1840s to connect the train station north of the village to the developing village center.(12) As a result of improvement in access to markets, new industries were able to develop in the Lancaster area, including tanneries, iron furnaces, foundries and a glass factory. This growth in industrial development further increased the population by attracting workers and their families to the area. The New York State Legislature established the town of Lancaster in 1833, subdividing the town of Clarence. It was at this time that the Cayuga Creek settlement was renamed "Lancaster," a name taken from an old English dukedom.(13)

The Village of Lancaster was incorporated in 1849 and is the third oldest incorporated village in Erie County, after Springville and Gowanda, both located well to the south. The settlement had a steadily growing population up until the time of Lancaster's incorporation. Initial settlers to the area hailed primarily from New England and Pennsylvania and were followed by German immigrants who arrived during the 1830s. Additionally, Irish immigrants fleeing the Irish Potato Famine arrived in the 1840s. At the time of incorporation, there were 124 families with a population of 677 residents in the village. Since Buffalo Road (Broadway) was one of the earliest established and most frequently traveled in the Cayuga Creek settlement, many early settlers chose to build their homes along this major artery. These early residences were generally located close to the developing commercial downtown along Railroad Street, since walking was the primary mode of transportation for early settlers. While the majority of houses constructed during this period were replaced by large, higher style residences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a few small-scale residential buildings remain. These include the Thayer-Eli-Zubrick house at 5453 Broadway and the Carpenter-Draper House at 5455 Broadway. Both with modest Greek Revival styling, the houses are representative of the early residential architecture that was scattered along the former Buffalo Road. Among the early residents to settle along Broadway were William A. Thayer, a missionary who taught local Native Americans, and Joseph Carpenter, who operated the first tavern in Lancaster and donated much of his land to the Presbyterian Church. Another extant early residence constructed during this period includes the ca. 1840 Kintz-Seeger-Batt House, originally a Greek Revival Style house which underwent a renovation in the 1920s to add Craftsman detailing, including the front and side porches.

With the first wave of settlers to the village came the earliest religious architecture. The Presbyterian Society of Cayuga Creek was formed by a group of settlers from New England and Pennsylvania in 1818.(14) According to Jim Allein, Historian of the Lancaster Presbyterian Church, "The church was chartered on February 7, 1818 in Freelove Johnson’s schoolhouse near what is now Broadway and Bowen Road, and continued to meet in the schoolhouse and members’ homes until the building of the church." Lancaster Presbyterian Church was constructed in 1832-1833 at 5461 Broadway. It is the second oldest church in all of Erie County to be consistently used for religious purposes. This wood frame building features Federal-Greek Revival styling and draws on influences from the New England Meeting Houses, as well as Asher Benjamin's 1830 pattern books. Allein also noted that, "The church building was built in part with beams and sheathing from 'The-Walk-InThe-Water,' the first steam boat on the Great Lakes. The ship foundered in a lake gale [....] on October 31, 1821 off shore of the Buffalo Lighthouse. After the storm Capt. James Clark, one of the church founders, salvaged some of the lumber and stored it until the church was built." Other churches established in the area included Methodist Episcopal, German Methodist, German Lutheran, and St. Mary's Roman Catholic churches.(15)

Early religious buildings in the Broadway Historic District represent the importance of religion to the citizens of the early settlement.

SOCIOECONOMIC GROWTH AND MATURITY OF THE VILLAGE OF LANCASTER (1850-1949)

Mid-1800s

At its incorporation, the village of Lancaster consisted of a relatively small-scale residential area on East Main Street and a few other streets, surrounding an equally modest business district along the former Railroad Street and West Main Street.(16)

Walking remained the primary means of travel and most residents lived within close proximity of the commercial downtown. However, in 1849, a number of wealthy Dutch merchants and manufacturers from Friesland, Holland moved to the village and became community leaders and business owners, locally known as the "Hollanders." (17) They were part of a significant wave of Dutch immigration to the United States from 1845 to 1855, primarily the result of religious and economic dissatisfaction at home. (18) Immigrants with names such as Koopman, Idsardi, Zuidema, and VanPeyma, were early property owners within the Broadway Historic District. This influx of Dutch immigrants caused land prices in the village to rise from 30 dollars to 50 dollars per acre, and the population more than doubled, from 677 in 1849 to 1,518 in 1866.(19)

Due to the sudden swell in population and economic growth associated with the influx Dutch immigrants, several residential buildings were constructed within the Broadway Historic District. The ca. 1860 Italianate style house, complete with prominent double brackets, located at 5631 Broadway was built for Dutch immigrant, Tjitsche Koopman. His family owned the Hoffeld and Koopman's Tannery, once situated on the banks of Cayuga Creek near the present Lancaster Municipal Building.

20 Other residential properties were beginning to be constructed at this time, including the ca. 1855 Greek Revival row house, the Bruce-Briggs Brick Block at 5481-5485 Broadway (NR listed 1999), and the modestly decorated Italianate house at 5441 Broadway. These early individual houses began to fill in unoccupied land, and in the 1866 Stone and Steward Atlas, there were nearly 40 private residences along East Main Street within the village. Properties along Broadway were typically more compact and on smaller plots of land close to the established business district along Railroad Street (Central Avenue), but moving west toward the Lancaster village line, the plots of land were much larger with buildings spaced further apart Closer to the village center along Railroad Street, few commercial buildings were constructed along East Main Street at this time. The brick vernacular building at 5427-5429 Broadway, was constructed as a store ca. 1850 for George Bruce, organizer of the original Merchant's Bank. It changed hands over the years, including in 1866 when it became J. Leninger's dry goods and grocery store. However, the majority of early commercial buildings were centered along West Main Street and Central Avenue, now part of the Central Avenue Historic District (NR pending). By 1884, Lancaster was said to have: [...] two flower mills, one carriage factory, the Lancaster glass works, one iron foundry, three breweries, two planning mills, one tannery, one malt house, one bedstead shop, two cabinet shops, three tin shops, two meat markets, one drug store, four general stores, three grocery stores, two tailor shops, one harness shop, three hotels, four blacksmith shops, one basket shop and numerous saloons.(21)

Late 1800s and Early 1900s

Transportation continued to progress in the second half of the nineteenth century, bringing wealth, industry, and new residents to the area. May 14, 1883 marked the arrival of the first train on the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad. Lancaster was also accessible via the Lehigh Valley Railroad, which opened its line in 1889. The 1840s era Buffalo & Attica Railroad was joined with seven other rail lines to create the New York Central Railroad. (22) Additionally, roads improved and stage coach services thrived as the village's population grew. J.A.B. Shirman ran a stage coach line on Central Avenue, carrying travelers from the railroad stations, down Central Avenue and east on Broadway Street, formerly East Main Street.(23)

Industrial growth gave way to further road and transportation improvements. Continued development along East Main Street was encouraged by the construction of the Buffalo, Belleview, and Lancaster Electric Railway (BB&L), a trolley line that was constructed from Buffalo to Lancaster and Depew called the “Buffalo.” By 1893, the BB&L trolley went as far as the corner of Sawyer and Central Avenues, approximately one-half mile north of the district. There were two cars running from Lancaster to Cheektowaga and then two running from Cheektowaga to the Buffalo City Line. The concept of running the line down Central Avenue and onto East Main Street was initially met with opposition by homeowners, as well as stage coach drivers who transported passengers from the railway into Lancaster and knew it would make their services obsolete. Progress won out in the end, and by May of 1894, the electric rail was completed on Central Avenue. The BB&L carried more than 500,000 passengers during 1896 and 1897.(24)

The final route of the electric car through the village of Lancaster from Buffalo was along Como Park Boulevard, then north on Church Street to Broadway, west on Broadway (still known as East Main Street at the time) to Central Avenue, and travelling north until it turned west on Sawyer Avenue.(25)

This route brought passengers from Buffalo and surrounding suburbs through the heart of Lancaster's commercial downtown. The BB&L Trolley service went out of business on December 31, 1931, at a time when many streetcar lines were shut down in the Buffalo area, due largely to the growing popularity of buses and automobiles.(26)

With the industrialization of the region and advancements in transportation in the late nineteenth century, the village experienced yet another significant population growth, which is reflected in the housing construction boom in the decades surrounding the turn of the twentieth century. In fact, the majority of residential buildings within the Broadway Historic District were constructed from 1870 to 1920. In 1880, the population of the village was 1,600. It grew to 3,750 in 1900, 4,364 in 1910, and 6,059 in 1920, nearly quadrupling in about a generation.(27)

Along East Main Street, properties were further subdivided into smaller plots and new infill housing was constructed. These residences encompass a wide variety of styles, but primarily feature Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styling, and belonged to some of the most influential people in the village during those decades. Among the residents of the houses along Broadway were doctors, lawyers, politicians, businessmen, and educators, and their affluence is reflected in their highly styled residences. The finest example of a Queen Anne residence in the village is the ca. 1891 Clark-Lester House (NR listed 1999), located at 5454 Broadway, with spindle work porch supports and decorative wood shingle patterns. It was constructed as the home of Myron Clark ca. 1891, who owned the house until his death ca. 1895. Levant D. Lester, prominent attorney to the Villages of Blasdell, Depew and Lancaster, acquired the house in 1911. One of the finest Colonial Revival residences in the Broadway Historic District is the ca. 1900 Miller-Mackey House (NR listed 1999), which was constructed for Dr. John G Miller (1855-1935) and later acquired by Dr. Clarence H. Mackey (1887-1946), both prominent Lancaster doctors during this time of economic growth. This house boasts a decorative entry porch, prominent dentils and modillions at the cornice, and dormers with broken pediments and tripartite windows. Other houses in the district associated with notable Lancaster villagers during this time period include the home of Frank H. Maute, owner of Lancaster's Maute Iron Foundry, located at 5512 Broadway; and the residence of Michael Seeger, owner of a local coal business and butcher shop, located immediately adjacent at 5472 Broadway. Additionally, houses were constructed during this time along Broadway for second generation Dutch immigrants. The success of the first wave of Dutch immigrants is evident in the fact that their children were able to build larger, more grandiose homes. One such residence is the Italianate style Koopmans-Hoffield House, at 5556 Broadway Street, constructed for Henrietta KoopmanHoffeld, daughter of Tjitsche Koopman, who was an early Dutch settler in Lancaster who owned the Italianate house at 5631 Broadway, as well as two local tanneries.

During the late 1800s and early 1900s, the local economy further expanded and new businesses were necessary to support the population, which resulted in a number of new commercial buildings. While the majority of commercial buildings were located along Central Avenue and West Main Street, a number of commercial buildings appeared on the corners of East Main Street and various cross streets. Though not contributing to the district, due to loss of architectural integrity, one of the first of such corner stores in the district was located at 5580 Broadway, constructed ca. 1900, at the corner of Court Street and Broadway. The BB&L trolley, which traveled along East Main Street until it turned south on Church Street, allowed for development of commercial properties along its route, including the American Foursquare style Seeger Store building at 5472 Broadway and the Young Brothers Store at 5476-5478 Broadway Street, both occupying the corners of Broadway and School Streets. Both were constructed around 1910 and supplied groceries to the local population. The Seeger Store Building at 5472 Broadway was built by Michael Seeger as the new location for Seeger's coal and butcher shop, next to his residence located just to the west. The Seeger company had previously been located on Central Avenue. The Young Brothers Store Building at 5476/5478 Broadway was constructed ca. 1909 for Norman and Harvey Young and was used as a combination grocery/confectionary store.

With the steady increase in population by the mid-nineteenth century, there were several new churches constructed in the village to house Presbyterian, German Methodist, German Lutheran, and Roman Catholic congregations.(28)

Though the Episcopal services in Lancaster began ca 1866, the Gothic Revival style Trinity Episcopal Church at 5448 Broadway was not constructed until ca. 1880. It was designed by Buffalo-based Architect W.W. Johnson as one of his first commissions in a long career. Other subsequent religious buildings were constructed along Broadway, reflecting this growth, but are non-contributing to the district because they were constructed outside the period of significance.

With the maturity of the village in the decades surrounding the turn of the twentieth century, came a number of civic and social institutions. In 1924, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks Lancaster Lodge No. 1478, also known as Potter's Hall, was constructed in the Neo-Classical Revival style at 5477 Broadway. It is now associated with the Presbyterian Church as their social service center. Perhaps the most imposing civic building in the Broadway Historic District is the Greek Revival style Lancaster Masonic Lodge Hall (NR listed 1999) located at 5479 Broadway. Constructed between 1916 and 1919 to the design of Buffalo Architects Mann & Cook by builder Frank G. Hanssel of Buffalo, the Masonic Hall is made of stones from the local Maute foundry. It was typical of the period to have institutional buildings, including banks, libraries, municipal buildings, and fraternal facilities designed in this Neo-Classical Revival style.(29)

The prevalence of social institutions during this time reflects the leisure time available and sense of financial comfort and prosperity in the village. East Main Street continued to develop and infill with a number of residences during the first few decades of the twentieth century, in styles including Colonial Revival, Craftsman, and American Foursquare, as the population grew and transportation from Buffalo to Lancaster and other metropolitan areas improved. Roads in the village of Lancaster were paved with brick by 1912. Broadway was paved with yellow brick, with red brick down its middle to signify where the trolley line traveled. Roads were paved with blacktop in the early 1930s, when cars and buses became more common.(30)

1935 -TODAY: AUTOMOBILE AGE AND NEW ERA FOR BROADWAY

The economic struggles of the Great Depression era, coupled with the growing popularity of the automobile, mark the decline of development in the Broadway Historic District. Although buses started to run along the village streets in the 1920s, the impact of the automobile became especially apparent in the 1930s, as residents continued to travel further distances from the traditional downtown corridor. Village leaders made significant changes to the character of the downtown to make it attractive again, and this included the construction of a Municipal Building. The period of significance for the Broadway Historic District ends in 1940 with the construction of the Hudson and Hudson-designed, Art Moderne-styled Lancaster Municipal Building (NR Listed, 1999). Its construction was the last great symbol of the village's wealth and prosperity. The population of the Village of Lancaster of 6,059 in 1920 increased by nearly 1,000 to 7,040 in 1930 but slowed to growth of only about 200 people, to 7,236, in 1940.(31) Prosperity briefly returned to the village during World War II with industrial development in surrounding areas, including the Curtiss-Wright aircraft facility in nearby Cheektowaga. After that war, however, Lancaster did not regain its former status as a dynamic and prosperous community.(32)

The supremacy of the automobile was evident with the end of BB&L Trolley service on December 31, 1931. This occurred at a time when many streetcar lines were shut down in the Buffalo area, a result of the growing popularity of buses and automobiles. The 1936 construction of the "Broadway Cut Off," connected Broadway to East Main Street, and this modification occurred when it was common to make roads more automobile friendly by reducing road obstacles and straightening routes.(33) At this time, East Main Street was renamed "Broadway." This change in the road pattern sent travelers zooming past the shops on Central Avenue and West Main Street, and aided the decline of locally owned businesses in the commercial enclave after the 1930s.(34)

With the rise in automobile ownership, road improvements, and suburban living, Lancaster saw further decline in its downtown commercial district. Typical of the era, residents were lured from city and village centers to centralized auto-oriented shopping plazas and, later, shopping malls offering large, modern stores and amenities in all-weather facilities. The downfall of the traditional pedestrian-oriented commercial downtown became apparent as businesses suffered.

The "Broadway Cut Off" did, however, send travelers along Broadway, and a few buildings within the Broadway Historic District are directly associated with this development. A fine example of early roadside architecture, the Liebler-Rohl Gasoline Station (NR listed 1999) at 5500 Broadway, was constructed ca. 1935. by contractor John D. Rademacher, a prominent western New York builder whose company took on this job, much smaller than they were used to, during the Great Depression.(35)

Early gasoline stations emerged in residential areas on corner lots, replacing older homes at a time when the automobile was changing the landscape of villages and cities all over the country. Many were designed during the social tumult of the Great Depression in Revival styles reflecting rural wealth of seemingly simpler times past. The Neoclassical Revival Brost Building, located at 5490 Broadway, was designed by prominent Buffalo-based architect E.B. Green ca. 1935 for Kleiffort Buick, the first Buick agency in western New York. The building was then purchased by the Brost family, who sold Chevrolets. These buildings were both Depression Era projects for Buffalo basedarchitects/builders, demonstrating that the automobile had some positive effects on the local economy along Broadway and that local business owners were able to capitalize on this new technology, despite a time of economic hardship.

With the widespread popularity the automobile, residents along Broadway needed a location to store their vehicles. Several previously existing barns and sheds were converted at this time for automobile storage. By the 1930s, a number of detached automobile garages were constructed specifically for this purpose. Parcels in the district were generally large enough to allow for a garage to be constructed in the side or rear yards. The Art Moderne Lancaster Municipal Building at 5423 Broadway which was constructed in 1940 was the last high-style, architect-designed building constructed in the Broadway Historic District. Its construction signaled a new era for the village, one characterized by a lack of substantial change or growth. The new Municipal Building combined local government offices and the fire department. It replaced the mid-nineteenth century landmark American Hotel, later known as the Village Inn, and the 1896 fire hall that were both torn down in the construction of the "Broadway Cut Off." In 1940, the municipal building was erected for the total sum of $127,500. This small-scale Art Moderne building was designed by prominent Hudson & Hudson architects of Buffalo, in a design featuring overall horizontality and a dominant projecting center bay that are characteristic of this style. (36)

With the draw of suburban living and the convenience of the automobile, communities no longer needed to be walkable, and people moved away from the traditional downtown. Several residential subdivisions were established in the village of Lancaster in the 1950s and 60s, including the Como Park Subdivision and 74 new home sites on Central Avenue constructed by Columbia Builders.(37)

It was at this time that Broadway made a shift from primarily residential to more of a mix of residential and commercial properties. Since people were moving from the village center towards the outskirts, a number of residential buildings within the Broadway Historic District were converted for use as commercial buildings during this time, a trend that would continue for decades. As these properties were initially built for residential use, many of them required modifications for new commercial uses. Modifications included enclosing open porches, large modern additions and altering or adding entry doors. As Broadway became more automobile friendly, many of the businesses added large rear parking lots in the once grassy back yards. More recently constructed buildings followed suit. There are a few residential and commercial building from this era located in the district, including 1-story elongated ca. 1950s ranch style buildings at 5623, 5532, and 5535 Broadway Street.

Throughout the latter half of the twentieth century, the Broadway Historic District remained largely unchanged. Several buildings received "updates" with new synthetic siding and windows. Although there were a few historic buildings torn down to make room for modern infill, this is a rarity within the district, and overall integrity largely remains unaltered. The only buildings that truly deviate from the district’s overall historic character are the ca. 1976 Lancaster Public Library at 5466 Broadway and the ca.1987 Faith United Methodist Church at 5505 Broadway. They are the most recently constructed buildings in the district, and both noncontributing.

ARCHITECTURE OF THE BROADWAY HISTORIC DISTRICT

Contributing buildings to Broadway Historic District were constructed between ca. 1831 and 1940 and include various types of residential, commercial, religious and civic architecture. The majority of buildings in the district were originally residential in their design and use. Several of these have since been renovated for commercial purposes, but still retain much of their residential qualities, by maintain the general scale of the building and maintain porches. Additionally, while not the dominant building types found within the district, several purpose-built commercial, religious, and public- and private-sector civic buildings are scattered throughout along Broadway within the historic district.

The residential architecture within the Broadway Historic District reflects the growth and stability of the village from the early 1830s through World War II. While residential architecture was found throughout the village, some of the finest houses were constructed along Broadway. Lancaster was not an exceptionally wealthy village, represented by several homes constructed in more modestly decorated examples of popular styles of the day. Residential properties are typically constructed on relatively small lots. The district features buildings of both brick and frame construction, although the majority are frame. Buildings tend to feature cross-gabled or hipped roof structures. Many properties include secondary buildings, such as garages and carriage houses. Fenestration varies throughout but it is typically flat-topped double hung windows. Alterations typical of the residential architecture include covering of original siding with aluminum or vinyl siding, replacement of windows and occasionally the removal of significant features, such as original porches. Properties that were once residential and have been converted for commercial use tend to have large modern additions and paved parking lots at the rear.

While historic commercial architecture in the village is typically concentrated along Central Avenue and West Main Street, just to the west of the nominated district, there are a several buildings that were constructed for commercial purposes within the Broadway Historic District. The buildings tend to occupy corner lots within the district, at a residential scale of 1- to 2 ½- stories in height with masonry construction. Several of the 2- to 2 ½- story examples feature storefronts on the first floor with residential units above, which was typical of commercial buildings built during the decades surrounding the turn of the twentieth century. Storefronts have large fixed display windows and entry doors are typically recessed. Their facades are very modestly, if at all, decorated.

There are several examples of religious architecture in the district, but only were constructed within the period of significance. These two contributing buildings are the Lancaster Presbyterian Church at 5469 Broadway, designed in a transitional Federal-Greek Revival mode, and the Gothic Revival-style Trinity Episcopal Church at 5448 Broadway. The two buildings are very different in building style and building materials, but they both contain features that are typical of religious architecture, including large gabled massed buildings that give evidence of interior vaulting and tall, narrow leaded-glass windows. Mostly intact since their construction, these religious buildings reflect typical alterations with additions for the purpose of religious programming over time, including large modern rear additions.

The Broadway Historic District also includes institutional facilities which are typically of a more imposing scale than other buildings within the district. These buildings are located on the west side of the district toward the center of the village. They are typically two to three stories in height and of brick and stone construction, giving a sense of permanence in the community. Buildings include the Art Moderne Lancaster Municipal Building at 5423 Broadway and the Greek Revival style Lancaster Masonic Lodge Hall at 5497 Broadway. The resources of the Broadway Historic District represent several architectural styles that were popular during the time of construction and represent the evolution of the Broadway from its modest beginnings, to the peak of Lancaster's wealth and prosperity, to eventual decline. The presence of these nationally-popular architectural styles is indicative of the local populace’s attempt to copy and mimic the latest architectural fashions of the time. In many cases, these styles were promulgated through the wide distribution of architectural pattern books and builder’s guides, and later were published in numerous magazines and journals.

Resources in the nominated district span the full range of popular American architecture through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Broadway Historic District contains a few good examples of Greek Revival residential and civic architecture, which was popular roughly between the 1820s-1860s. Residential examples include the Thayer-Eli-Zubrick House at 5453 Broadway (ca. 1831) and the Carpenter-Draper House at 5455 Broadway (ca. 1831). Although they are early vernacular examples, they feature pediments and flat topped windows as characteristic of Greek Revival style. The Bruce-Briggs Brick Block at 5481-5485 Broadway is a more highly styled example of Greek Revival residential architecture, complete with freeze band flat topped windows. Greek Revival civic architecture in the district includes the Lancaster Masonic Lodge Hall at 5497 Broadway, designed by Mann & Cook architects, which includes a large portico across the facade and a pediment, complete with triglyphs and metopes. The nominated district also contains several examples of the Italianate style, which was popular throughout the country around the mid-1800s. Examples of this style include the Zuidema-Idsardi House at 5556 Broadway (ca. 1870), the Koopmans-Hoffeld House at 5615 Broadway (ca. 1870), and the house at 5631 Broadway (ca. 1860). All three feature the prominent double brackets at the cornice and tall narrow windows associated with the Italianate style. A wide variety of Colonial Revival style residential buildings can also be found in the historic district, including the Dr. John D. Nowak House at 5539 Broadway, Miller Mackey House at 5440 Broadway and the house at 5487 Broadway. All three exhibit elements of Colonial Revival styling such as largely symmetrical facades, central entrances, and front porches with various classical columns and balustrades. The Dr. John D. Nowak House is unique in the district due to its Spanish Colonial detailing, including red tile roofing. Between the 1880s and 1910s, the Queen Anne style became the height of fashion for American architecture, and a number of houses within the Broadway Historic District have elements of Queen Anne Styling, but the most intact is the Clark-Lester House at 5454 Broadway, complete with multi-gabled roof, decorative shingle patterns, and spindle work porch supports. Closely related to this style, was the Shingle Style, which was reminiscent of the shingled sea-side cottages in communities such as Newport and Long Island. The Michael Seeger House at 5470 Broadway and the house at 5542 Broadway feature elements of Queen Anne styling, such as bay windows but feature shingle siding, reflecting Shingle Style influence.

The Broadway Historic District also includes examples of styles common in the early twentieth century as well. Present along Broadway are several residential and commercial examples of Craftsman Style buildings. The best example of a Craftsman residence, 5605 Broadway, features a nearly full-with entry porch held up with oversized brick piers and centrally placed hipped roof dormer. The building at 5511 Broadway features typical elements of a Craftsman commercial property, including the oversized brick supports and 3/1 wood sash double hung windows. During the first three decades of the twentieth century, the American Foursquare was the dominate form for architecture, especially residential, with the simplified massing and ornamentation a direct reaction to the frenzied ornament of the Victorian era. The Broadway Historic District contains several good examples of this mode, including the Seeger Store Building at 5472 Broadway (ca. 1910), a commercial building, which is complete with a hipped roof and 2- bay facade, but features a fully restored commercial storefront with central recessed entry and large plate glass windows. Drawing influences from medieval European architecture, the Tudor Revival style, which was in vogue from the late nineteenth century until the pre-World War II era, is represented with several examples, including the masonry residences at 5537 and 5642 Broadway. Perhaps the most interesting example of the style is the Liebler Rohl Gasoline Station at 5500 Broadway, which features a steeply pitched roof and stucco siding with half-timbering. During this same era, a wide variety of Classically-derive architectural styles were popular, including the Neo-Classical Revival. The Broadway Historic District features examples of the Neo-Classical Revival civic and commercial buildings as represented by the BPOE Lodge/Potters Hall at 5477 Broadway and the Brost Building 5490 Broadway, both featuring symmetrical facades complete with full height pilasters. Given the cost and expertise needed to create this more ornate architectural style, its presence in the nominated district is suggestive of the financial and cultural standing of the community.

NOTABLE RESIDENTS, ARCHITECTS, AND BUILDERS OF THE BROADWAY HISTORIC DISTRICT

The Broadway Historic District includes the homes of notable people from the village's settlement period and period of socioeconomic growth, all of whom left a lasting impact on the character of the village of Lancaster. Historically, residents of the Broadway Historic district were prominent doctors, lawyers, politicians, educators and business owners in the village, some of who enjoyed county-wide impact. Additionally, the district is contains the work of several notable local and regional architects and builders at the time. Notable Residents of the Broadway Historic District

Early Settlers

The Thayer-Eli-Zubrick House, located at 5453 Broadway was constructed ca. 1831 by William A. Thayer. He was a missionary who came to the area to teach Native Americans. The house was then occupied in 1847 by Rev. Levi Skinner, who was minister at the Presbyterian Church. From 1854 to 1859 it was occupied by Israel Noyes Eli, who served as Cheektowaga Town Supervisor, a state Assembly Member, Village Trustee and Mayor.

The Carpenter-Draper house at 5455 Broadway was also of the first homes erected in the village of Lancaster, about 1831, and for Joseph Carpenter, who operated the first tavern in the village. He also donated the land immediately east of the house for the construction of the Presbyterian Church in 1832. The house was acquired by the Draper Family in the 1830s, and they owned it until 1919 when the Archibald family purchased it for use as an antiques store and tea room. It went through many subsequent uses, including a gift shop, furniture store, and pet store, until the 1970s, when it was acquired and rehabilitated by the Keysa family for use as a law and insurance office. Brothers James and Stanley Keysa were pioneering historic preservationists in the village of Lancaster and Erie County.

The modest Italianate style John Richardson House (NR listed 1999), located at 5653 Broadway, was originally constructed ca. 1840 for John Richardson, a brick maker and builder, who had a 5 acre brick factory as part of his property. Many of the brick homes in the village were constructed by Richardson, and many of the bricks used in brick buildings built in Lancaster in the nineteenth century came from Richardson's Brickyard. The land was eventually sold off in the mid twentieth century and subdivided into residential properties. Richardson lived in the house until his death in 1878.

Post-Village of Lancaster Incorporation/"Hollanders"

The Greek Revival style Bruce-Briggs Brick Block (NR listed 1999) at 5481-5483 Broadway was constructed ca. 1855 for George Bruce. A prominent figure in early Lancaster, Bruce was one of the earliest settlers in the village, served as president of the Merchant's Bank, and was one of the first trustees of the Lancaster Presbyterian Church. He sold the row houses to Ebenezer Briggs (? – c. 1877) in 1867, when he moved to Adrian, Michigan. Briggs was also an early community leader whose business consisted of the purchase and resale of land. He once owned land that contained the community race track, now the site of Lancaster High School. Briggs owned the block until his death. It was partitioned into separate units for the first time in 1878.(38)

The 2-story Italianate style house with modest Eastlake detailing located at 5556 Broadway is known as the Zuidema-Idsardi House (NR listed 1999). It was constructed ca. 1870 for John H. Zuidema, a Dutch immigrant who arrived in Lancaster in 1849 with a number of other Dutch businessmen. Zuidema originally settled on a farm in the Town of Lancaster until he relocated to the village in 1876. At the time of his death in 1879, the house was acquired by Tjeerd Idsardi, another Dutch immigrant who arrived in Lancaster in the late 1840s. The Koopmans-Hoffeld House, a large 2 ½-story Italianate style former residence at 5615 Broadway, was constructed ca. 1870 for Henrietta Koopman Hoffeld, daughter of Tjitsche Koopman, who was an early Dutch settler to Lancaster. The Koopman Family owned two local tanneries. Henrietta married Rudolph Hoffeld and the property remained in the family until 1944. It was then converted for use as a funeral home, which still operates today.

Residents at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

The Maute House, located at 5512 Broadway was constructed ca. 1880 for Frank H. Maute. The Mautes were a prominent family in Lancaster who owned and operated the Maute Iron Foundry, one of the early industries in Lancaster. The foundry, located on Holland Avenue between Plumb Bottom Creek and Broadway Street, was established in 1849 under different owners. Frank Maute purchased the foundry in 1859 and stayed in business there until 1910, generally manufacturing agricultural tools and general castings. The Mautes also were responsible for manufacturing the iron sidewalks which once lined the streets of Lancaster.(39) The Depew Lancaster Moose Lodge No. 1605 located at 5437 Broadway was constructed ca. 1880 as a residence for W.A. Waters and was later sold a to successive number of locally significant villagers until it was converted to use by the local Moose Club in 1947. Previous owners include Dr. Daniel Stratton, a local physician, Judge Theodotus Burwell, and Dr. James, who was one of the owners of the Lancaster glass works, formerly located nearby on Lake Avenue. At the time the building was purchased by the Depew Lancaster Moose Lodge, several additions were made to the rear of the building, but the front remains relatively intact. The large 2 ½-story eclectic Stick and Queen Anne style Herman B. VanPeyma House (NR listed 1999) located at 5565 Broadway was constructed ca. 1890 for Herman Boetkhout VanPeyma (1854-1933), the son of Lancaster physician, James W. and his wife Jetske Klaasez VanPeyma, Dutch immigrants who came to Lancaster in 1849 who were known locally as "Hollanders." Herman VanPeyma was a graduate of Lancaster Public Schools and Buffalo High School. He taught for the Town of Lancaster School District and was a civil engineer for the Erie Railroad. He was admitted to the bar in 1879 and opened his own law office in the Kremlin Building in Buffalo. VanPeyma lived in the house until his death and never married.(40) The Queen Anne style Clark-Lester House (NR listed 1999) at 5454 Broadway was constructed about 1891 for Myron Clark, who owned the house until his death ca. 1895. It was then passed to the sister of Levant D. Lester, from whom Lester purchased it in 1911. Lester was an attorney who graduated from law school at the University of Buffalo in 1897 and was admitted to practice before the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, Fourth Department. He served as the attorney for the Villages of Blasdell, Depew, and Lancaster until his death. The home was then passed to his daughter Olive, a University of Buffalo graduate and faculty member of its Psychology Department. She eventually became the first woman chairman of any academic department at the University of Buffalo and authored a number of academic papers.(41)

The Colonial Revival style Miller-Mackey House (NR listed 1999), located at 5440 Broadway, was once home to two prominent people in the village of Lancaster's medical and commercial community. It was constructed in 1905 as the home and professional office for Dr. John G Miller (1855-1835) a native of Sheldon, NY. He received his education at University of Buffalo Medical School and Belleview Hospital in New York City, and upon finishing his education in 1878, he settled in Lancaster to establish his own practice where he worked for nearly 60 years. Miller also was the health officer for the village of Lancaster for twenty years, was on the Board of Education for 42 years, serving as the president for 28, and he helped to organize the Bank of Lancaster, serving on its board for many years as vice president and president. Miller resided in the house with his wife Johanna Bartholomy and their children. The house is also associated with Dr. Clarence H. Mackey (1887-1946) who married the Millers' daughter, Marjorie. Mackey was a Buffalo native who moved to Lancaster as a teenager. He received his medical degree from Cornell University Medical College in 1910 and returned to Lancaster, sharing his office with Dr. Miller. Mackey served in the Army Medical Corps during World War I and was also health officer and school physician for the Village and Town of Lancaster. He and his wife occupied the house after the death of the Millers until his own death. In 1957, the estate was purchased by the Depew Lancaster Boys' club and later the Boys' and Girls' Club.(42)

The expansive 2 ½-story Spanish Revival Dr. John J. Nowak House (NR listed 1999); also known as St. Elizabeth's Home, at 5539 Broadway was constructed ca. 1929 for Dr. John J. Nowak (1893-1950). Nowak was a Buffalo native and 1917 graduate of the University of Buffalo's medical school. Nowak ran a private practice in the Buffalo area as an ear, nose, and throat specialist. Additionally, he served on the staff of the Sisters of Mercy and the Sisters of Charity Hospitals in Buffalo. He resided in the house with his family until the time of his death.(43)

Notable Architects and Builders of the Broadway Historic District

The earliest builders in the Lancaster area would have been informally trained, usually through apprenticeships, relying on pattern books and style guides as a source of design inspiration. Many mimicked the architecture that was common in the eastern United States, such as Connecticut, Long Island, and Massachusetts, as many of Western New York’s earliest settlers originated in these areas. Many of the Broadway Historic District’s earliest builders were created by these unknown local builders. However, as the Lancaster community grew and evolved in the mid- to late nineteenth century, becoming more wealthy and established, the area attracted the work of several notable local and regional architects. Many of these architects were more highly trained, in both structural design as well as architectural theory. The Broadway Historic District also contains several good examples of architect-designed buildings, especially religious and civic properties.

Architect W.W. Johnson designed the Gothic Revival style Trinity Episcopal Church, located at 5448 Broadway. The Episcopal congregation formed in 1866 and commissioned W.W. Johnson to design the church as one of his first commissions. W.W. Johnson was originally a pattern maker and planning mill carpenter, but began to practice architecture in the early 1880s and moved from Saginaw, Michigan to the booming Buffalo area. He designed an Episcopal Church and several houses in Ridgeway, PA, a planning mill-dominated, railroad village.

The Greek Revival style Lancaster Masonic Lodge Hall (NR listed 1999) located at 5479 Broadway was constructed between 1916 and 1919 to the design of Buffalo-based architects Mann & Cook by builder Frank G. Hanssel of Buffalo. Buffalo architect Harold Jewett Cook (1885-1933) had an eight year partnership with Paul F. Mann. The New York City native graduated from Columbia University's School of Architecture and moved his practice from Little Falls, NY to Buffalo in 1908. Cook is associated with a number of institutional designs across New York State and as far as Pittsburgh, PA. His other notable works include the 1921 Liberty Bank at 2221 Seneca Street, the 1925 Scottish Rite Temple, and three churches, all in Buffalo, as well as the Masonic Temples in Lockport and Little Falls and a number of private residences. Additional significance is found in the work of builder Frank G. Hanssel (1886-1864) who established the general contracting firm, Frank G. Hanssel Company, in 1904 and located in Buffalo's Ellicott Square Building. Hanssel had a long and successful career, and among his works were Buffalo Schools 54 and 77, the Black Rock and South Park Markets, the Bird Island Pier and the U.S. Coast Guard Station at the end of Michigan Avenue. The Depew Lodge is the only building identified in the village of Lancaster that is associated with Mann & Cook Architects and Frank G. Hanssel Company.(44)

Edward Brodhead Green (1855-1950) designer of the Brost Building at 5490 Broadway, was one of Buffalo's most prolific and highly regarded architects. The Utica, NY native graduated from Cornell University's School of Architecture in 1878 and was the eighth Registered Architect in New York State. He and his partner, William Sydney Wicks, opened their practice in 1880 in Auburn, NY before moving to 69 Genesee Street in Buffalo. Over his 72-year career in architecture, Green designed over 370 prominent civic, commercial, educational, religious, and residential buildings from Maine to Indiana, with the majority of them located in the Buffalo area, and many now listed in the National Register of Historic Places. His designs were largely classically inspired, as is evident in his Neo-Classical Revival Brost Building.(45)

John D. Rademacher was the contractor for the Liebler-Rohl Gasoline Station (NR listed 1999) at 5500 Broadway was constructed ca. 1935. Rademacher, a prominent western New York builder who constructed and repaired a number of noteworthy buildings throughout the region. He took on this job, much smaller than his usual project, during the Great Depression.(46)

Buffalo-based architects Hudson & Hudson designed the 1940 Art Moderne Lancaster Municipal Building or Lancaster Village Hall (NR Listed 1999) located at 5423 Broadway. It is the village's only building designed by Hudson and Hudson. Hudson and Hudson was founded by brothers Chauncey F. (1889-1971) and Harry F. Hudson (1878-1963). The elder, Harry, began his career in 1906 with Ellicott R. Colson (1871-1923), remaining until Colson's death in 1923. Chauncey received his training at Columbia University and worked for the Charles A. Platt's studio in New York City, but returned to Buffalo in 1922 to work for Esenwein & Johnson. In 1926, the Hudson brothers started their own practice, which lasted until the 1950s. Besides the Lancaster Municipal Building, Hudson & Hudson designed a number of residences in the Buffalo area, including in Orchard Park, and is recognized as architects of the Orchard Park Municipal Building.47

SUMMARY

The Broadway Historic District is significant under Criteria A and C as an intact and contiguous collection of primarily residential architecture representing architectural trends common between ca. 1831 to 1940. The district represents a notable collection of mostly Colonial Revival, Queen Anne, and Italianate style buildings, the most intact collection along a primary artery in the village of Lancaster. The period of significance, from ca. 1831 to 1940, represents the key dates in Broadway's history of development within the larger historic context of the Settlement and Development of Village of Lancaster, 1807-1849, and Socioeconomic Growth and Maturity of the Village, 1850-1940, established in the MPDF. From early in its history, development along Broadway is largely due to the growth and development of the community, aided by the road’s increasing role as a major artery in the 1930s. Located along the first major thoroughfare in the village, the Broadway Historic District is representative of the village's growth from the early settlement period ca.1831, to the peak of wealth ca. 1900, and eventual stagnation beginning ca. 1940. Buildings in the district are associated with prominent businesses, civic and religious institutions, as well as citizens that shaped the village of Lancaster throughout its evolution from a small farming settlement to a moderately wealthy industrial community. While some buildings have been slightly modified for commercial use, the Broadway Historic District remains the most intact collection of residential architecture in the village of Lancaster.

Bibliography:

Allein, Jim. "A Short History of the Lancaster Presbyterian Church." Lancaster Presbyterian Church.

http://www.l-p-c.org/html/shortstory.html.

Brinks, Herbert J. "Dutch Americans." Countries and Their Cultures. http://www.everyculture.com/multi/DuHa/Dutch-Americans.html.
Buffalo Courier-Express. "Officials Ready to Speed to Lancaster Cutoff Task." Sunday April 5, 1936, 4.
"Comparison of American Architectural Styles 1790-1960." Buffalo as an Architectural Museum. Last

modified 2002. http://www.buffaloah.com/a/archsty/COMPARE.html.

"Early History of Community." April 15, 1948. (Clipping from Lancaster Historical Society Files)
"Eastlake Style in Buffalo, NY." Buffalo as an Architectural Museum. Last modified 2004.

http://www.buffaloah.com/a/archsty/east/.

"Edward Brodhead Green – Biography." Buffalo as an Architectural Museum. Last modified 2002.

http://www.buffaloah.com/a/archs/ebg/ebg.html. Keysa, James S., ed. Lancaster, New York: Architecture and History. Lancaster, NY: Village of Lancaster

Historic District Commission, 2007.
"A Glimpse Into The Past: The Iron Foundry." Lancaster Enterprise. July 27, 1939.

McAlester, Virginia and Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 2006.

New York State Homes & Community Renewal. "New York Main Street Awards." Funding History. Last modified May 7, 2012. Accessed June 6, 2014.

http://www.nyshcr.org/Programs/NYMainStreet/FundingHistory.htm.

Scott, Harley E., ed. Tales of Old West Main Street. Lancaster, NY: Cayuga Creek Press, 1998.

Scott, Harley E., and Edward J. Mikula. Tales of Old Lancaster. Lancaster, NY: Cayuga Creek Press, 1981.

Smith, H. Perry, ed. The History of the City of Buffalo and Erie County: With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers. Vol. 1. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Co., 1884.
Taylor, David L. National Register of Historic Places Form: Bruce-Briggs Brick Block, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York. Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999.
--- National Register of Historic Places Form: Clark-Lester House, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York. Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999.
---. National Register of Historic Places Form: Depew Lodge No. 823, Free and Accepted Masons, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York. Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999.
---. National Register of Historic Places Form: Dr. John J. Nowak House, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York. Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999.
---. National Register of Historic Places Form: Herman B. VanPeyma House, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York. Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999.
Taylor, David L. National Register of Historic Places Form: Lancaster Municipal Building, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York. Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999.
---. National Register of Historic Places Form: Liebler-Rohl Gasoline Station, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York. Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999.
---. National Register of Historic Places Form: Miller-Mackey House, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York. Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999.
---. National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation Form: Historic and Architectural Resources of the Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York. Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999.
White, Truman C., Ed. Our County and its People: A Descriptive Work on Erie County, New York. Vol. 1. Boston: Boston History Company, 1898

Also:

  • Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps for the Village of Lancaster: 1885, 1892, 1897, 1904, 1911, 1923, 1923-1949
  • Atlases: 1866 Stone and Steward Atlas, 1880 Beers Atlas, 1909 Century Map Co. Atlas
  • Directories: 1880 Western New York Gazetteer & Business Directory,1902-03 Johnson's Business and Professional Directory of Buffalo, Rochester, Erie, Niagara Falls, Lockport, Tonawanda, Batavia, Hamburg, Dunkirk, Williamsville, Geneva, Lyons, Canandaigua, and Lancaster, N.Y.
  • Files of the Lancaster Historical Society
  • Historic Resource Inventory Forms from 1986 and 2009
  • Buffaloresearch.co
  • Buffaloah.com

Verbal Boundary Description

The boundaries are indicated on the attached boundary map with scale.

Boundary Justification

The boundaries of the Broadway Historic District were drawn to encompass the largest intact contiguous collection of historic resources located along Broadway Street, all reflecting the primarily residential development of properties along the most historic east to west route through the Village of Lancaster from the settlement period to the height of wealth and eventual decline.

REFERENCES

1) While there are several properties that fall into the Property Type II: Commercial and Industrial Architecture as set forth in the MPDF, buildings within the Broadway Historic District are commercial and not industrial.

2) David L. Taylor, National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation Form: Historic and Architectural Resources of the Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. (Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999), section F, page 5.

3) Harley E. Scott and Edward J. Mikula, Tales of Old Lancaster (Lancaster, NY: Cayuga Creek Press, 1981), 5.

4) The individual nomination for the Liebler-Rohl Gasoline Station states that the building "has no contributing outbuildings. This is contrary to current findings, as the building is associated with a former auto service station at the rear of the property, deemed noncontributing due to a loss of architectural integrity. From David L. Taylor, National Register of Historic Places Form: Liebler-Rohl Gasoline Station, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. (Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999), section 7, page 1.

5) Jim Allein, "A Short History of the Lancaster Presbyterian Church," Lancaster Presbyterian Church, http://www.l-pc.org/html/shortstory.html.

6) The individual nomination for the Bruce-Briggs Brick Block states that the rowhouse has "no associated out-buildings." This is contrary to current findings, as the building is associated with one secondary building, deemed contributing due to age and materials. From David L. Taylor, National Register of Historic Places Form: Bruce Briggs Brick Block, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. (Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999), section 7, page 1.

7) The individual nomination for the Dr. John J. Nowak House states that "One non-contributing building is included within the property [...]." This is contrary to current findings, as the building is associated with another secondary building, not able to be seen from the street, deemed non-contributing due to age. From David L. Taylor, National Register of Historic Places Form: Dr. John J. Nowak House, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. (Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999), section 7, page 2.


8) The individual nomination for the Herman B. VanPeyma House states that, "No historic outbuildings are associated with the VanPeyma House." It neglects to acknowledge the existence of a non-historic secondary building , deemed non-contributing due to age, which may have been constructed after the 1999 nomination. From David L. Taylor, National Register of Historic Places Form: Herman B. VanPeyma House, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. (Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999), section 7, page 1.

9) Keysa, Lancaster, New York, 98.


10) Broadway did not always connect at the foot of Central Avenue as it does today. Originally, Buffalo Road (now Broadway ) was located completely north of Cayuga Creek, but a series of floods pushed the creek northward until it became necessary for travelers to change their route. Buffalo Road could not continue between Aurora Street and the foot of Central Avenue because this was a low lying part of Cayuga Creek prone to flooding, thus West Main Street was constructed ca. 1810 as a detour. Railroad Street (now Central Avenue) was shifted east to connect with the eastern portion of the disconnected Buffalo Road. West Main Street and Railroad Street became part of the major thoroughfare of the developing settlement. When heading east through the village from Buffalo to Alden, one would start on Broadway, turn north onto Aurora Street, east on West Main Street, south on Central Avenue and east to reach East Main Street. From Harley E. Scott and Edward J. Mikula, Tales of Old Lancaster (Lancaster, NY: Cayuga Creek Press, 1981), 5.

11) Taylor, MPDF: Village of Lancaster, section E, 3.

12) The name "Railroad Street" changed to "Central Avenue" ca.1890s.

13) "Early History of Community," April 15, 1948. (Clipping from Lancaster Historical Society Files)

14) The land for the Lancaster Presbyterian Church was donated by Joseph Carpenter, whose residence was located just west at 5455 Broadway.

15) Taylor, MPDF: Village of Lancaster, section E, 3.

16) Ibid., section E, 5.

17) Ibid., section E, 4.

18) Herbert J. Brinks, "Dutch Americans," Countries and Their Cultures.” http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Du-Ha/DutchAmericans.html.

19) H. Perry Smith , ed., The History of the City of Buffalo and Erie County: With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers, Vol. I, (Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Co., 1884), 458. and Taylor, MPDF: Village of Lancaster, section E, 4.

20) Ibid., section E, 3.

21) Taylor, MPDF: Village of Lancaster, section E, 6.

22) Ibid., section E, 6.

23) Scott and Mikula, Tales of Old Lancaster, 49.

24) Ibid., 48-50.

25) Keysa, Lancaster, New York, 144.

26) Ibid., 94.

27) Taylor, MPDF: Village of Lancaster, section E, 7.

28) Ibid., section E, 3.

29) David L. Taylor, National Register of Historic Places Form: Depew Lodge No. 823, Free and Accepted Masons, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. (Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999), section 8, page 1-2.

30) Keysa, Lancaster, New York, 144.

31) Taylor, MPDF: Village of Lancaster, section E, 7.

32) Ibid., section E, 9.

33) Richard Longstreth, The Buildings of Main Street: A Guide to American Commercial Architecture (Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2000), 15.

34) Keysa, Lancaster, New York, 94.

35) Taylor, Liebler-Rohl Gasoline Station, section 8, 1.

36) David L. Taylor, National Register of Historic Places Form: Lancaster Municipal Building, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. (Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999), section 8, page 1-3.

37) Taylor, MPDF: Village of Lancaster, section E, 9.

38) David L. Taylor, National Register of Historic Places Form: Bruce Briggs Brick Block, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. (Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999), section 8, page 1.

39) Lancaster Enterprise, "A Glimpse Into The Past: The Iron Foundry," July 27, 1939.

40) Taylor, NRN: Herman B. VanPeyma House, section 8, 1.

41) David L. Taylor, National Register of Historic Places Form: Clark-Lester House, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. (Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999), section 8, page 1-2.


42) David L. Taylor, National Register of Historic Places Form: Miller-Mackey House, Village of Lancaster, Erie County, New York, Taylor & Taylor Associates, Inc. (Waterford, NY: New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1999), section 8, page 2.

43) Taylor, NRN: Dr. John J. Nowak House, section 8, 1.

44) Taylor, NRN Depew Lodge No. 823, section 8, 1-2.

45) "Edward Brodhead Green – Biography," Buffalo as an Architectural Museum, Last modified 2002, http://www.buffaloah.com/a/archs/ebg/ebg.html.

46) Taylor, NRN: Liebler-Rohl Gasoline Station, section 8, 1.





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