Understanding the roles of Anders Wiborg and his descendants in the Norwegian Military
[[Space:Anders Wiborgs descendants in the Norwegian Military|Understanding the roles of Anders Wiborg and his descendants in the Norwegian Military]].
Major Anders Nielsen Wiborg's family followed in his footsteps and were often active in the Norwegian Military. This worksheet serves both to provide an understanding of how that military worked and to provide a central summary of family members who served in military roles.
Senior officers in the Dano-Norwegian period were often recruited from abroad, with officers from Denmark, Prussia and German-speaking principalities in particular were common in the army.
Lower ranking officers could in some cases be the sons and heirs of local military men and local farmers of means. From the mid 1700s and on, educating lower ranked officers became a priority and military academies were established in different parts of the country.
Advancement of junior officers to the senior ranks was rare. There was effectively a class-based glass ceiling in place.
Social Standing of Military OfficersIn “tvandringen fra Rindal til Amerika" by Tor Ålbu, ISBN 82-996682-0-4, there is a list that illustrates some differences between the social classes in the rural districts of Norway before 1857. It is important to remember that most people were occupied in the primary industries, particularly farming and forestry. The differences in status between the classes were relatively small, and people who belonged to different classes were often closely related. The order went:
1. Senior government, religious ( the dean or "prost" is the pastor in charge of an area consisting of several parishes -he would take precedence over a "sokneprest" or minister, who would be on a higher social level than a "kapellan" or curate, chaplain) & military officers;
2. Clergymen or "prest";
3. Bailiff or "lensmand";
4. Sexton/teacher and any military non-commissioned officer;
5. Farmer who owned his farm according to "odelsrett" - allodial right (this group was small) would be referred to as a “bonde”;
6. Tenant farmer who leased his farm or “leilending”;
7. Cotter with land "Husmann med jord" - Cotter who leased some land from the main farm. Many of these also worked as craftsmen - tailors, cobblers, makers of sheepskin blankets, smiths, shopkeepers, tanners, and others;
8. Cotter without land "Husmann uten jord" - Cotter who only had a house, not farmland. In this group also "inderster" - farm laborers - and lodgers. Many of these also worked as craftsmen;
9. Servants - "tjenere". Many of these were unmarried children of "husmenn" and "inderster"; and finally
10. Very poor people and community-supported paupers ("fattigfolk og legdslemmer")
Wiborg family commissioned officers
Major Anders Wiborg
Anders Nielsen Wiborg became "Fenrik" serving in Opland's regiment in 1675. Finne-Grønn informs us that the first commandant at the fortifications that later became Kristiansfeldt fortress was Jacob Michelet of the Oplandske Regiment. In 1675 Michelet arrived with a company, including 1 lieutenant named Jonas Aagaard, one fænrik named Anders Nielsen Wiborg (who later became commander of Christiansfeld himself (15 January 1717 - 10 October 1718), 1 Master Sergeant, 2 Sergeants, 4 Corporals, 10 senior soldiers, 2 drummers and 115 common soldiers.
Den norske haers officerer - 1618-1814 records for Anders Nielsen Wiborg:
- Fenrik with the Oplandske national regiment - 1678
- Second lieutenant with the Oplandske national regiment's Fabergske company - 1/1/1682
- First lieutenant with the Oplandske national regiment's Fabergske company - 17/3/1685 (Alternate reference:)
- Lieutenant captain with the Oplandske national regiment's South Hedemarkske active company - 21/12/1697 (Alternate reference:)
- Captain and commanding officer for Oplandske national regiment's Østerdalske company - - 17/9/1698
- Commanding officer of the company from the Oplandske national regiment sent to Denmark by order of the king dated 2/12/1714
- Major and commandant at Christiansfjeld fortifications - 15/1/1717
- Dead 10/10/1718 at Kongsvinger
Finne-Grønn records Anders Nielsen Wiborg became a Second Lieutenant in 1682, First Lieutenant in 1686, Lieutenant Commander on 21 December 1697, Captain and leader of Østerdal's company on 17 September 1698 and Commander at Christiansfjeld from 15 January 1717 until his death 10 October 1718.
When king Christian V's traveled in Norway in 1685 , he visited the fortification at Elverum, which was then only a small fort with a low wall around it. The fort was then renamed Christiansfjeld by royal decree and was upgraded. A 63 by 95 meters fortification was established with a round tower built to house cannons capable of firing in all directions added. The fortifications included blockhouses, warehouses and a magazine. In 1709 the fort was further upgraded to encompass an area of 170 by 220 meters and in 1716, ramparts and battlements added. When Wiborg took command Christiansfjeld fort had 264 men. As part of this increase in staffing, Anders Nilsen Wiborg, who had been serving in Copenhagen, returned to Norway on 15 January 1717 as Major & Commander of Christiansfjeld. This number was reduced in late 1718, first to 160 and finally to 100 men, as men were redeployed to Kongsvinger fortress (90 km downriver from Christiansfjeld) to address Karl XII of Sweden’s attacks at to the south.
First Lieutenant Knudt Johan Wiborg
Knudt Johan Johansen Wiborg was born in 1738. He was the son of Johan Ihrstad and Catrine Wiborg. He passed away in 1815. He was one of two brothers who became commissioned officers.
About Knudt, the military biography of Norwegian officers says: Wiborg, Knud Johan. - born about 1738 in Norway -Was a sergeant before he on 30 August 1775 was promoted to second lieutenant in the Søndre Fjeldske infantry regiment. He is mentioned again as a second lieutenant on 12 June 1776. - He was promoted to first lieutenant with the Smaal national infantry regiment's Holbolske compnay 28 June 1779. He transferred to the Markerske company 25 January 1788. At the army's direction from 1 May 1789 he was, along with the Markerske company, transferred to the Søndre Fjeldske infantry regiment."
Second Lieutenant Johan Wiburg
Johan Borker Berger or Wiborg was born in June 1741 in Løten, Norway. He is the son of Johan Knudsen Berger (later Ihrstad) and Catrine Wiborg.  Johan Wiburg became a Fenrik on 18 August 1762 with Major W. F. Orning's Company of the first sondenfjeldt dragoon regiment. He was promoted on 6 May 1760 to Second Lieutenant. He was one of two brothers who became commissioned officers.
Fenrik Andreas Johansen WiborgAndreas Johansen Wiborg was born in 1734, the son of Johan Ihrstad and Catrine Wiborg and grandson of Major Wiborg. About Andres, the military biography of Norwegian officers says:
Wiborg, Andreas. - born about 1734 in Norway - Fenrik in the Oplandska Infantry Regiment from 18 February 1762 - Cashiered 17 April 1764.
A paraphrase of the Romedal Bygdebok, as translated by Harold Hong Sherley in 1976 tells us: Andreas Johansen Wiborg, born in 1734, a farmer on Irstad and Fenrik in the Oplanska Infantry Regiment from February 18, 1762. He was cashiered February 17, 1764. (He certainly wasn’t living up to the military record of his grandfather).
As with modern armies, the ranks of corporal and sargent were typically filled by soldiers up through the ranks.
Wiborg family non-commissioned officers
Sergant Pål Christian Fredrichsen Wiborg
Sergant Pål or Povel Christian Fredrichsen Wiborg was born in August 15,1744 in Ringsaker; his paternal grandfather was Major Anders Wiborg. He was the son of Fredrick Wiborg and Ingeborg Simensdatter. We find him listed as Corporal Poul Christian Wiborg living at Koldstad farm, Lesja in the head tax for 1764.
Fredrik Nikolai Andersson Viborg from Romedal, about 1708-1804, married 1742 in Ringsaker with Ingeborg Simensdatter from Farbergseie in Ringsaker, about 1713 – 47. Fredrik moved from Romedal in 1740, and must also have spent several years in Ringsaker. Children:
- 1. Marte Maria, 1743-?, otherwise unknown.
- 2. Sargent Pål Christian, 1744-?, listed in documentation as sergeant in Lesja in 1764, otherwise unknown.
Corporal Ole Knutsen Wiborg
Corporal Ole Knutsen Wiborg was born 1718 in Ringsaker, Hedmark, the son of Knut Olsen Sveinnæs and Anna Andersdatter Wiborg and grandson of Major Anders Wiborg. Ole died 1803 in Hundorp, Fron, Norway.
Corporal Ole Peter Olsen Wiborg
Corporal Ole Peter Olsen Wiborg was born on 1749 at Eidsvoll, Akershus, Norway. He is the son of Ole Wiborg and Bastine Jensdatter (Kodberg).  Corporal Ole Olsen Wiborg served as a sponsor for a baptism in Ringsaker on 17 July 1763.
Until the end of the Dano-Norwegian period (~1800) the regular Dano-Norwegian army in Norway was based on the "legd" system. Several farms (typically 2 to 8 depending on time period) in local areas would together to recruit a soldier for the army. These soldiers would serve on behalf of those farms in the army.
Military service brought with it obligations:
- Soldiers were bound to a particular municipality and farm.
- Soldiers could expect to drill on Sundays after the weekly service.
- In peace time the soldiers lived on the "legd," (one of the sponsoring farms) which was contractually obligated to provide the soldier with a place to live and work.
- Expenses related to equipment and uniform were covered by the state.
- After 1799, recruitment sessions were often organized in farm country divided in to local company districts required to find a certain amount of soldiers, and the most fit and able among the local populace would be selected for service.
- The legd system was similar to the one employed by the Swedish army before and during the Napoleonic Wars and beyond, but there it was on a more voluntary basis.
Wiborg family "legd" soldiers
Ole Frederik Wiborg (December 1, 1821 - May 3, 1898) was born on the Sili farm, Lesja municipality, in the upper Gudbrandsdal valley of Norway. He served in the Norwegian army as a musketeer & later a “good soldier” from 1842 until 1847. Ole Wiborg was the son of Frederik Nikolai Wiborg, grandson of Anders Johan Wiborg, great-grandson of Fredrick Nikolai Wiborg and great-great-grandson son of Major Anders Nielson Wiborg.
The family still has a copy of the petition for discharge from the Army by Ole Frederickson Sili (Wiborg) written in 1847. He entered the army on April 6, 1842 as a musketeer and later became a "good soldier". The petition states he finished his enlistment period, deserves to leave the army and requests herewith an honorable discharge. The petition is dated 1847 at Sili (he was resident at the Sili farm).
This conscripted farmer-army was also complemented by the inclusion of "gevorbne" soldiers who enlisted of their own free will and typically bound themselves to service for a set number of years, manning garrisons and fortresses in key areas. After the two wars with Sweden during the Napoleonic Wars, it seems only 16% of the army were voluntarily enlisted/gevorbne. Former soldiers of higher age might also partake in armed service in the form of "landsvern" - militia units.
- ↑ Finne-Grønn, S.H.: Elverum. En bygdebeskrivelse. II. Bygdens almindelige historie institutioner og embedsmænd, published in Kristiania in 1921. page 177
- ↑ Kildeinformasjon: Kommanderende general (KG I) med Det norske krigsdirektorium, Realistisk ordnede pakkesaker, Militære ruller 499 (RA/EA-5419/E/Ea/L0499), 1690-1693, oppb: Riksarkivet. Merknader: Opplandske regiment Permanent sidelenke: http://arkivverket.no/URN:db_read/db/51354/366/ Permanent bildelenke: http://www.arkivverket.no/URN:NBN:no-a1450-ru20111110610795.jpg
- ↑ Kildeinformasjon: Kommanderende general (KG I) med Det norske krigsdirektorium, Realistisk ordnede pakkesaker, Militære ruller 500 (RA/EA-5419/E/Ea/L0500), 1696-1697, oppb: Riksarkivet. Merknader: Opplandske regiment Permanent sidelenke: http://arkivverket.no/URN:db_read/db/51355/36/ Permanent bildelenke: http://www.arkivverket.no/URN:NBN:no-a1450-ru20111110610888.jpg
- ↑ Olai Ovenstad: Militærbiografier Den norske hærs officerer 1628-1814
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Finne-Grønn, S. H. : Elverum – en bygdebeskrivelse, vol. 2, 1921, p. 189-190
- ↑ Kavli, Guthorm : Norges festninger – fra Fredriksten til Vardøhus, 1987, p. 164-165
- ↑ SAH, Løten prestekontor, K/Ka/L0002: Ministerialbok nr. 2, 1731-1772, s. 48-49 https://media.digitalarkivet.no/kb20070513050472
- ↑ RA, Lassens samlinger, F/Fa, s. 137 https://media.digitalarkivet.no/sa20110412670439
- ↑ Olai Ovenstad: Militærbiografier Den norske hærs officerer 1628-1814
- ↑ Romedal Bygdebok, page 210
- ↑ Fridrich Wiborg 15.08.1744 far - Ministerialbok for Ringsaker prestegjeld 1734-1746 (0412P) Ingebor Simensdatter Wiborg 15.08.1744 mor - Ministerialbok for Ringsaker prestegjeld 1734-1746 (0412P)
- ↑ Kildeinformasjon: Oppland fylke, Gudbrandsdal fogderi, Ekstraskatt 1266 (RA/EA-4092/R17/L1266), 1762-1766, oppb: Riksarkivet. Merknader: Ekstraskatt 1762-1772, se også kat. nr. 1145/51. Permanent sidelenke: http://arkivverket.no/URN:db_read/db/45390/240/ Permanent bildelenke: http://www.arkivverket.no/URN:NBN:no-a1450-rk10051110140248.jpg
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Author: Kjelland, Arnfinn; Title: Bygdebok for Lesja. Vol. 3: Gards- og slektshistorie for søre del av Lesja hovudsokn; Published at/by: Lesja/Lesja kommune, 1996; 799 pages; Pages; Language: Norsk (Nynorsk); ISBN: 82-991096-4-7. Pages 303-304.
- ↑ PRIMARY RECORD IMAGE - BIRTH/BAPTISM: SAO, Eidsvoll prestekontor Kirkebøker, O/Oa/L0001: Other parish register no. 1, 1688-1856, p. 47 https://media.digitalarkivet.no/en/kb20060719020317 http://www.arkivverket.no/URN:NBN:no-a1450-kb20060719020317.jpg
- ↑ http://onshus.no/getperson.php?personID=I3016&tree=Ringebuslekter
- ↑ Ministerialbok for Ringsaker prestegjeld 1747-1774 (0412P) Liste: Fødte og døpte b 1747-1774 Døde og begravde b 1747-1774 Trolovede b 1747-1774 Viede b 1747-1774 ID: 9064 Asta: SAH/PREST-014/K/Ka/L0002 Arkiv: Ringsaker prestekontor Oppbevaringssted: Statsarkivet i Hamar