Acadian Indigenous and métis people

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Location: Nova Scotiamap
Surname/tag: Acadian
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In the time of Acadie the French used the word métis to describe someone of mixed French and indigenous ancestry. This métis is not the same as Metis Nation, which is defined differently and is much more recent. Source: More about Metis can be found on this page

Known Tribes
The Mi’kmaq’s originally covered Prince Edward Island (Île Saint-Jean), most of Nova Scotia, and some of the New Brunswick Acadie area. Wolastoqiyik of the Saint John River drainage were called Maliseet by the Mi'kmaq. Penobscots and Abekani were found in the early settlements of Acadie, in southern New Brunswick and what is now Maine.

Many Mi'kmaq were given first names by the French. Sometimes their actual surname is known, occasionally they were given a name, and even more often their surname is Unknown. When their Last Name at Birth is Unknown or not documented, they should be given the name of their tribal affiliation, in many cases that would be Mi'kmaq. Be sure to use names from documents and add the sources. Sauvage is used in some documents but this is not a LNAB or surname for Indigenous people (there are French people with the name Sauvage).

We do not assign names ourselves. Unknown is better than a made-up name. Be aware that many user generated trees have made up names that will not be used on WikiTree.

Native women did not use the title "Princess"[1]

For more naming specifics, see this page

See this map for the Mi'kmaq names of places in Nova Scotia.

Identification on WikiTree
People of Mi'kmaq descent (or any known or unknown tribe) may be known as First Peoples no matter how thin the blood goes down through descendants.

  • Use this sticker: {{First Peoples Canada Sticker|nation=Mi'kmaq}} where Mi’kmaq would be changed for proper tribe or can be left blank if not known. The sticker goes anywhere under the Biography heading.
    ... ... ... was a Canadian First Peoples and member of the Mi'kmaq Nation.
  • Use this sticker for those in southern Acadia which became Maine: {{Native American Sticker|tribe=Penobscot}}, substituting tribe name or left blank if not known
    ... was Penobscot.
  • An exception to this would be if the person ever was referred to as Metis (the Metis Nation) in records even if their originated tribe was known. If this is the case for living or deceased people then use just that tag and keep the other prior generations as the known tribe. This use of Metis Nation would be much more recent than the general french term métis).
  • If someone has both, Metis Nation and a known nation from another parent, both tags may be used.
  • The sticker can be added to all descendants no matter how far down.

Categories to add
[[Category: Abenaki]] this includes Penobscot

  • Don’t use the Metis Maritime or US coastal tags with these as these are only for the Metis Nation confirmed people. The Metis nation sticker or category should only be used for those individuals which meet the Canadian national standard for a person of Metis status.

Finding Other profiles on WikiTree
Search in these categories to find other profiles with the designations
[[Category: Abenaki]]

Indigeneous People Married to Acadians (first known generation only)
Note: confirmed=tribe or native status is confirmed, sometimes tribe is not known

Marie Kagijonais (abt.1600-abt.1679) (fictional)
Unknown (Mi'kmaq) Unknown (abt.1605-bef.1639) (wife of La Tour, confirmed)
Marie Abenaki (abt.1610-) (wife of Doucet, confirmed)
Anne Marie Mi'kmaq (abt.1631-aft.1686)( wife of Pinet and Rimbault)
Germain Doucet (abt.1641-bef.1698) (husband of Marie Landry, confirmed)
Anne Ouestnorouest (abt.1644-aft.1687) (wife of Martin, confirmed)
Marie Mathilde (Penobscot) Pidianske (bef.1658-abt.1720) (wife of Jean Vincent D'Abbadie, confirmed)
Marie (Penobscot) Pidiwammiskwa (abt.1665-) (possible 2nd wife of Jean Vincent D'Abbadie)
Unknown (Micmac) Mi'kmaq (abt.1660-) (wife of Michael DesGres, confirmed)
Anne Parabego (abt.1660-bef.1689) (wife of Denis, confirmed, need tribe)
Unknown Mi'kmaq (abt.1660-aft.1682) (first wife of Philippe Muis, confirmed)
Jeanne Marie Kagigconiac (1661-bef.1699) (Wife of Lejeune, confirmed)
Marie Mi'kmaq (abt.1663-1727) (wife of Pierre Cellier, confirmed)
Marie Christine Aubois (abt.1665-aft.1730) (wife of Roy, confirmed)
Marie Thérèse (Mi'kmaq) Unknown (1668-1717) (wife of Petitpas, confirmed)
Marie Mi'kmaq (1670-) (second wife of Philippe Mius, confirmed)
Unknown (Mi'kmaq) Caplan (abt.1680-) (wife of Guillaume Capela, confirmed)
Cecile Berteau (abt.1685-) (wife of Jean Denis, confirmed)

Helpful Sources

  • La Souche Caplan, a compendium of information about the Caplan family of Gaspesie, background on First Peoples tribes, etc, together with extensive DNA repositories. Individual citations should be used based on source, not this page itself. Sources there have reference citations built for copy and paste.
  • White's Amerindian Marriages
    • Citation: <ref>White, S. A. ''Amerindian Marriages from the Dictionnaire généalogique des familles acadiennes''. Mi'kmaq Genealogy: Métis:Acadian Ancestral Home. [ Marriage List]. Accessed DATE.<blockquote>put verbiage from individuals entry here</blockquote></ref> Fill in the verbiage pertaining to that person in the blockquote
  • Ethnogenèse des premiers Métis canadiens (1603-1763) a well sourced masters thesis, with highly accredited jury. In French.
    • Citation: <ref>Jean, Denis. Ethnogenèse des premiers Métis canadiens (1603-1763) (dissertation)[ Ethnogenèse des premiers Métis canadiens (1603-1763 thesis], Département d'histoire-géographie, faculté des arts et des sciences sociales, Université de Moncton. Page x of 234 pages. citing (underlying source)<blockquote>put verbiage here</blockquote></ref> Fill in the page number for the specific entry and a quote of the relevant information plus any underlying source that was used
  • Evidence of Metis communities around Chaleur Bay by Victorin N. Mallet. Historical and genealogical content. In French. 470 pages, including bibliography and annexes.
    • Citation: <ref>Mallet, Victorin N , Ph. D. "Évidence de communautés métisses autour de la baie des Chaleurs: D'hier à aujourd'hui", paperback. French edition. (Shediac Cape N.-B., Victorin N. Mallet, 2016) p. XX</ref> Fill in the page number for the specific entry
  • Descendants of Marie Christine Aubois in French.
    • Citation:<ref> Gendreau-Hétu, Pierre "La Déportation des Acadiens éclairée par l’ADN amérindien". Histoire Québec 23, no. 3 (2017) : 10–14. [ Aubois DNA studies] Accessed DATE.</ref>

DNA Sources

  • FamilyTreeDNA Results for Y-DNA
    • Citation:<ref>Estes, Roberta and Marie Rundquist. Acadian and Amerindian Ancestry DNA Project - Y-DNA Classic Chart. Acadian and Amerindian Ancestry DNA Project. [ Y-DNA Results], Accessed DATE.</ref> Enter the date you accessed this, and a page number where found. These change frequently so the date is important
  • FamilyTreeDNA Results for mtDNA
    • Citation:<ref>Estes, Roberta and Marie Rundquist. Acadian and Amerindian Ancestry DNA Project - mtDNA Test Results. Acadian and Amerindian Ancestry DNA Project. [ mtDNA Results], Accessed DATE.</ref> Enter the date you accessed this, and a page number where found. These change frequently so the date is important
  • White's mtDNA Proven Origins includes indigenous women, includes spouse, Haplogroup and HVR1, HVR2 mutations, includes at least one family list.
    • Citation:<ref>White, Stephen A. (2020, May). [ mtDNA Proven Origins]. mtDNA Proven Origins - Acadian Ancestral Home by Lucie Consentino. Accessed DATE</ref> Fill in the date accessed as these data may change
  • White's Founding Mothers of Acadia includes indigenous women, provides DNA results, includes spouse, does not include children
    • Citation:<ref>White, Stephen A. (2020, May). [ Founding Mothers of Acadia]. Founding Mothers of Acadia - Acadian Ancestral Home by Lucie Consentino. Accessed DATE.</ref> Fill in the date accessed and the update date which is currently May 2020, as these data may change
  • Mothers of Acadia mtDNA Project sorted by Last Name, includes all entries by that name (often more than one for a single person) with originating country, corresponding Haplogroup and HVR1 and HVR2 mutations Project Background
    • Citation<ref>Consentino, Lucie LeBlanc, Administrator [ Mothers of Acadia mtDNA Project mtDNA Test Results] PAGE, Accessed DATE</ref> Fill in the page (very helpful to others as the pages are not otherwise indicated) and date accessed, as these data change
  • Quebec mtDNA test results
    • Citation: <ref>[ mtDNA test results Quebec mtDNA Project], page X. Accessed DATE.</ref> Enter the date you accessed this, and a page number where found. These change frequently so the date is important
  • Quebec yDNA Project
    • Citation: <ref>[ yDNA test results], page X. Accessed DATE.</ref> Enter the date you accessed this, and a page number of found. These change frequently so the date is important
  • More extensive DNA sources here Individual citations should be used based on source, not this page itself. Sources there have reference citations built for copy and paste.

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Cindy Borque sent me the following, which I think should be incorporated here:

DNA. The Mothers of Acadia Maternal DNA project conducts ongoing research to verify their origins. Stephen White reported Françoise [elided] had an H1 haplogroup, indicating European origins. Other results can be found here, and here.

posted by Murray Maloney
Thank you, Murray, I added the two we didn't have. Gisele, I will add to our draft DNA page as well.


posted by Cindy (Bourque) Cooper
At what point does the Acadia project not include people in Gaspe?

The descendants of Guillaume Capela and Unknown Mi'kmaq have largely been residents of Gaspe, and Restigouche in N.B.

Johannes Becker m. Marie David (1 Sep 1766). Their immediate descendants were born in/around Barachois, Gaspe.

Is Marie David, being a descendant of Unknown Mi'kmaq, an Acadian? What about her children?

I'm just trying to understand where we draw the line, because I rely on two sites:

Our Gaspe Roots, run by Aldo Brochet and Lani Baker., run by Dr Paul Maloney.

OGR includes information about Guillaume Capelan m. Unknown Mi'kmaq and their descendants, including Johannes Becker m. Marie David includes information about the Maloney family, including William Moloney's in-laws (Johannes Becker m. Marie David)

I intend to cite the work of these researchers, but I'm not sure that we need an example on this page.


posted by Murray Maloney
HI, Murray, I'll try to clarify. We aren't trying to document all Gaspesians, New Brunswick or metis people. On the early end, we include spouses of Acadians even if they were Amerindienne or metis. Obviously, we include french people who were born in Acadie and on the later end, people who were born to parents who were married in Acadie. That means some people born outside Acadie will still be included in the Acadian project. (We keep families "together" for project view purposes.)
posted by Cindy (Bourque) Cooper
The citations for mtDNA and yDNA presuppose that we are only using the Acadian and Amerindian Ancestry DNA Project.

I also rely upon Mothers of Acadia and the Quebec yDNA and mtDNA projects.

I am currently working with Cindy Borque on the Capela line, with the intention of working through the generations toward the David sisters.

I expect to be using mostly mtDNA Confirmations from Mothers of Acadia and from Quebec mtDNA.

Could you please add examples of citations that I may use?

posted by Murray Maloney
Murray, I am unfamiliar with the Quebec DNA projects. Would you please send me links and information about them so we could develop citations. I'll put them into the draft of the DNA page I sent you, as this page is for Acadian metis research. Which is why these citations are here and others are not.


posted by Cindy (Bourque) Cooper

Let's discuss that. The Acadia project has claimed Unknown Mi'kmaq as one of its own. However, we know that she was Gaspesienne.

So, it seems that there is some overlap between Acadia and Quebec.

Not everyone who tests in one of these groups also tests in the others. Some of the kits are managed by the project administrator, and are unlikely to ever appear in another group. So, I think that we have to allow for discovery in other groups.

I assume that you know all about Mothers of Acadia project, and I hope you will give us an example citation for it.

There are several other mtDNA groups that include C1c kits, but I haven't, yet, felt the need to rely upon them. However, that could change, at which time I may request more citation examples (or perhaps offer examples for inclusion).

= The Quebec mtDNA project: Administrators Pierre GENDREAU HÉTU Steve Gilbert (Z367 subclades) Co-Administrators Claude Crégheur Clément Drolet Denis Beauregard Dominic Gagnon Marielle Côté Gendreau Maurice Germain

"Genetic genealogy offers new avenues for the history of populations through the sustained development of powerful scientific tools. The Quebec ADNmt Project is an independent project, which however benefits from generous sponsors and support from organizations such as the American Canadian Genealogical Society (ACGS), the Fédération des associations de famille du Québec (FAFQ) and the Société d 'histoire des Filles du Roy (SHFR). Quebec mtDNA also works in association with the Quebec genealogical society. A DNA genealogy workshop has been offered with his assistance since fall 2017 and a collaboration has been set up on the occasion of the celebrations of the 400th anniversary of the establishment of the family of Louis Hébert and Marie Rollet. The Quebec Project ADNmt also forges relationships with the general public, as evidenced by its public appearances (eg the Salon de la FADOQ in Quebec). These events illustrate the growing interest of Francophones in genetic genealogy as citizen science and its use for the purposes of family and community history."

Quebec mtDNA matches to IN43799 (a descendant of Francoise Olivier) includes 22 C1c DNA matches, 17 are GD=0. The majority of these matches are descendants of Guillaume Capela and Unknown Mi'kmaq, others are descended from Francoise Michel-dit-Olivier, Catherine Duval, and Marie Olivier Sylvestre (Manitoubeouich) Prevost.

= The Quebec ADNy project Administrators Pierre GENDREAU HÉTU Steve Gilbert (Z367 subclades) Co-Administrators Claude Crégheur Clément Drolet Denis Beauregard Dominic Gagnon Marielle Côté Gendreau Maurice Germain

"The Quebec yDNA Project studies the ancestral signatures typical of the pioneers that originally settled the St. Lawrence Valley. Given the distinct historical, demographic and linguistic features characterizing Quebec, the Project's main focus is on pioneers whose roots date back to New France. All relevant lineages are welcome to this project. Establishing an ancestral signature actually requires a minimum of two relevant participants.

"The Project is not limited to roots from France, though. Lineages whose past is connected to the mainly French-speaking St. Lawrence Valley, herein referred to as Quebec for purpose of simplicity, are all welcome to this Project, be they Native, British, Irish, German, Swiss, etc. One major goal of this Quebec yDNA Project is the uncovering of the ancestral yDNA signatures typical of lineages whose documented history may reach the Champlain era (1604-1635) in North America. A mirror project (Quebec mtDNA Project) focuses on the other hand on signatures inherited from female pioneers (please find under the MT GEOGRAPHICAL PROJECTS tab)."

Quebec ADNy matches with IN41520 (a descendant of William Moloney) include one other descendant of Wm Moloney. Additionally, there are two other Maloney yDNA testers whose kits are on FTDNA, but have not (yet) joined the Quebec ADNy project.

The results page for Quebec ADNy includes kits whose Earliest Known Ancestors includes at least 17 examples of people who were born and/or died in "Acadie".

posted by Murray Maloney
Murray, at one point we did consider Caplan as an Acadian when he was "unknown", hence his Mi'kmaq wife was in the Acadian project and she was on the list of indigenous people married to Acadians. The daughters are considered by Stephen White to be "ancestors of many Acadian families in the Gaspe peninsula and in northern New Brunswick . . ." The previously "unknown" Caplan" is now Guillaume Caplan who came to Quebec. I suggest we take the Acadians project off his wife and use it on the daughters when appropriate. Gaspesie, Ristigouche, Bay of Chaleurs were areas where many Acadians settled when they escaped British control of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
posted by Cindy (Bourque) Cooper
Please add "Mallet, Victorin M., Ph.D., "Evidences decommunautés métisses autour de la baie des Chaluers. D'hier à aujourd'hui". Contenu historique et génealogique : vérifé par Roger Guitard, Denis Savard, Victorin Mallet et Audrey Waltner. Tout droits réservé. Includes annexes. Book; paperback. 470pp.

It seems to be self-published. I refer to this book frequently, usually togther with Denis Jean's book.

posted by Murray Maloney
Done. Thanks for sharing this reference.
posted by Gisèle Cormier