Caplan mtDNA Haplogroup C1c

Privacy Level: Public (Green)

Location: Gespe’gewa’gi, Mi'kma'qi, Turtle Islandmap
Surnames/tags: Capela Caplan C1c Caplan
This page has been accessed 601 times.


Welcome / Bienvenue

We have been very fortunate to have so many people take mtDNA tests at FTDNA, and to add their test kit information at WikiTree, mitoYDNA, and YFull. As a family group whose records only go back to the late 1600s, we have an astounding number of mtDNA tests to confirm that our earliest known matrilineal ancestor was a native woman who passed Haplogroup C1c and subclade C1c10a to her children. We have been able to validate many family lines because of our somewhat unique mtDNA haplogroup and subclade. We are now able to compare their DNA with distant relatives among the Beothuk and even more distant relatives among the Cherokee and Chickasaw.
At FamilyTreeDNA, there are 26 mtDNA results with descent from a Caplan sister. There are 22 who are a Full Spectrum (GD=0) match amongst themselves; 4 who are GD=1 matches; and, curiously, one or two who are GD=3. Additionally, five verified descendants of Catherine Duval are also Full Spectrum (GD=0) matches. We have recorded genealogy for 26 out of 30 testers. Not all of these mtDNA test results have joined one of the usual FTDNA projects where other C1c test results will be found.


Privacy precludes identifying any living person and/or associating them with an mtDNA test kit, unless that information is already in the public domain. Some of the books and other references that are listed in the Annotated Bibliography specify the names of some of the test subjects. Most of the reference material goes to great length to avoid identifying test subjects.
In keeping with that tradition, this project profile will not mention the names and/or kit numbers of FTDNA mtDNA samples. Matrilineal pedigrees will refer to no living person, nor more recent an ancestor than a deceased grandparent. Any mtDNA tester who wishes to unveil their identity, please use the WikiTree tools to identify your FTDNA kit ID.

Haplogroup C1c, subclade C1c10

Ancient C1c subclades in Maritime Provinces
This screenshot of the YFull MTree presents subclades of Hg=C1c10, including Hg=C1c10*, Hg=C1c10a, and Hg=C1c10b. They contain a mixture of archaeological, scientific, medical research, and modern contributions. The ancient subjects themselves, or the earliest known ancestors of submissions, originate in the Maritime Provinces of Newfoundland, Quebec, and New Brunswick. The archaeological samples are reported in papers by Carr and Duggan, and explored further by Aylward.
In subclade Hg=C1c10a, among the samples, there are three known samples corresponding to modern descendants of two Caplan sisters (Quebec) and of Catherine Duval (New Brunswick). Other samples include one scientific (JQ703840.1), one medical (EU431086.1), and one unidentified modern contribution. This subclade adds G7853A.
In subclade Hg=C1c10*, there are two archaeological samples from Newfoundland, including Demasduit (MF88830.1). This subclade lacks G7853A and A14118G.
In subclade Hg=C1c10b, there are two archaeological samples from Newfoundland. This subclade adds A14118G.
Caplan mtDNA Haplogroup C1c relatives is a study of mtDNA test kits who are genetically related, including Demasduit and possibly others Hg=C1c10* and Hg=C1c10b.
For a listing of WikiTree profiles of people who have been categorized as mtDNA Haplogroup C1c, please see:
Note: The website Genetic Homeland offers a different categorization of the subclades of C1c10. See here.

Haplogroup C1c, subclade C1c10a

This page is a record and analysis of the mtDNA test results falling into Hg=C1c10a. The testers include proven descendants of Unknown Mi'kmaq (aka Mother Caplan), through her four daughters, and descendants of Catherine Duval through five of her daughters.

Caplan Sisters: Marguerite, Catherine, Louise, Madeleine

There being so many Caplan mtDNA testers, it has proven useful for testers to cite their line of descent when naming their EKA.
Guillaume Capela (1672-aft. 1758) and
Unknown (Mi'kmaq) Caplan (abt. 1680).
Marguerite Caplan (abt. 1703)
Catherine LaRocque (1720-1800)
Marie Madeleine Larocque (abt.1721-1816)
Marie Louise Caplan (abt. 1704)
Dorothee Lalande (1743-1820)
Catherine Caplan (abt. 1705)
Anne Huard (abt.1732-1809)
Madeleine Caplan (aft. 1706)
Francoise Olivier
Among the mtDNA test results of Caplan descendants at FTDNA, the vast majority report Hg=C1c and have identical Full Spectrum (CR, HVR1 & HVR2) matches amongst themselves. (Exceptions are noted below.) Two of those tests have been analyzed by YFull; their mtDNA subclade is reported as Hg=C1c10a. The Caplan sisters were native to Quebec and Acadia.
La Souche Caplan is an organized collection of information that is relevant to genealogical research of this family, including an annotated bibliography.
Five testers who have identical Full Spectrum (CR, HVR1 & HVR2) matches with the Caplan descendants have claimed Catherine Duval as EKA.

Native wife of Guillaume Caplan

  • There are two test kits that claim "Native wife of Guillaume Caplan" as their earliest known matrilineal ancestor. Their DNA results are consistently C1c. (One is thought to a descendant of Marguerite Caplan and the other of Madeleine Caplan through Francoise Olivier.)

Marguerite Capela (Caplan)

  • Overall, there are thirteen kits with Marguerite Caplan as EKA (earliest known matrilineal ancestor). Not all of them are members of the usual projects. Founding Mothers of Acadia has grouped six test kits claiming "Marguerite Caplan" as EKA. Their mtDNA results, as reported by FTDNA almost consistently Hg=C1c, but some samples report Hg=C.

Catherine Capela (Caplan)

  • Overall, there are three kits with Catherine Caplan as EKA. : Founding Mothers of Acadia reports three test kits that claim "Catherine Caplan" as their earliest known matrilineal ancestor. Their mtDNA results are consistently Hg=C1c. (Curiously, while one kit is GD=0, a second is GD=1, and a third is GD=3.)

Marie Louise Capela (Caplan)

Madeleine Capela (Caplan)

  • There are two kits claiming Madeleine Caplan as EKA.[1] As reported by FTDNA they carried Hg=C1c. One of those same kits is also present at YFull where it reports Hg=C1c10a.

Francoise Olivier

  • Overall, there are eight kits with Francoise Olivier as EKA.[2] As reported by FTDNA, seven are Hg=C1c and one is Hg=C.

Catherine Duval

Catherine Duval

  • There are five kits with Catherine Duval as EKA. reporting Hg=C1c at FTDNA. One of those kits has been analyzed by YFull, reporting Hg=C1c10a.[3]
Unlike the Caplan descendants, testers have cited Catherine Duval as their EKA, rather than her daughters. This listing includes the five lines of matrilineal descent from Catherine Duval that lead to an mtDNA tester. Currently, only two of these tests are listed at WikiTree.
m.1st Mathurin Thibeau
Maturin Thébeau and Catherine Duval
Madeleine Thibault (abt.1776-bef.1830)
Madeleine Leclerc (1800-abt.1871)
Helene Thebault (abt.1795-bef.1840)
Véronique Gionet (1821-1864)
Marie Christine Thébeau (1793-)
Marie Cecile Chiasson (1818-abt.1846)
Barbe Thebeau(1794-)
Marie Blanche Roussel (1824-1917)
m.2nd Claude Marcel
Claude Marcel and Catherine Duval
Catherine Marcel (1770-)
Marthe Boucher (1812-)
Catherine Duval's descendants are a perfect Full Spectrum mtDNA match with the descendants of the Caplan sisters, indicating that Catherine Duval herself descends from a close genetic relative of the Caplan matriarch. The question is: How close are they genealogically? Catherine's parentage has not been determined, yet.[4]

Unidentified Ancestral Lines

There are eight (8) FTDNA test kits who are perfect Full Spectrum mtDNA matches, but they have not identified and validated an earliest known ancestor. There are four (4) test kits who match with GD=1 who may or may not be Caplan/Duval descendants. One kit has identified an Elizabeth Duguay (abt.1824-) as EKA, but we can't find any corroborating evidence or trace of her ancestors.
If it weren't for how many perfect matches we have among the Caplan/Duval descendants, we might be concerned about these unidentified ones. It may be that some testers are shy of public attention and some have their kits managed by a cautious and prudent genealogist.
If you are one of those 8 kits, and you aren't a Caplan/Duval descendant, but you have a Full Spectrum GD=0 match with the Caplan/Duval kits, then please contact me privately.

Message for Caplan mtDNA C1c testers

I would like to ask you to take the next step, here on WikiTree. Because WikiTree is building a single tree, and it has tools that will allow researchers to delve deeper into our shared origins:
  1. Join the FTDNA research groups
  2. Establish a profile on WikiTree
  3. Connect your profile genealogically to your Earliest Known (matrilineal) Ancestor
  4. Download your mtDNA to mitoYDNA and register it with your WikiTree ID. (See note a. below)
  5. Register your mtDNA kit with WikiTree, with your mitoYDNA ID. (See note a. below)
  6. Optionally, copy your mtDNA from FTDNA to YFull. (See note b. below)
a.) You can join mitoYDNA and add your mtDNA information to their trusted repository at no cost, but donations are accepted. Connecting your mtDNA kit between WikiTree and mitoYDNA enables you to easily see your mtDNA cousins all over WikiTree. Enables sophisticated research tools on WikiTree and mitoYDNA. (Good for people like me, who like to analyze.) See this video from Peter Roberts, one of the developers of mitoYDNA.
b.) YFull is a yDNA and mtDNA repository and analysis company; their mtDNA haplotree is further evolved than FTDNA. Whereas Caplan descendants are C1c at FTDNA, they are C1c10a at YFull. It is at YFull that we can see that Demasduit is C1c10, and thus a different family group, who shares a common ancestor with Caplans deep in the mists of time. There are currently one kit each of descendants of Madeleine Caplan, Marie Louise Caplan, and Catherine Duval represented at YFull. Ideally we would like to see Catherine and Marguerite Caplan sisters' lines represented at YFull. Other test subjects at YFull, including Demasduit, represent archeological and scientific samples. There is a $25USD fee (Feb 2022).
Maximize your Caplan genetic genealogy experience. Instructions on how to configure your settings at FTDNA, WikiTree, mitoYDNA, and YFull are available at Caplan mtDNA Setup.
With your help, we can leave a lasting genetic and genealogical record of our ancestors.


  • Kennett, D.J., Lipson, M., Prufer, K.M. et al. "South-to-north migration preceded the advent of intensive farming in the Maya region". Nat Commun 13, 1530 (2022). [The article cited is "open access." Please feel free to download it in PDF format and share it.] (Accessed 24 Mar 2022)
  1. At one time, there were a different set of three test results claiming descent from Madeleine Capela, through her daughter Francoise Olivier (Michel-dit-Olivier) as reported by Jean-Pierre Gendreau-Hétu, with contributions from Audrey Waltner and Victorin Mallet. That page's content, at FrancoGene, was revised in 2021; the testers and their pedigrees have been elided. Those kits are now reporting Francoise Olivier as EKA. Madeleine Caplan is not a Mother of Acadia, but Francoise Olivier is.
  2. Francoise is, arguably, a daughter of Magdaleine Caplan, and therefore granddaughter of Unknown Mi'kmaq. Genealogists, following the lead of White, have claimed that Francoise is not provably the daughter of Magdaleine Caplan, suggesting that Francoise is the child of a different mother. We observe that the other mother must have also had mtDNA Haplogroup C1c, and we cannot think of a reason to assume that it was not Magdaleine. After all, there don't seems to have been many candidates at that time and place.
  3. Murray Maloney, acting as agent for two managed FTDNA kits, reporting anonymized results of an mtDNA match list on 25 Nov 2022.
  4. Claire David and Julien Duval been suggested as parents.
Handy Links:
Caplan mtDNA Haplogroup C1c relatives
C1c FS mtDNA Haplogroup
Hyper Variable Region # 1: from base address 16,001 to 16,569th.
Hyper Variable Region #2: from base address 1 to 570th.
Coding Region: from base address 571 to 16,000th.
Other letters than A,C,G,T are used to express a special condition called *heteroplasmy*. Heteroplasmy is the presence in the same organism of mitochondria having a mutation at a given locus as well as of other mitochondria which are conform to the reference system (RSRS or rCRS). For example, the presence of heteroplasmy at locus 73 in the mitogenome of a tested person would be expressed as G73R. As can be seen in the next table, R stands for A or G. G73A is a transition while G73G is not a mutation. (Letters indicating a heteroplasmy: U, M, R, W, H, D, N, S, Y, K, V, B, X.)
An exclamation mark (!) at the end of a labeled position denotes a reversion to the ancestral or original state. This means that the location used to have a mutation, but it has reverted back to the “normal” state. Why does this matter? Because DNA is a timeline and you need to know the mutation history to fully understand the timeline. The number of exclamation marks stands for the number of sequential reversions in the given position from the RSRS (e.g., C152T, T152C!, and C152T!!).[5]

Page created by Murray Maloney.

Images: 1
YFull MTree C1c10
YFull MTree C1c10

Comments: 1

Leave a message for others who see this profile.
There are no comments yet.
Login to post a comment.
Thank You! Murray for this splendid and usefull work!

Félicitations !

posted by Métis Real TremblaY
edited by Métis Real TremblaY