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Baldwin County, Georgia

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Contents

History/Timeline

http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/counties-cities-neighborhoods/baldwin-county

1000's years ago, differing culture of indigenous people lived on this Baldwin land.[1]
1600's, 1700's the Creek Indian nation lived on Baldwin lands. [1]
1802 - The Creek Nation ceded some of the lands it had inhabited during the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson. :May 11, 1803 Georgia General Assembly used some of the Creek Nation lands to form Baldwin County. The land west of the Oconee River was organized into Baldwin and Wilkinson counties. [1][2]
June 25 , 1802 The 1st Baldwin County court was held in a log cabin owned by George Hill in Hillsborough, Georgia (a small settlement located in Jasper County today. [2]
map of Baldwin County and surrounding.
1803 - when Baldwin County was formed from the land lottery, it was named in honor of Abraham Baldwin, Georgia Governor, a U.S. senator and founded the University of Georgia. The treaty with the Creek Indians enabled the legislature to have land ceded to Georgia from the Creek Indians. [3][1][2]
Dec, 1804 As soon as Georgia legislature ceded land for Baldwin County, the Georgia Legislature chose Milledgeville to be the site to be the new capital of Georgia. It is said that 2 cities in America have capitals that were originally designed and planned as cities to house seats of government. Milledgeville was chosen due to its central location in Georgia and its abundant water supply.[3][2]
1804 - 1868 MILLEDGEVILLE, Georgia was the capitol city of Georgia from the early 1804 to just after the Civil War, county seat of Baldwin County as well as the state capital of Georgia (1804–1868). [1][2]
1805 The land west of the Oconee River was organized as Baldwin and Wilkinson counties. The Treaty of Washington with the Creek extended the state's western boundary to the Ocmulgee River. [1]
1806 Another act of the Georgia legislature enlarged the two counties with some of the 1805 Washington Treaty. [1]
1807- 1868 The Old Governor's Mansion is located in Milledgeville, the state's capital in this time-span. [3][2]
1807 When the new state capital of Georgia was built, Milledgeville's pointed arched windows and battlements earmarked Milledgeville's capitol building to be America's 1st public building built with a Gothic Revival Style.[3][2]
Georgia state capital
Nov. 2, 1807 Soon Milledgeville was a thriving frontier community. The state legislature had a statehouse built in Milledgeville and held its first legislative session there. Within 4 years Milledgeville became the county's large trading as well as the state's frontier" capital. On this day Georgia assembly met for the 1st session in its new statehouse in Milledgeville. A[3][1]
Dec 10, 1807 Georgia legislature passed an act to form 4 new counties, changing Baldwin County 1806 borders. This enlarged Baldwin on the east side from Hancock and Washington Counties. . The new counties split were Morgan, Jones, Putnam, and Jasper (which originally was named Randolph County.[1]
Dec. 22, 1808 Georgia legislature instructed Baldwin County to levy a tax to build a courthouse on the SE part of Penitentiary Square. The county court meetings were held in a rented house, until the courthouse was completed. [2]
1814 --Baldwin County‘s first real courthouse was completed. Its cost was $3,975. This building was used until replaced by a larger courthouse built on the same site[2]
1817 - Georgia set aside funds to build the first state penitentiary was built in Milledgeville. It later was burned by1864, this penitentiary was burned by General Sherman and Union troops. This site is currently used for part of the campus for Georgia College and State University.[1]
Georgia College & State U.
1836 Building on the Governor's Mansion and was completed 1838-1839. This is an example of Greek revival styling of architecture. [3] [2]
Old Governor's Mansion.
1837 the General Assembly provided funds to build and operate the state's first mental hospital, called today the Central State Hospital. On November 2, 1807, the state legislature held its first session in the newly completed statehouse in Milledgeville. [1][3]
1847 A larger courthouse was built on the same site as the 1814 courthouse site.[2]
1861 - The 1847 courthouse burned in 1861, after which court sessions were held in the Georgia Capitol, the Milledgeville Opera House, and the local Masonic Hall.[2]
Baldwin county and other counties, 1863
1862 - 1865 - Civil War. After seceding from the Union, Baldwin county, Georgia and Milledgeville, Georgia were remembered by Gen. William T Sherman.. When Gen. Sherman began his March to the Sea, he burned Georgia's cities, and came to Milledgeville and Baldwin County.

Sherman brought his 30,000 Union Troops into Milledgeville, where much vandalism and burning was done of the city and capital. .. [1][4]

Nov. 23, 1864 The Union troops occupied Milledgeville, Georgia.. Sherman and Union forces burned the state penitentiary, looted and vandalized the city and capital buildings. Sherman stayed in the Governor's mansion.
Old State Prison.

MILLEDGEVILLE, Georgia. It was the capitol city of Georgia from the early 1800s to just after the Civil War . The state house where the legislature seceded and the governor's mansion where Sherman slept on his March after the fall of Atlanta are still there.

1864 Sherman and Union army held a mock session of the legislature to "repeal Georgia's ordinance of secession". [1][3] The 30,000 Union troops burned some buildings and damaged the town, but they did not burn the primary Georgia capital buildings. [4][1]
The Cotton gin was invented, and short-staple cotton was well suited to grow in the uplands of Georgia and processed. The Black Belt of Georgia was due to its fertile soil. The plantations brought many slaves as all southern states did from the upper South.into the area and developed large cotton plantations, made possible by the labor of slaves. Since the invention of the cotton gin, short-staple cotton could be profitably processed, and it was well-suited to the uplands of Georgia as well also the Low County.[1]
1868 after the Civil War (1861-65), Georgia's capital was moved from Milledgeville to its present location in Atlanta.[1][3]
1879 Second college is Georgia Military collage in Milledgeville was founded. It now occupies the old State Capital Building. [1][3]
1883 Georgia assembly instructed and authorized Baldwin to borrow at least $25,000 to build 4 fireproof county offices and a courthouse on the same site as the 1847 and 1861 courthouses. legislature authorized Baldwin County to borrow up to $25,000 to build four fireproof county offices, as well as a courthouse on the site of the former courthouse.[2]
1885 Courthouse, Milledgeville.
1885-1887 4th courthouse -work began on the new courthouse, which was completed in 1887. This courthouse was remodeled in 1937 and 1965.[2]
Current Courthouse, 1885.
Present County Courthouse, 1995-97 -sales tax referendums were approved in 1990 and 1992, planning began on a new courthouse and the construction of a new courthouse began in Milledgeville, designed by the architectural firm Brittain, Thompson, Bray, and Brown.[2]
1889 Georgia set aside funds to authorize building its Georgia Normal and Industrial College for Women. Land was used which is now part of the Georgia College and State University. This College has grown and expanded to be Georgia's 1st class liberal arts university. This is now known since 1913 as Georgia College and State University and occupies grounds originally used for the state prisons. It is designed in a quadrangle design.[1]
State Prison and Farm
1899-99The State Prison was rebuilt in 1898. The State farm was opened, 1899 Baldwin County purchased 4000 acres land from Capt. T.F. Newell in 1898 on the Macon Road (Hwy 22). This was for aged, infirm and juvenile convicts. Was created in 1899 for aged, infirm and juvenile convicts. In 1901Arthur Steele from Fulton County was the youngest inmate (age 9). 1906 The State Reformatory for boys was established in 1906 and is still in operation on Hwy. 22 as Bill Ireland Youth Development Center, where men and women were incarcerated. Captain Kichen A. Foster was the first superintendant of the prison farm when it opened in May 1899. One thousand acres were planted in cotton which was profitable. The most famous prisoners were Bill Miner, Leo Frank and Mrs. Elizabeth Nobles.[5]
Visitors to Milledgeville, Baldwin County, Georgia should see the following:[1][3]
Old Capitol and Governor's Mansion
Andalusia, writer Flannery O'Connor's family farm
Andalusa house.
Milledgeville's historic district
Milledgeville historic district
Lockerly Arboretum, a botanical garden and nature education center that hosts the Lockerly Heritage Festival each September.

Government Offices

  • Members of the Baldwin County Board of Commissioners are responsible for administering the government to residents. There are 5 members on the board. They serve four year terms, and are up for election in a staggered fashion. The members of the board elect the chair from amongst themselves. [6]

June 25 , 1802 First Baldwin Court The 1st Baldwin County court was held in a log cabin owned by George Hill in Hillsborough, Georgia (a small settlement located in Jasper County today. [2]

Dec. 22, 1808 Georgia legislature instructed Baldwin County to levy a tax to build a courthouse on the SE part of Penitentiary Square. The county court meetings were held in a rented house, until the courthouse was completed. 1814 1st Courthouse --Baldwin County‘s first real courthouse was completed. Its cost was $3,975. This building was used until replaced by a larger courthouse built on the same site[2]

1847 2nd Courthouse A larger courthouse was built on the same site as the 1814 courthouse site.[2]

1861 - The 1847 courthouse burned in 1861, after which court sessions were held in the Georgia Capitol, the Milledgeville Opera House, and the local Masonic Hall.[2]

1883 3rd Courthouse Georgia assembly instructed and authorized Baldwin to borrow at least $25,000 to build 4 fireproof county offices and a courthouse on the same site as the 1847 and 1861 courthouses. legislature authorized Baldwin County to borrow up to $25,000 to build four fireproof county offices, as well as a courthouse on the site of the former courthouse.[2]

"Old Baldwin Co. Courthouse,1885.

1885-1887 4th courthouse -work began on the new courthouse, which was completed in 1887. This courthouse was remodeled in 1937 and 1965.

Current 1995 Courthouse

Present County Courthouse, 1995-97 -sales tax referendums were approved in 1990 and 1992, planning began on a new courthouse and the construction of a new courthouse began in Milledgeville, designed by the architectural firm Brittain, Thompson, Bray, and Brown.

Geography

Rivers - Oconee River
Oconee River
Lake -Lake Sinclair 15,330 acre body of water , 417 miles of shoreline, which has recreation and hydroelectric
County Seat - Milledgeville
location - Baldwin county is located close to the center of Georgia.
Type - Black Belt of Georgia was due to its fertile soil.
Size -258 square miles (670 km2) is land and 9.6 square miles (25 km2) (3.6%) is water.
Region - majority of Baldwin County, S of Lake Sinclair, in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. N part of the county is in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of Altamaha River basin

Adjacent counties

  • Putnam County, Georgia - north
Baldwin county and Georgia.
  • Hancock County, Georgia - northeast
  • Washington County, Georgia - east
  • Wilkinson County, Georgia - south
  • Jones County, Georgia - west

Protected areas

Demographics

In 2000 there were 46,337 people in the county with a population density of 173 people/sq. mi. The racial makeup of the county was 54.17% White, 43.38% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, and 0.74% from two or more races. 1.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2010 census there were 45,720 people living in the count with a population density of 177.3 people/sq. mi. The median income for a household in the county was $37,237 and the median income for a family was $47,714. The per capita income for the county was $17,488. About 16.8% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.6% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. [7]

Universities - Colleges

  • 1817. This site is now used as part of the campus of Georgia College and State University
HighwaysHighways Highways
U.S. Route 441U.S. Route 441 BusinessGeorgia State Route 22
Georgia State Route 24 Georgia State Route 29Georgia State Route 49
Georgia State Route 112Georgia State Route 212Georgia State Route 243
Georgia State Route 540 (Fall Line Freeway) (coming soon)


State Mental Hospital - Central State Hospital

Milledgeville's public school system is governed by the Baldwin County School District.
Lakeview Academy
Lakeview Primary
Midway Hills Academy
Midway Hills Primary
Oak Hill Middle School
Baldwin High School
Georgia Military College prep school (grades 6-12) Private School
John Milledge Academy (grades K-12) Private School
Sinclair Christian Academy (grades pre-K-12) Private School
College:
Central Georgia Technical College
Georgia College & State University (commonly known as Georgia College)
Atkinson Hall , Georgia College & State U.
Georgia Military College
  • Milledgeville's public library system is part of the Twin Lakes Library System. Mary Vinson Memorial Library is located downtown. Georgia College & State University also has a library.

Cities

Milledgeville, Georgia


Unincorporated community

  • Scottsboro

County Resources

(Bartram Educational Forest on property formerly used as a farm for Central State Hospital patients. Now used for wildlife cultivation and refuge. Hunting is alloswdwithin the bounds of certain regulations.

    • Researchers use the forest to learn about plant diseases and genetics.
  • Central State Hospital
  • Georgia College and State University, begun 1817.
  • Milledgeville is the former state capital of Georgia (1804–1868)
  • Lockerly Arboretum horticultural laboratory, with collections of azalea, camellia, conifers, holly, rhododendron, and viburnum,daylily, iris, cactus and tropical plants. The Rose Hill mansion was added to the National Register of Historic Places.
  • Lockerly Heritage Festival each September.
Notables
  • Carl Vinson 50 years U.S. Congressman, born in Baldwin County.
  • Oliver Hardy, comedian and film director, began his career in the Milledgeville Opera House.
  • Flannery O'Connor, novelist, short-story writer, lived in Milledgeville, buried in Memory Hill Cemetery.
  • Melvin Adams, Jr, better known as Fish Scales from the band Nappy Roots
  • Pete Dexter, novelist, journalist and screenwriter
  • Eugenia Tucker Fitzgerald, founder of the first woman's secret society established at a girls' college
  • Tillie K. Fowler, politician
  • Joel Godard, television announcer
  • Oliver Hardy, motion picture comedian
  • Charles Holmes Herty, academic, scientist and businessman
  • Edwin Francis Jemison, civil war soldier who died in battle
  • William Gibbs McAdoo, US Secretary of the Treasury
  • Blind Willie McTell, influential blues guitarist
  • Bill Miner, Canada's "Gentleman Bandit"
  • Ulrich Bonnell Phillips, historian
  • Barry Reese, writer
  • Tut Taylor, bluegrass musician
  • Ellis Paul Torrance, psychologist
  • William Usery Jr., labor union activist and U.S. Secretary of Labor

Census

1810 --- 1,256 —
1820 --- 2,069 64.7%
1840 --- 2,095 —
1850 --- 2,216 5.8%
1860 --- 2,480 11.9%
1870 --- 2,750 10.9%
1880 --- 3,800 38.2%
1890 --- 3,322 −12.6%
1900 --- 4,219 27.0%
1910 --- 4,385 3.9%
1920 --- 4,619 5.3%
1930 --- 5,534 19.8%
1940 --- 6,778 22.5%
1950 --- 8,835 30.3%
1960 --- 11,117 25.8%
1970 --- 11,601 4.4%
1980 --- 12,176 5.0%
1990 --- 17,727 45.6%
2000 --- 18,757 5.8%
2010 --- 17,715 −5.6%
Est. 2016 --- 18,933

Cemeteries


Sources

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_County,_Georgia
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 http://www.baldwincountyga.com/history/
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/counties-cities-neighborhoods/baldwin-county
  4. 4.0 4.1 http://www.civilwartraveler.com/WEST/GA/march.html
  5. http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gabaldw2/pen.html
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_County,_Georgia
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_County,_Georgia




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