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Adams of the Alleghenies: A Genealogical History of The Adams Family of Conewago, Loretto and St. Augustine, Pa.

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Publication Information

Edmund J. Adams, Adams of the Alleghenies: A Genealogical History of The Adams Family of Conewago, Loretto and St. Augustine, Pa.
By: Edmund J. Adams
1346 Park Ridge Place
Cincinnati, Ohio 45208
October 1981


The dubious will question whether the name "Adams" can really be Irish. In O'Hart's Irish Pedigrees, however, we find that the "following Anglo-Norman … families adopted Irish surnames … the Berrys of Cork, to MacAdam".[1] MacLysaught in The Surnames of Ireland[2] says that the name MacAdam has several origins in Ireland and that the name Adams has been used in County Down. The name Adams has a history of Irish usage, therefore, whether in its Irish form MacAdam or Anglicized as Adams. Both versions mean the same: The son of Adam. Unless the Barrys of County Cork or some other ancestors adopted the Adams name, the earliest Adams would have been a man of the Middle Ages named Adam, who had a son commonly called the son of Adam, that is, MacAdam or Adam's.
There is some possibility that the name Adams was thrust on the family. One of the many insults of the English on the Irish in the 18th century was the requirement that Irish emigrants take English surnames as a condition of ship's passage.[3]
And so, we conclude that Dad was right – the Adamses are Irish and came from Ireland before the (American) Revolutionary War. The Irish had good reason, even in the 1750s, to flee to the New World. Irish persecutions date from the abdication of the Catholic James II as King of England in 1688 in favor of the Protestant William of Orange.[4] After James' restoration was repulsed in the Battle of the Boyne and his army surrendered at Limerick in 1691, the English enacted the infamous Penal Laws, which imposed extreme limitations on Catholics in landholdings, inheritance, education, business activities, the holding of weapons, the holding of public office, voting and religious freedom. So noxious were the laws that a Catholic could not own a horse valued at more than five pounds and a Protestant could claim any horse from a Catholic for that sum, even if it had a higher value. The English confiscated 95% of the land and turned Ireland into grazing lands. Landowners were reduced to peasants – to, as one writer called them, one of the lowest forms of human life on planet Earth.
The clear purpose of the Penal Laws was to maintain the economic, political and social supremacy of the English minority and the degradation of the Catholic majority.
Small wonder the Penal Laws drove the Irish to America. Maryland attracted many of them, including the celebrated Carroll family that spawned the first Catholic bishop, John Carroll. Pennsylvania also attracted large numbers of Irish by its reputation for freedom of conscience. Even in Protestant Boston, there were enough Irish present in 1737 to hold a formal St. Patrick's Day celebration.
The ship passage records of emigration from the British Isles in the 18th century are sketchy at best but most of the emigrants from Ireland in that century came from Ulster. The emigrants included both Catholics and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. Both of these groups were discriminated against by the English. The flow from Ulster increased to about 12,000 per year between 1725 and 1750. They arrived at a number of ports, including New York and Philadelphia. There were so many Irish here by the Revolution that Washington's army was monopolized by them and the Irishman John Barry became "the father of the American Navy."
English Catholics suffered some of the same deprivations as the Irish in the century following the ascension of William of Orange.[5] But they were generally allowed to keep their land, subject to a double land tax. They tended, however, less to migrate to America than to stay in England and defect to Protestantism. The Law of Probabilities likewise mitigates against England as Thomas Adams' native land. Estimates vary but in the first half of the 18th century, the Catholic population of England was less than five per cent, probably under 100,000 in all.
Whether he came from Ireland or England, Thomas Adams had, therefore, good reason to emigrate to America. And migrate he did: Not to the relative sophistication of one of the eastern cities, Philadelphia, Boston, or New York, but to the wilds of York County, west of the Susquehanna, to the Jesuit mission on Conewago Creek. Thomas Adams bought his first farm there in 1756, married Magdalena, fathered nine children, fought Indians, served in the Revolution, and then died a young man of 41 in December, 1776. Some of his children remained at Conewago; their descendants remain there today. Others of his children, including our next ancestor Joseph Adams, who lived for a time just over the border in Maryland, left the area in the mid-1790s and migrated west to the Alleghenies, first to Sinking Valley near present-day Altoona and then to the top of Allegheny Ridge to the mission church of a Russian prince-priest, the Rev. Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin. Father Gallitzin was an assistant at Conewago. The Adams family knew him there and doubtless were among those who invited him to establish his mission at Loretto.
In 1807, Joseph and Elizabeth Adams and family joined Father Gallitzin at Loretto. Eight years later, they ended their nomadic tour with the purchase of land a few miles north at the village of St. Augustine. When Elmer T. Adams died some years later at St. Augustine, all of this was summarized in his obituary notice that referred to him as "a descendant of one of Cambria County's noted pioneer families of Indian fighters that had come to the area from Maryland and Virginia in Prince Gallitzin's time."[6] Father Gallitzin was very close to the Adamses and went on to become one of America's foremost early [Catholic] missionaries.
The Adamses, just as they had helped found Conewago Chapel[7], were among the founding families of St. Augustine Parish. At. St. Augustine, the Adamses farmed for several more generations and then established a tannery, working as farmers and tradesmen, not for others but for themselves. The Adams' trait of keen independence combined with an "astute" business sense and the Adamses came poor and left poor.
Some of them did stay behind, notably George E. Adams of St. Augustine, who lives today [1981] in the heart of that village where Adamses have lived for over 165 years. When Joseph Adams moved to St. Augustine, he carried with him a foot-high sheet-metal lantern, which is owned by George Adams today. The sides of the lantern are perforated with various holes to let the candlelight shine out. Family tradition says that the lantern was given to the family by Paul Revere. The lantern stands as a marvelous symbol of our family's proud past.

Chapter 1: Thomas Adams, Indian Fighter, Soldier, Farmer (1735-1776)

It is instructive to back up and cover the history of Conewago for the 30 years or so prior to Thomas' arrival.

Conewago was named after the Caughnawaga Indians, a branch of the Algonquin Indian tribe that had migrated south to the area from the Great Lakes.[8] The earliest white settler of the area apparently was a Jesuit priest, Josiah Greaton, S.J., who established a mission there among the Indians around 1719 or 1720 and said his first Mass there in an Indian wigwam on the site to become Conewago Chapel.9 The site is a hilltop near Little Conewago Creek overlooking what are otherwise relatively flat lands.

In 1728, a petty Irish Catholic nobleman from Prince George County, Maryland named John Digges obtained a grant from Lord Baltimore of 10,000 acres then thought to be in Maryland.[9] At the suggestion of Tom, the Indian chief on nearby Tom's Creek, Digges located 6,822 acres[10] what was to become Heidelberg Township then in York County. Heidelberg Township was immediately adjacent to Mount Pleasant Township where "Adams' Choice" was situated. The land Digges selected quite naturally was called "Digges' Choice" and was near the site of the Jesuit chapel. Confusion over whether Digges' land lay in Pennsylvania or Maryland led to a series of [interborder] disputes, including the killing of Digges' son Dudley in 1752.[11] Dudley was the first person buried at Conewago Chapel.[12]

[Border boundary] Disputes were commonplace in the early days. Irishmen like Digges were the earliest settlers of York County, in the 1730s.14[13] In the late 1740s, many Germans arrived, which led to pitched battles at the election polls in 1749 and 1750 as the Irish and Germans fought to prevent each other from voting.[14] The original Catholic settlers at Conewago were thus a mixture of Irish and Germans.[15]

Because the first Jesuit missionary, Father Greaton, was not qualified by language to minister to a German-speaking population, the Jesuits sought help from Europe[16], which led to a succession of German Jesuits at Conewago beginning with Wilhelm Wappeler, S.J., who served there from 1741 to 1748.[17] In 1741, Father Wappeler built a small log church, a "Mass house," to which dwelling rooms were attached.[18] It was made to resemble a farm house to conform to the letter, if not the spirit, of the stringent penal laws then in force in the American colonies. The penal laws prohibited the erection of churches other than the Church of England.[19]

The Conewago mission has been called "the earliest Catholic settlement in Pennsylvania."[20] The mission was apparently served by visiting priests from 1748 to 1753. In 1753, Matthias Sittensberger, S.J., who also was called "Father Manners," took up residence at the log "Mass house".[21] In 1757, Father Sittensberger reported from Conewago that he served 116 Germans 18 or older and 73 Irish at the same age.[22] We may presume, since Thomas Adams purchased his 118 acres in February, 1756, that Thomas and Magdalena were married in the log "Mass house" by Father Sittensberger and that they were among the 73 Irishmen counted by Father Sittensberger in 1757.

Prior to 1756, Indian incursions were little feared at Conewago. The few Indians in the area were on friendly terms with the whites.[23] Battles with the Indians became common, however, from then until 1761 as the Indians, incited by the several factions to the French and Indian War, looted, scalped, burned and killed in one massacre after another in the area.[24] The Delaware went on the warpath in the mid-1750s, carrying gun and scalping knife into the valleys south and east of the Blue Mountains and along the Juniata and Conococheague Rivers.[25] The policy of the French and Indians was to ruin Pennsylvania's economy by driving farmers like Thomas Adams off the land.

The province countered by raising troops and establishing a line of forts along the mountains. The Indians did not often engage in pitched battles, however. Instead, small raiding parties attacked individual farms, killed or captured whomever they found in the fields or the houses, destroyed the cattle, burned the buildings, and disappeared into the forest with their prisoners. Pennsylvania's defense against these tactics was to patrol the intervals between the forts with provincial troops. We are told that Thomas Adams served in the provincial troops.[26] The troops gave little protection to farms in the neighborhood but the forts and patrols did serve to make any deep penetration of the settlements unsafe for the Indian raiders.

My dad handed down a tale that may have originated in this French and Indian War era. As the story goes, seven Adams brothers were attacked one day by Indians. The Indians forced the brothers to scatter each in a separate direction. They were driven so far apart that they were never able to join up again. The story may have related to Thomas and brothers of his. Or, it may have related to Thomas' sons. Thomas had exactly seven sons but the incident would have had to happen to them well after the French and Indian war since the youngest, Richard, was not born until 1776. We also know that Thomas' sons did not "scatter" in the 1780s and 1790s, although several did move on to the Alleghenies. In any event, whichever generation the tale related to, there is a strong family tradition that the Adamses were Indian fighters of some reknown.

After the French & Indian War ended in 1763, Indians continued to visit the Conewago area in small bodies as late as the beginning of the Revolutionary War, sometimes greatly frightening some of the inhabitants but doing no harm to them.[27] The Indians came chiefly to beg from or trade with the whites.[28] The closest town to Conewago of any size was Hanover, a distance of just a few miles. [Hanover] was founded in 1764 and for many years before the Revolution was called "Rogue's Resort," because refugees from justice, safe in the disputed area between Maryland and Pennsylvania, often resorted to the place.[29] Between roaming Indians and outlaws, pre-Revolutionary Conewago was no place for the meek and mild.

Some time between 1758 and 1763, the most influential of the German Jesuits assigned to Conewago arrived at the Chapel.[30] Father James Pellentz, S.J., probably was the Conewago missionary closest to the Adamses since he stayed there until his death in 1800. Thomas Adams even acquired some of his land from Father Pellentz.[31]

We know just a little of Thomas' activities between 1756 and 1776. He was a farmer by occupation. When he wasn't plowing the fields, he and Magdalena were producing their growing family of offspring. He did appear on the earliest York County tax list, that of 1762, as a resident of Mount Pleasant Township. He was taxed six shillings that year.[32] He also appeared in the 1772 tax list, taxed at five shillings.[33] As we shall see in the next chapter, Thomas was in the process through these years of substantially increasing his land holdings.

Up to 1772, deer were plentiful in York County. On January 17 of that year, however, there fell an uncommon snowfall of some 3-½ feet. A heavy rain then formed a thick crust on the snow, which the deer had difficulty navigating. All of York County, including presumably our ancestors, came out to [hunt] the deer. The crust was able to bear the pursuers and the deer were readily taken.[34]

As the Revolutionary War approached, the citizens of York County elected a Revolutionary Committee of Correspondence in 1774, which only a few months later recommended the conservation of gunpowder as necessary for the Indian trade and for hunters.36 In April 1775, at the time of the battles in Lexington and Concord, the Committee collected from York County residents over 246 pounds for the poor of Boston struggling under British despotism.37 The first troops from York County were dispatched to Boston in July, 1775. The Committee reported to Benjamin Franklin that there were 3,349 "Associators" in the county. There was little tolerance of dissenters from the American cause. In March 1776, Robert Owings of Heidelberg Township was pressured to disavow his prior statements questioning "the measures now pursuing for maintaining our invaluable rights and privileges." On July 4, 1776, of course, the Americans signed the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia.

We are told that Thomas Adams saw Revolutionary War service, but without any details.38 Whether because of that service, an accident or an illness, Thomas died prematurely on December 5, 1776.39 He was a youthful 41 years of age40 and was apparently just the third person buried at Conewago Chapel.41 His slate tombstone stands in the second row, immediately behind the Chapel. The front of the stone bears the following inscription:


The back side bears a more hastily-chiseled message, in German:


Translated, the inscription carries an unmistakable touch of humor, giving us a glimpse into Thomas' whimsical nature:


We assume that Thomas authored the message on his deathbed. But the use of Deutsch is curious. German, of course, was not Thomas' native tongue. Our guess is that Thomas used German because of the large number of Germans in the area and that he, therefore, used the language of the persons to whom the message was directed, his German friends and neighbors. Another possibility is that Magdalena was of German descent and helped him frame the message.

A couple of places in this history should be Adams County shrines, and Conewago is one of them, particularly the Thomas Adams' gravesite. It is awesome to stand at the foot of that dark slate stone and imagine the toughness and fortitude of the man who brought us to America in his early twenties. The settled reaches of the East Coast were not for him. His destination would be a Jesuit mission on the fringes of civilization, out among the Blackrobes and the Indians.

A Provincial and Revolutionary War trooper, he was probably something of a legend in his own time. The prominent location of his gravesite supports that theory. Thomas' parting words on the backside of his stone tell us of his full life. They tell us that there were numbers of people that he wished to bid farewell. They tell us, too, of a man who knew who he was and where he was going. And how typically an Adams! The ordinary man, with property and family, would worry in his last hours about the mundane chore of writing a will. But Tom Adams lay on his deathbed and composed rhyming verse for his tombstone. The glint in his verse bespeaks a glint in his eye. That's our kind of man.

Chapter 2: Magdalena Adams, Widow (1776 – 1826)

With Thomas' death in December 1776, Magdalena was left with nine children, some 275 or more acres of farmland and a country at war. Joseph, the eldest of the children, was only about 20 years of age and Richard, the youngest, only three months old. Ahead of here were the awful chores of raising the children and running the farms on her own and the distribution of Thomas' lands among her and her children.

No doubt the Revolution played havoc with the settlement of Thomas' estate and postponed for several years any resolution of it. The town of York was soon to become not merely a county seat but the center of the new nation. When the British occupied Philadelphia in September 1774, the Continental Congress moved successively to Easton, Reading, Lancaster and finally York. The delegates attending the Continental Congress at York included Samuel Adams, John Adams, Elbridge Gerry, John Hancock and Benjamin Harrison. While the Congress sat in York, a number of the new states signed the Articles of Confederation. Soon after the British evaculated Philadelphia in June 1778, the delegates adjourned from York for the luxury and social atmosphere of Philadelphia. Visitors at York during this period included General Lafayette and Baron von Steuben.

Appropriately, the county tax assessments for York County in 1779 for Heidelberg Township listed Magdalena as the "widow Adams" and as the owner of 265 acres, four horses and six cattle, at a tax of 80 pounds.42 The 1780 assessments listed her again as "widow Adams" but with only 100 acres, two horses and three cattle, at a tax of 37 pounds, 8 shillings.43

The probate of Thomas Adams' estate was finally commenced in the York County Orphans' Court on August 30, 1780. He died intestate (without a will). With court approval, three of the sons, Jacob, 19, John, 15, and William, 14, chose John Grate of Hanover for their guardian. Son Thomas, 16, chose Thomas Lilly of nearby Berwick Township to be his guardian. And Magdalena petitioned the court to have Thomas Lilly appointed the guardian for Ignatius, 12, Mary, 7, and Richard, 3. Lilly was a member of the Revolutionary Committee of Correspondence for York County. On May 5 of that year, Lilly conveyed to Magdalena Adams, widow, in trust for the use of the heirs of Thomas Adams, deceased, 141 acres, 81 perches on the northeast side of Digges' Choice on the north bank of Conewago Creek, which was land Thomas Adams was purchasing but had not paid for at the time of his death. Magdalena paid to William Digges, the son of John Digges, the balance of the purchase money for the 141 acres, which was "behind and unpaid" at the time of Thomas' death.

It is noteworthy that Joseph did not petition for the appointment of a guardian. That, combined with the fact that he showed up on the 1779 tax assessments indicates that by that time he was at least 21 years of age, thus having been born in 1758 or before.

(Pp. 13 & 14 skipped / missing)

On Wednesday, December 1, 1784, Magdalena filed a petition in the York County Orphans' Court that stated that Thomas had died intestate seized of a "plantation" and a tract of land containing 140 acres (these were the 141 acres referred to above) and another tract purchased from Rev. James Pellence (sic), Adam Snyder, Charles Gelwix, Christian Huber, Estate of George Stevenson, George Parler and the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, containing about 246 acres (this was the 118 acres constituting "Adams' Choice" plus other acreage). That would have given Thomas 386 acres, by comparison to the 250 or 275 acres previously listed in the assessments for the survivors. In the court proceedings, on August 31, 1785, the court determined on the report of the High Sheriff of York County, William Bailey, that the lands of Thomas Adams could not be divided, that the lands had a value of 2,392 pounds, and that Joseph Adams should take all of the lands free of the claims of the widow and the other heirs, provided that he pay each of his brothers and sisters 126 pounds, four shillings, within one year after August 31, 1785 and 63 pounds, two shillings, after the death of Magdalene. By 1790, Joseph had paid 189 pounds, six shillings, gold and silver money of Pennsylvania to all of his brothers and sisters except Jacob, which he did in exchange for a release of all claims against him and the lands of Thomas.

By its August 31, 1785 decree, the Orphans' Court also allotted Joseph the 118 acres known as "Adams' Choice".

All of the information regarding the Adams landholdings (including legal descriptions) leads to the following conclusions:

[Pp. 16 & 17 skipped / missing]

…to the Pipe Creek settlement in western Maryland. Joseph deeded away most, if not all, of both the 118 acre and 141 acre tracts between June, 1787 and December, 1789, some to a neighbor named John Kuhn and some to his brothers, Thomas, Jacob and William. Joseph's decision to leave Heidelberg Township produced, however, two of the most remarkable relics of the Adams family history. On file at the York County Historical Society in York are two deeds signed by Joseph Adams, and his wife Elizabeth by her mark, in June 1787. The deeds are on folded sheepskin and are almost entirely legible. They were among the deeds executed by Joseph and Elizabeth when they left Conewago.

At about the time of Joseph's move to Maryland, the energetic Father Pellentz was demolishing the old "Mass house" made of roughhewn logs and beginning the construction of a new Church of the Sacred Heart at Conewago. At the time, Conewago and its missions had only about 500 Catholics. Father Pellentz selected red sandstone of very close texture, from a fine quarry at nearby East Berlin and every block was hauled the more than 10 miles from the quarry to the church site. The cornerstone of the church was laid in 1786. The building was completed in 1787 and a substantial residence for the clergy rose beside it. The church, which was built on the original chapel hill dominating the flat countryside overlooking Little Conewago Creek, was built during the suppression of the Society of Jesus. Father Pellentz dedicated the church to the Sacred Heart, the first church ever to be dedicated under that name on the North American continent. A plaque on the front of the chapel today says that it was the first parish church in the United States. The 1787 chapel still stands there, raised to the rank of a Minor Basilica. The Adamses legitimately can be said to be one of the chapel's founding families.

By 1790, Magdalena's family was down to five persons: Herself, one male over 16 (maybe William), two males under 16 (Richard and one unidentified), and one other female (maybe Mary). The 1790 York County census also lists Jacob Adams and his wife, one son and two daughters. By this time, Joseph had moved across the border to Maryland.

In 1798, a federal direct tax (the Glass Tax) was levied. It listed the following for the Adamses of Heidelberg Township:

* Widow Adams, 1 dwelling house, 20' x 23' of wood, one story, 7 windows, 84 lights (panes), 2 acres, value 300 pounds
* 1 barn 25' x 65' of wood, property adjoined by John Kuhn and Phillip Staub, 107 acres, value 1,284 pounds
* Richard Adams, 1 house, 26' x 20' of wood, 2 stories, 7 windows, 84 lights (panes), 2 acres 88 perches, value 400 pounds

The most striking aspect of the listing is, of course, the size of the dwelling houses. Magdalena was living in a small one room house 20' x 23', probably with her son William. Only three years later, William was still a single man. The township assessment of that year includes Magdalena as a property owner with an assessed value of $1,379, Jacob at $1,454 and Richard at $76. The 1800 census lists Jacob Adams as "Jacob Adams, Esq." for Esquire. He was a Justice of the Peace and served as an executor or administrator of several estates of non-family members.

The years between the end of the Revolutionary War and the turn of the century were years of expansion for the Conewago Chapel parish. Mission churches were set up far and wide from Conewago, in places like Harrisburg, York, Carlisle, Taneytown and Huntington. One of the priests who labored in the Conewago vineyards in the late 1790s and who obviously knew the Adams family as a result was the newly ordained Rev. Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin, who soon was to move west to the Alleghenies to found his parish at Loretto, Pennsylvania. Conewago was the center from which the Catholic faith was propagated through Adams, York, Lancaster, Cumberland and Franklin Counties and, if one includes Father Gallitzin's efforts, Cambria County as well. Father Pellentz was responsible for most of the expansion, through both good and ill health. A tireless worker, he labored long hours in confessions, Masses, baptisms and sick calls. He died in 1800 at the age of 73. Through the influence of Father Pellentz and his successors, vocations to the religious life began to come early from Conewago. Among them was one of the grandsons of Thomas and Magdalena and a nephew of Joseph, [also] named Thomas Adams, who was born at Conewago in June, 1798. Young Thomas Adams entered the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1815 and died at Georgetown while still a scholastic in 1817.

On January 22, 1800, Adams County was split off from York County, taking Heidelberg Township with it. The township's name was changed appropriately to Conewago Township, its name today.

[Pg. 21 skipped / missing]

…he directed "each to get one bed and beding, one Burough (bureau?) and household or kitchen furniture to the value of $10 as soon as they reach 18." The senior Jacob was the first blacksmith in the area and, for a time, Ignatius also plied that trade.

Their brother Thomas lived until January 18, 1826. He died at age 64 and is buried at the St. Joseph Catholic Church cemetery in Taneytown, next to his mother Magdalena and his daughter Margaret.

Ignatius died in 1853 at the age of 86. He also is buried at Conewago Chapel.

To recapitulate, therefore, Thomas and Magdalena had seven sons. Jacob, Thomas, Ignatius and Richard stayed at Conewago and had large families that produced hundreds of modern-day descendants in the south central Pennsylvania region. Joseph and William went to the Alleghenies in the 1790s and John, who was last seen in the 1810 census of Conewago Township, disappeared from [historical] view.

Magdalena died on January 2, 1826, 16 days before her son Thomas. She died at the ripe old age of 104. Her tombstone says that she died "loaded with years and virtuous deeds." [Her] tombstone stands on the south side of St. Joseph's church and is made of white marble or sandstone. She probably died a resident of Taneytown since she was buried next to Thomas and no doubt was living with him in her final years. Her will, which was written on May 3, 1817 and presented to the Court on January 28, 1826, was signed by her with a mark in the form of a cross. It directed that her real estate be sold at public sale and the money divided …

[Pg. 23 skipped / missing]

[Ch. 2 Footnotes p. ii skipped / missing]


  1. O'Hart, John. Irish Pedigrees; Or, the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation. Dublin, J. Duffy & Co., New York (1892). Pp. 215-216.
  2. MacLysaught, Edward. The Surnames of Ireland. (Sixth edition) Irish Academic Press (University of Minnesota), Minneapolis (1985).
  3. Emmet, Thomas Addis. Irish Emigration During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Republished from Journal of the Irish-American Historical Society, Vol. 2. New York City (1899).
  4. This summary of English emigration to colonial America comes from: Considine, It's the Irish, New York, 1961; Potter, To The Golden Door, Boston, 1960; Uris, Ireland, a Terrible Beauty, Toronto, 1975; and Emmet, above.
  5. Watkin, Edward Ingram. Roman Catholicism in England from the Reformation to 1950. Oxford University Press (1957). Pp. 103 ff.
  6. Obituary notice in the possession of George E. Adams, St. Augustine, PA (as of 1981).
  7. Today officially named Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, under the circumscription of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Harrisburg.
  8. History of Cumberland and Adams Counties. Warner, Beers & Co., Chicago (1886). Pp. 231-232.
  9. John Gibson. History of York County Pennsylvania from the Earliest Time to the Present. F.A. Battery Publishing Co., Chicago (1886), p. 573.
  10. Rupp, Israel Daniel. History of Lancaster and York Counties. Gilbert Hills, pub. (1845). pp. 569-570.
  11. Gibson, ibid, p. 78.
  12. History of Cumberland and York Counties, ibid, pp. 233-234.
  13. Rupp, ibid, p. 576
  14. Rupp, ibid, pp. 576 and 581-585.
  15. XX U.S. Catholic Historical Society, p. 37; XIII U.S. Catholic Historical Society, pp. 94-95.
  16. XX U.S. Catholic Historical Society, p. 36
  17. ibid, p. 42
  18. ibid, p. 39
  19. ibid, pp. 31, 39
  20. ibid, p. 39
  21. ibid, p. 42
  22. XIII U.S. Catholic Historical Society, pp. 94-95
  23. Gibson, ibid, p. 348
  24. Rupp, ibid, p. 585
  25. Wallace, Paula W. Indians in Pennsylvania. DIANE Publishing Inc. (1961) Pp. 146 ff. These comments concerning the history of the French and Indian War are all derived from this source.
  26. Conewago Chapel cemetery records.
  27. Gibson, ibid, p. 575
  28. Gibson, ibid, p. 575
  29. Rupp, ibid, p. 596.
  30. XIII U.S. Catholic Historical Society, p. 58; XX U.S. Catholic Historical Society, p. 42.
  31. York County Orphans' Court records, Docket E, p. 205.
  32. 1762 York County, Pennsylvania tax assessments.
  33. 1772 York County, Pennsylvania tax assessments.
  34. Rupp, ibid, p. 598

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