Surnames/tags: Military_and_War Scotland
Battle of Landen (Neerwinden) 29 July 1693
The Battle of Landen (or Neerwinden) was a battle in the Nine Years' War, fought near Neerwinden in present-day Belgium on 29 July 1693. The French army, under Marshal Luxembourg, and the Allied army, under King William III of England, fought what came to be known as "the bloodiest battle fought in Europe for over 200 years". "So great was the slaughter that the House of Lords recommended that no British general should ever again serve the subordinate command of a Dutch soldier, whatever his rank".
The French assaulted the Allied position three times before the French cavalry finally penetrated the allied defences and drove William's army from the field in a rout. The battle was, however, quite costly for both sides, the French losing 9,000 men to the Allies' 19,000. The French failed to follow up on their victory, allowing William to escape. Wikipedia has an article on this battle.
However it is worth noting that within the article on wikipedia the naming of the various regiments reflects later unit status and not that under which they fought. The Order of Battle for the Allied Force was:
- Life Guards - three squadrons: 1st, 3rd and 4th Troops of Life Guards. The latter one being the Dutch Garde du Corps. This unit came over to England in 1688, and was on the English Establishment between 1689 and 1699. In England it ranked as the 4th Troop of Life Guards. Wikipedia shows the Royal Horse Guards, which were in England in 1693 and should be considered an error.
- The Queen's Regiment of Horse - 3 sqns (later 1st Dragoons Guards)
- Lord Berkeley's Regiment of Horse - 2 sqns (later 3rd Dragoons Guards)
- Francis Langston's Regiment - 2 sqns (later 4th Dragoons Guards)
- Hugh Wyndham's Regiment - 2 sqns (later 6th Dragoons Guards)
- Earl of Galway's Regiment - 3 sqns (a Huguenot regiment, disbanded in 1699 and not included in wikipedia although Henri de Massue, Earl of Galway was wounded and captured at the battle but escaped in the confusion)
- Lord Fitzharding's Regiment of Dragoons - 3 sqns (later 4th Iniskilling Dragoons)
- First Regiment of Foot Guards - 2 bns (later Grenadier Guards)
- Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards - 1 bn (Coldstream Guards)
- Scots Regiment of Foot Guards - 2 bns (later Scots Guards) Note that in the Guards Regiments at the time the designation and diverencing of Battalions was not fixed and it varied.
- Royal Regiment of Foot - 2 bns (later Royal Scots). This Regiment was organised, in its fixed establishment, into two battalions.
- William Selwyn's Regiment of Foot - 1 bn (later Queen's (West Surrey) Regiment)
- Charles Churchill's Regiment - 1 bn (later Buffs (East Kent))
- Henry Trelawney's Regiment - 1 bn (later King's Own (Lancaster))
- Royal [Regiment of] Fuziliers - 1 bn (later Royal Fusiliers (City of London))
- John Tidcomb's Regiment - 1 bn (later West Yorkshire)
- Francis Collingwood's Regiment - 1 bn (this Regiment was disbanded in 1700 and is missed on wikipedia)
- James Stanley's Regiment - 1 bn (later Leicestershire)
- Thomas Erle's Regiment - 1 bn (later Green Howards (North Yorkshire))
- Francis O'Farrell's Regiment - 1 bn (later Royal Scots Fusiliers)
- Earl of Leven's Regiment - 1 bn (later King's Own Scottish Borderers)
- Andrew Munro's Regiment - 1 bn (later Cameronians)
- Sir Charles Graham's Regiment - 1 bn (Scots Brigade)
- Aeneas Mackay's Regiment - 1 bn (Scots Brigade)
- George Lauder's Regiment - 1 bn (Scots Brigade)
These latter three Regiments, all Scottish and erroneously labelled as mercenary on wikipedia, were units on Dutch service and had been prior to William of Orange assuming the throne of England. They came over to England in November 1688 with William's invasion, and were placed on the English Establishment in early 1689. In 1697 the regiments returned onto the Dutch payroll. Graham's regiment is not mentioned in Walton's overview of infantry officers casualties (p. 270-1), but is found in d'Auvergne's account of the campaign of 1693 (pp. 91-5).
In Dalton's work the unit establishments for these units commence at Vol 3, page 289, roughly in the order found above (seniority).
Source and References
- ↑ The Cameronians; A Concise History; Nine Years War
- ↑ The corrections are made using d'Auvergne's account of the campaign of 1693, Walton's history of British Standing Army and Dalton's work English Army Lists, available in 6 Parts with Vol 3 covering the Nine Years War.
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