Battle of Brandywine Creek
The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American army of Major General George Washington and the British army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777. The British defeated the Americans and forced them to withdraw toward the rebel capital of Philadelphia. The engagement occurred near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania during Howe's campaign to take Philadelphia, part of the American Revolutionary War.
Howe's army sailed from New York City and landed near Elkton, Maryland in northern Chesapeake Bay. Marching north, the British army brushed aside American light forces in a few skirmishes. Washington offered battle with his army posted behind Brandywine Creek. While part of his army demonstrated in front of Chadds Ford, Howe took the bulk of his troops on a long march that crossed the Brandywine beyond Washington's right flank. Due to poor scouting, the Americans did not detect Howe's column until it reached a position in rear of their right flank. Belatedly, three divisions were shifted to block the British flanking force near a Quaker meeting house.
After a stiff fight, Howe's wing broke through the newly-formed American right wing which was deployed on several hills. At this point Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen attacked Chadds Ford and crumpled the American left wing. As Washington's army streamed away in retreat, he brought up elements of Nathanael Greene's division which held off Howe's column long enough for his army to escape to the northeast. The defeat and subsequent maneuvers left Philadelphia vulnerable. The British captured the city on September 26, beginning an occupation that would last until June 1778. (1)
Battle of Brandywine
- Part of: the American Revolutionary War
- Date: September 11, 1777
- Location: Near Chadds Ford, present-day West Chester, Pennsylvania
- Result: British victory
- Belligerents: United States, Great Britain, Hesse Hesse-Kassel
- Commanders and leaders:
- George Washington
- Nathanael Greene
- Francis Nash
- Peter Muhlenberg
- Anthony Wayne
- Strength: 14,600
- Casualties and losses: Total: 1300, 300 killed, 600 wounded, 400 captured
Great Britain, Hesse Hesse-Kassel
- Commanders and leaders:
- William Howe
- Charles Cornwallis
- Wilhelm von Knyphausen
- James AgnewW
- William Medows
- Strength: 15,500
- Casualties and losses: Total: 587, 93 killed, 488 wounded, 6 missing
- Nation Makers depicts a scene from the battle, by Howard Pyle, a summer resident of Chadds Ford. The painting is displayed in the Brandywine River Museum.
- Hessian map of the Philadelphia campaign.
- "The Battle of Brandywine" by Samuel S. Smith, printed by Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, NJ 1976. In this book there were listed the American Forces at Brandywine, General George Washington, Commander in chief. Transcribed by Carolyn M. Getting, http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/AMERICAN-REVOLUTION/1998-08/0903899071
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