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Christiana Resistance Profiles

Privacy Level: Open (White)
Date: Oct 2020 [unknown]
Location: Christiana, Lancaster County, Pennsylvaniamap
Surname/tag: Baley, Ford, Hammond, Parker, Hathaway, Beard, Wilson, Scott, Thompson,
Profile manager: Mary Gossage private message [send private message]
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Christiana Resistance


Christiana Ancestor Profiles Found

(and maybes)
name of person profile brief description
William Parker yes The event occurred at his home.
Eliza Ann (Howard) Parker yes William Parker's wife
Alexander Pinckney maybe brother-in-law of William Parker
Sarah Pownall yes Wife of Parker's landlord
Levi Pownall yes The Parker family's landlord.
Castner Hathaway yes tried and found not guilty

Background and Resource Pages

Fugitives and People at the Parker's House

Castner Hathaway w|| yes
name of person profile
Noah Baley/Buley~ yes
Nelson Ford~ yes
George Hammond~ yes
Joshua Hammond~ yes
Eli Ford~ yes
Charles Ford~ yes
William Parker yes
Eliza Parker yes
Alexander Pinckney maybe
Hannah Pinkney no
Abraham Johnson no
Samuel Williams^ no
Sarah Pownall w yes
Levi Pownall w yes
John Beard ^ no
Thomas Wilson^ no
Alexander Scott^ no
Edward Thompson^ no

~Indicates a possible name change. ^Indicates a new name - four of the six changed their names after they made good their escape

Brief Descriptions

  1. Noah Baley ~ 24, enslaved for 18 years at age 6. A bright mulatto man, who was to serve twenty-two years beginning in 1833. He was 5’9” or 5'10” in height and “tolerable stout built."
  2. Nelson Ford ~ 23, enslaved for 18 years at age 5. A Black man who was to serve twenty-three years, described as dark brown, nearly black, and stood “about 5 feet 7 inches (perhaps a little under that height)” with round shoulders and who “talked fast and was rather timid."
  3. George Hammond ~ 24, enslaved for 18 years at age 6. A Negro man who was to serve twenty-two years. He was 5’8” or 5’10” in height.
  4. Joshua Hammond ~ 26, enslaved for 18 years at age 8. A dark Mulatto man was twenty years old, and was to serve twenty-six years. He was described as well grown, 5’9’ or 5’10” in height, dark brown, and appeared older than he really was. Also known as Joshua Kite, and John Beard.[1]
  5. Eli Ford ~ 26, enslaved for 18 years at age 8. A dark Mulatto man was to serve twenty years. He was described as dark yellow, 5’4” or 5’5” in height, with a “nose broad and flat at the end, particularly broad and flat at the end, the broadness did not run up the nose."
  6. Charles Ford ~ 28, enslaved John M. Gorsuch for 18 years at age 10. A Black man who was to serve eighteen years. He was described as 5’3” or 5’4” in height with "arms rather short and had a peculiarity in his walk."
  7. William Parker - A Black Abolitionist in Christiana
  8. Eliza Parker - William's wife A Black Abolitionist in Christiana
  9. Castner Hathaway - The only one of all the indicted brought to trial for teason. on the weight of that decision the other 38 were released.
  10. Alexander Pinckney - William Parker's brother-in-law, present at the Parker's home.
  11. Hannah Pinckney - Alexander's wife, Eliza Parker's sister - present
  12. Abraham Johnson - Present at the Parker's home
  13. Samuel Williams - Watched the raiding party in Philadelphia and warned of their arrival
  14. Sarah Pownall w - Wife of Parker's landlord warned of raiding party
  15. Levi Pownall w - The Parker's landlord.

~Indicates a possible name change.

According to an article by John Anderson, at least four of the six did change their names: "John Beard, Thomas Wilson, Alexander Scott, and Edward Thompson are the names 4 of the 6 were known by in Pennsylvania.[2] Which four of the six?

According to Scott Mingus, "William Parker, his family and in-laws, and Gorsuch’s two slaves fled the scene, eventually making it to safety in Canada with the assistance of abolitionist Frederick Douglass.[3]

The Raiding Party

name of person profile
Henry Kline  ?
Edward Gorsuch"' yes
Dickinson Gorsuch'"yes
Joshua M. Gorsuch  ?
John Agan ?
Thompson Tully ?
Dr. Thomas Pierce  ?
Nicholas T. Hutchings  ?
Nathan Nelson  ?

Brief Descriptions

  1. Henry Kline w- a deputy Federal Marshall, was authorized to make the arrests
  2. Edward Gorsuch w - obtained a federal warrant under the Fugitive Slave Act
  3. Dickinson Gorsuch w- Gosuch's son
  4. Joshua M. Gorsuch w - Gosuch's nephew
  5. John Agan w - hired police officer returned to Philadephia because of the risk of violence
  6. Thompson Tully w - hired police officer, returned to Philadephia because of the risk of violence
  7. Dr. Thomas Pierce w - accompanied
  8. Nicholas T. Hutchings w - accompanied
  9. Nathan Nelson w - accompanied

Additional Participants

name of person profile
Anthony Ellmaker Roberts yes

Brief Descriptions

  1. Anthony Ellmaker Roberts[4] w United States Marshal for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, a position he held until May 29, 1853; an abolitionist. As the Marshal, Roberts was responsible for summoning potential jurors. He advocated for the indicted prisoners.

People Indicted

There are actually approximately 30 more Christiana townspeople to add to this list, because luckily someone has done the work of listing the names, at Wikipedia.[1] of the people who were on trial. And the list provied is cited with sources which are include below in sources (sources not yet checked and verified and people yet checked for psosible profiles on Wikitree). The article is a good source of cited references, and there are additional names to be added after checking whether or not there may be Wikitree profiles, in the Christiana Ancestor Profiles Found section, below.

(not listed above, all indicted were Black except where noted[1])

name of person profile
Joseph Scarlet w ?
Elijah Lewis w  ?
James Jackson w  ?
George Williams  ?
Jacob Moore  ?
George Reed  ?
George Reed  ?
Daniel Caulsberry  ?
Alson Pernsley  ?
William Brown ?
Henry Green  ?
Elijah Clark  ?
John Holliday  ?
William Williams ?
Benjamin Pindergast  ?
Ezekiel Thompson ?
Ezekiel Thompson ?
Collister Wilson ?
John Jackson ?
William Brown ?
Isaiah Clarkson ?
Henry Simms ?
Charles Hunter ?
Lewis Gates ?
Peter Woods ?
Lewis Clarkson ?
Nelson Carter ?
John Berry, ?
William Berry, ?
Henry Curtis ?
Washington Williams ?
William Thomas ?
Jacob R Townsend w ?


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Wikipedia coverage.
  2. Anderson, John. Christiana Riot of 1851 (2013, November 19) online
  3. Mingus, Scott." Black History Month: Events at the Gorsuch Tavern helped spark the 1851 Christiana Riots 13 February 2015.
  4. Anthony Ellmaker Roberts Wikipedia Article last edited 15 May 2020.


  • Wikipedia coverage. Note: For names of indicted, and history.
  • Archives of Maryland Online. Biographical Series. Edward Gorsuch Maryland State Archives, 4 November 2010.
    Note: Names and descriptions, and history.

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