Caplan C1c relatives

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Surname/tag: C1c
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This page is a record and analysis of those whose mtDNA test results indicate Haplogroup C1c and have registered as an mtDNA match with descendants of the Caplan sisters.

Our branch and stems on the C1c family tree

3 Known Ancient C1c subclades in Maritime Provinces
This screenshot of YFull MTree representation of a collection of archaeological, scientific, medical, and modern samples whose earliest known ancestors were found in Newfoundland. The samples corresponding to the Caplan sisters and Catherine Duval in French Acadia are clumped in subclade Hg=C1c10a; the samples of Demasduit two other archaeological samples from Newfoundland are in Hg=C1c10*; the two samples in Hg=C1c10b are also from Newfoundland.
Descendants of the Caplan sisters and Catherine Duval
A study of the mtDNA test results of descendants of the Caplan sisters Caplan mtDNA Haplogroup C1c

Haplogroup C1c

As we have seen in the YFull MTree, subclades Hg=C1c10* and Hg=C1c10b differ from Hg=C1c10b by a single mutation each. We can infer that any kits with GD=1 matches to Caplan/Duval testers are likely to be from one of those two subclades.
The following matches are not as closely related to the Caplan sisters. They are possibly too far distant, in time and geography, for us to have any hope of connecting to them genealogically. Still, it is interesting to consider how we may have been connected to their ancestors in the mists of time, for certainly we were.

Subclade: C1c10*

These two matches are equisdistant from each other, and they are both Hg=C1c10*.
Demasduit (Newfoundland)
  • Demasduit Beothuk (abt.1796-1820) was the sister-in-law of "The Last of the Beothuk" Shanawdithit Beothuk (abt.1801-1829).[1] She was the spouse of a Beothuk man, and she has a possible Mi'kmaq connection in Newfoundland. As reported at FTDNA, she was Hg=C1c. As reported at YFull, she was Hg=C1c10*. She has two differences with Caplan descendants: one in HVR2 and one in the CR. She has two differences with Sabina Spring: both in HVR2. (She is, in effect, her own E.K.A.)
Sabina Spring (Connecticut) and Sarah Rogers (Indiana)
  • The line of Sabina (Spring) Rogers (1795-1863) and her daughter, Sarah S. Rogers (1824-1891) of Indiana is included. She is the E.K.A. of one tester. No obvious connection to the other lines listed here. As reported at FTDNA, she was Hg=C1c. She has two differences with Caplan descendants: one in HVR2 and one in the CR. She has two differences with Demasduit: both in HVR2. There is no specific claim of native heritage, which fact has been highlighted in the Carr study.[2][3][4]

Subclades C1c10* or C1c10b

This match is of Uncertain Subclade. Logically, since she has only one difference on the CR, she either has one less mutation for Hg=C1c10* or one more mutation for Hg=C1c10b.
Manitouabeouich (Sillery, Quebec City)
Plaque commemorating first Franco-Amerindienne marriage
Marie Olivier Sylvestre (Manitouabeouich) Prevost (abt.1625-1665). Born "8chista8ichi8e Manitouabe8ich", daughter of "Ouchibahabanoukoueou" and "Roch Manit8abe8ich".
She is an historical figure in Quebec.[5] She was adopted by Sieur Olivier LeTardif de Honnefleur. [6][7] She was the bride in first recorded sanctioned marriage between a native woman and a French man in the early history of New France. She was possibly Algonquin or probably Abenaki.
She is the E.K.A. of one mtDNA tester at FTDNA reporting Hg=C1c. She has an identical match on HVR1 & HVR2, and one difference in the CR. As reported at FTDNA, she was Hg=C1c. [8]

This match is of Uncertain Subclade and tracks to Tiverton, Rhode Island. Logically, since she has only one difference on the CR, she either has one less mutation for Hg=C1c10* or one more mutation for Hg=C1c10b.
Patience Brown (Tiverton, Rhode Island)
  • Patience (Symonds) Brown (abt.1790-aft.1850), Tiverton, R.I. is the E.K.A. of two testers. One tester matches the Caplan descendants with GD=1, matching on HVR1 & HVR2, and with one difference in the CR. The other tester match HVR1 & HVR2. One is reported on FTDNA as Hg=C1c, and the other is reported as Hg=C
Benjamin Church. The Battle in Tiverton, Rhode Island
Tiverton, R.I. takes us back in history to Colonel Benjamin Church (abt.1642-1718) who ended King Philip's War and later led raids into Maine. During one campaign in 1704 he captured Thomas Lefebvre (1645-bef.1715) and two of his sons, as wells as Cecile D'Abbadie (abt.1675-aft.1704) and her children. The presence of a C1c ancestor in Benjamin Church's territory raises the possibility that they are descendants of Cecile D'Abbadie. (Circumstantial. Unconfirmed.)

Uncertain subclade of Hg=C1c, track to the Mississippi Delta, and claim Chickasaw descent. Logically, since she has only one difference on the CR, she either has one less mutation for Hg=C1c10* or one more mutation for Hg=C1c10b.
Katsey Duncan (Mississippi)

Uknown Subclade: Rhode Island

Unknown subclade of Hg=C1c and tracks to Johnston, Providence, Rhode Island. With GD=3 and no access to her HVR1 and HVR2 values, we cannot know where the differences occur.
Grace Benjamin gd/o Anne Eliza Williams (Johnston, Providence, Rhode Island)

Uknown Subclade: Pentagouet

Unknown subclade of Hg=C1c and tracks from ancient Acadia to the Mississippi Delta.
Evelina Marie Frederick (New Orleans, LA)

Uknown Subclades: Virginia

Unknown subclade of Hg=C1c and tracks to Hampton, Virginia. With GD=2 and no access to the HVR1 and HVR2 values, we cannot know where the differences occur.
Toletha Robinson (Hampton, Virginia.)


Uknown Subclade: Damariscotta

This match is notable because she has been cited in the Demasduit studies. However, while she matches Demasduit only on HVR1, she matches the Caplans with HVR1 & HVR2. She has not taken an FMS test or has chosen not to reveal it. In either case, we cannot determine which subclade to categorize this match.
Eva Rancourt (Damariscotta, Maine)
Recorded on WikiTree as Ardy (Landry) Trask (1951-2017), she is better known by her traditional Mi'kmaq name, "Clan Mother Ardy, Born With 3 Thumbs", and she had her name formally changed under Nova Scotia law. Her matrilineal line is Mi'kmaq, but is only known back to her great-grandmother. Her kit remains at FTDNA, and is a member of the NfldLab Research group. She is known to have lived in Maine and Nova Scotia. Her maternal great-grandmother was from Damariscotta, Maine, not far from Pentagouet. She matches Caplan descendants identically on HVR1 & HVR2. She is reported on FTDNA as Hg=C
Unrelated to her C1c status, her mother's paternal grandmother was Santu (Kop) Toney (abt.1835-aft.1910), who is known as the last speaker of the Beothuk language. Santu Toney was born from a Mi’kmaq mother and a Beothuk father.[2][10] "Santu Toney (1835-c. 1910) was the last speaker with some knowledge of the Beothuk language of Newfoundland."[11][12][13]

Distant Matches (HVR1-only)

There are some mtDNA C1c matches who only match with Caplan descendants very weakly, by which we mean that the match is only on HVR1. That could mean that they are part of an entirely different subclade, or it could mean that they have 'private mutations'. There are also so-called 'indels' which is basically a list of known mutations that are nevertheless reported in your HVR1, HVR2, and CR values.
These people likely share a matrilineal ancestor in the distant past, certainly not within genealogical timeframes, and possibly over several thousand years. That it is to say, we may share an ancestor with these matches when the Sphinx was created.

Subclades: C1c10*, C1c10b, C1c13

There are (another) six distant matches from archeological samples recovered in Newfoundland, noted in the Duggan paper, who have Beothuk and/or Mi’kmaq descent. Two samples report as Hg=C1c10*. Two samples reports as Hg=C1c10b. One sample is reported to date from 7,714 years before present (ybp); it reports as Hg=C1c13 and it matches on HVR1. One ancient sample reports simply as Hg=C1c. Given that none of these samples have an established identity, they have no E.K.A.

Subclade: C1c* (Cherokee)

There are five distant matches who claim Cherokee descent. Their FTDNA kits report Hg=C1c.
Ghigau Nan-Ye-Hi (Nancy) Ward (Cherokee Nation, Tennessee)
The first Cherokee kit compares to the second Cherokee kit with GD=2.
Having examined the CR, HVR1, and HVR2 values of the first kit, we can say that, as compared to the Caplan/Duval family group of matches, there is one mutation swap in HVR2 and five differences in the CR (3 additions and 2 missing).
The first Cherokee kit's additional mutations match with kit DQ282463.1 at yFull which is reported as Hg=C1c*.[15][16]. Further analysis to follow.
Martha Copeland (Cherokee, Oklahoma)
The first Cherokee kit matches with this kit at GD=2. Two differences are in the CR, given that HVR1/HVR2 are identical.
Jennie Downing (Cherokee)
The first Cherokee kit matches one of these kits at GD=0; the other at GD=2.

Subclade: C1c* (New Mexico)

The subclade C1c* is a catch-all for kits that qualify as C1c but don't quite fit into one of the other subclades.
Ana Maria Gomez (New Mexico)
  • Ana Maria Gomez (abt.1830-) is cited as the E.K.A. of one tester. HVR1 match only. Her FTDNA kit reports Hg=C1c. The tester reports that the closest match on YFull is a kit that reports Hg=C1c*.
The owner of this kit reports GD=0 matches with nine (9) other mtDNA kits at FTDNA.
The owner of this kit reports HVR1 & HVR2 matches with those test kits reporting EKAs of Nancy Ward, Waneta Rooker, Martha Copeland, and Jennie Downing (above).

Uknown Subclade: Chickasaw

Sally Colbert (Chickasaw Nation)
  • Sally (Colbert) Love (1740-1809) is the E.K.A. for one tester. Chickasaw Nation and Melungeon women, in the Carolinas, Alabama, and Mississippi. No obvious connection to the other lines listed here, except for a claim of native heritage. HVR1 match only. Her FTDNA kit reports Hg=C1c

Unknown Subclade: England

One distant match's ancestry is entirely English as far back as 1793, before which nothing is known. Presumably, a North American native female was transported to England, but we do not know from where exactly. The best we can accomplish with this match is to eventually connect her to her proper haplogroup and subclade.
Mary Bennet Lever Dawson (England)

Unknown Subclade: Walla Walla

This sample was an unexpected find ay YFull. I do not know its provenance.
Spouse of Chief Pio-Pio-Mox-Mox (Walla Walla, Washington)
No other lines
No other family lines have yet been categorized and recorded.

Most Distant Matches

  • On FTDNA, the most distant matches seem to be in the U.S. Southwest, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and South America. Their FTDNA kits report Hg=C and Hg=C1c
  • On YFull, the majority of the hundred (100) mtDNA matches are scientific samples from Columbia, Peru, Argentina, Panama, Venezuala, Mexico, and the United States, and several direct submissions from Canada. Those kits report Hg=C1c and 30 different subclades.

Exogenous Subclades

In contrast, there are entire subclades of Hg=C1c that don't even register as a match as with home group of Hg=C1c10a.

Subclade: C1c4 (Mexico)

María de Esquivel (Jalisco, Mexico)
  • María de Esquivel (abt.1580-1650) is the E.K.A. of one tester The FTDNA kit reports Hg=C1c4 and the yFull kit report Hg=C1c4a1a. No specific tribal affiliation is known or claimed. The kit manager reports that the FTDNA kit has two matches at GD=1 and two matches at GD=2. We can consider this a clan who share a common matrilineal ancestor more recently than the other clans discussed here.

All Identified C1c on WikiTree

The following WikiTree category pages include listings of genealogy profiles that have been categorized as C1c Full Spectrum and/or simply C1c.

Subclade List with Mutations

The following is based on yFull's classification scheme for Haplogroup C1c. Which one are you?
C1c — G1888A * G15930A — these mutations define a C1c
C1c* — multiple kits listed herein
C1ca — T195C!
C1c1 — A215G
C1c1a — A12978G
C1c1a1 — A12642G
C1c1b — G5773A
C1c1b1 — A11866G
C1c1c — A2833G
C1c2 — G3010A * G11440A * C14356T
C1c3 — A3140G * G3705A * T6815C
C1c4 — A214G * G16274A — one contemporary kit from Zacatecas, México
C1c5 — G16526AT
C1c6 — T12414C * G16153A
C1c7 — G1303A * G9932A * T16092C
C1c8 — A9254G * C16114T
C1c9 — A16343G
C1c10 — A4702G — Newfoundland archaeological samples
C1c10a — G7853A — Caplan & Duval contemporary samples
C1c10b — A14118G — Newfoundland archaeological samples
C1c11 — T8310C
C1c12 — T14581C
C1c13 — G94A. — Newfoundland archaeological sample. 7,714 ybp
C1c14 — T293C
C1c15 — T5628C
C1c16 — T16249C
C1c17 — T7150C
C1c18 — A11731G
C1c19 — G15077A
C1c20 — A118C
C1c21 — T16092C
C1c22 — G3316A
C1c23 — G3421A


  • Kennett, D.J., Lipson, M., Prufer, K.M. et al. "South-to-north migration preceded the advent of intensive farming in the Maya region". Nat Commun 13, 1530 (2022). [The article cited is "open access." Please feel free to download it in PDF format and share it.] (Accessed 24 Mar 2022)
  1. Ana T. Duggan, Alison J.T. Harris, Stephanie Marciniak, Ingeborg Marshall, Melanie Kuch, Andrew Kitchen, Gabriel Renaud, John Southon, Ben Fuller, Janet Young, Stuart Fiedel, G. Brian Golding, Vaughan Grimes, Hendrik Poinar, "Genetic Discontinuity between the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk Populations in Newfoundland, Canada", Current Biology, Volume 27, Issue 20, 2017, Pages 3149-3156.e11, ISSN 0960-9822, (
  2. 2.0 2.1 Carr, Steven. "Evidence for the persistence of ancient Beothuk and Maritime Archaic mitochondrial DNA genome lineages among modern Native American peoples" Genome,13 April 2020, .Genome, Volume 63, Number 7, July 2020. (Accessed 25 Oct 2021)
  3. Sarah Rogers lived in Dubois, Indiana near an old French fort.
  4. Sarah's mother may have been named Sabina, b. 12 Jan 1795, Connecticut.
  5. RgSillery. Introduction, p.47. “Le cas de la fille adoptive d’Olivier Letardif est intéressant : le 14 janvier 1642, chez les Ursulines où elle était pensionnaire, Marie « puella Silvestris ab Olivario Letardif in filiam adoptiva » est marraine de la fille du célébre Etienne Pigar8ich (p. [24]). Le 18 mai suivant, toujours chez les Ursulines, elle est de nouveau marraine sous le nom de Marie Olivier 8chista8ichk8e (p. [251) Note 115.
    Note 115. “Sur Marie-Olivier 8chista8ichk8e, femme de Martin Prévost, ancêtre des Prévost et des Provost, voir PROVOST, Honorius, ptre. Premier mariage d’un blanc avec une autochtone en Nouvelle-France, dans L’Ancêtre - Bulletin de la Société de généalogie de Québec, vol. 14, no 2, octobre 1987, p. 59-61.
  6. Sieur Olivier LeTardif de Honnefleur was the adopted father of Marie, given to him by her parents, to raise in the French style. Olivier LeTardif was a pioneer during the time of Samuel (Champlain) de Champlain (1574-1635). Marie was educated first by the Ursuline nuns, and then by Marie Rollet (abt.1580-1649), widow of Dr. Louis Hebert (abt.1575-1627).
  7. RgSillery, p.107, ftnt.5. "Olivier Letardif (vers 1604-1665) occupa plusieurs postes importants dans la colonie, dont celui de commis général des Cent-Associés. II fut interprète et parlait les langues montagnaise, algonquine et huronne. II appuyait le travail des Jésuites, servait de parrain aux autochtones et avait adopté trois jeunes Amérindiennes, dont l’une Marie Olivier devint la femme de Martin Prévost (DBC I, 483-484)."
  8. Québec ADNmt / Quebec mtDNA - mtDNA Test Results for Members: Marie Olivier Sylvestre (Manitouabeouich) Prevost, Canada
  9. Davis, Michael J., PhD Thesis: "Brothers in Arms: The Le Moyne Family and the Atlantic World 1685-1745". Department of History and Classical Studies; Faculty of Arts; McGill University, Montreal. August 2020. (Accessed 7 Mar 2022)
  10. Marshall, Ingeborg. "A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk" Montreal and Kingston. McGill-Queen's University Press. 1996. (Accessed 25 Oct 2021)
  11. Hewson, John and Diamond, Beverley, Memorial University of Newfoundland. "Santu's Song" Published at University of New Brunswick. (Accessed 25 Oct 2021)
  12. Aylward, C., and Joe, M. 2018. Beothuk and Mi’kmaq: an interview with Chief Misel Joe. In Tracing ochre: changing perspectives on the Beothuk. Edited by F. Polack. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ont. pp. 117–132.
  13. Diamond, B. 2018. "Santu Toney: a Transnational Beothuk woman. In Tracing ochre: changing perspectives on the Beothuk". Edited by F. Polack. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ont. pp. 247–268.
  14. Yates, Donald N, and Yates, Teresa A. "Cherokee DNA Studies: Real People Who Proved the Geneticists Wrong" Panther`s Lodge Publishers, Mar 21, 2014 - Social Science - 235 pages. ISBN: 0692313702, 9780692313701. p.101
  15. Homo sapiens isolate C1-2-05 mitochondrion, complete genome (Accessed 16 Mar 2023)
  16. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for 265 African American and U.S. "Hispanic” individuals (Accessed 16 Mar 2023)
Hyper Variable Region # 1: from base address 16,001 to 16,569th.
Hyper Variable Region #2: from base address 1 to 570th.
Coding Region: from base address 571 to 16,000th.
Page created by Murray Maloney.


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