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Clan Livingston

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Clan Livingston

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Legend says that a Saxon called Leving gave his name to the lands in West Lothian and they became Livingston. The people of the area took this as their family name. Four generations on Sir William Livingston of Livingston fought beside King David II at the Battle of Durham in the 1346 attack into England. When both he and the King were captured he helped negotiate his King’s release and for this was granted the barony of Callendar in 1347.

In 1440 the Livingstons of Callendar persuaded the young Earl of Douglas and his brother to come and reconcile the two families’ differences at a banquet for that purpose in Edinburgh Castle. Upon their arrival, however, the brothers were taken and slain. The Douglases avenged their loss by imprisoning Sir Alexander Livingston and executing one of his sons.

The 5th Lord Livingston, Alexander, was chosen in 1543 to help tutor the child Mary, Queen of Scots. When she went to France he went with her and died there.

His own daughter Mary was one of the loved ‘Four Marys’. Alexander’s son William became the 6th Lord and fought passionately for his father’s ex-pupil at the Battle of Langside, an area now within Southern Glasgow. He died in 1592.

The estates and titles of the Livingstons suffered badly during the Jacobite rising of 1715 because of their patriotism.


The Ancient Livingstons

The ancient arms of Livingston are described as: “Argent, three cinquefoils Gules” which means “Silver with three red five pointed leaves.” The Livingston of Callendar Arms shown here are the Livingston arms quartered with the arms of Callendar: “Sable, a bend between six billets, Or” which means “Black with a gold diagonal between six gold bars.”

Edward the Atheling or “Royal Prince” (1016 – 1057) was the eldest son of King Edmund (II) Ironside of England. He fled to Hungary during the reign of Canute (1016 – 1035) where he married Agatha of Hungary. Their daughter, St. Margaret the Exile, was born in Hungary in 1045. After the death of her father in 1057, St. Margaret arrived at the English court of Edward the Confessor. With her, according to legend, came the forebearer of the Livingstons: a nobleman named Baron de Leving. Ten years later following the defeat of Harold Godwinson at Hastings in 1066, St. Margaret was in exile again. This time, she fled to Scotland, and Baron de Leving accompanied her; or so the story goes. St. Margaret married King Malcolm (III) Cænmore of Scotland in 1068, and was canonised in 1250. (See Scotland, Generation Twenty-two)

Perhaps Baron de Leving (or more likely his forebear) accompanied Edward the Atheling into exile in the early 11th century; for as Mr. E.B. Livingston argues so convincingly on the first page of The Livingstons of Callendar, Baron de Leving was doubtless of Saxon lineage: “. . . in England, long before the Norman Conquest, the patronymic Leving, Living or Lyfing, derived from Leofing, which in modern English means ‘the son of Leof’ – namely ‘son of the Beloved’ – was borne by numerous persons of rank and positon as their family or tribal name. It occurs as early as the middle of the ninth century as the name of one of the witnesses to a charter of Berthwulf of Mercia; and the Archbishop of Canterbury who crowned Edmund Ironside in 1016, and who likewise crowned his rival and successor Canute a few months later, also bore that name. So did another famous Saxon churchman, the Bishop of Crediton and Worster, and the friend of Earl Godwine, who has come to us in the words of the old Saxon chronicler as ‘Lyfing se wordsnotera biscop,’ namely ‘Living the eloquent bishop’. Besides these two great churchmen, there are many other persons bearing this name mentioned in, or witness to, Anglo-Saxon charters; one of these Levings or Livings being the Staller or Master of the Horse to Edward the Confessor.”

The Highland Livingstones were from the Isle of Lismore in the centre of Loch Linne off the coast of Western Scotland and were perhaps of a different origin from the Lowland Livingstons. However, there is a possiblity that Baron de Leving was a highlander with close family ties to the Mac an Ollaimhs of Lismore.

Regardless of the exact origin of Baron de Leving, he settled in in the area of West Lothian, just to the southwest of Edinburgh, sometime during the reign of Edgar (1097-1107) and it is from him that we get the name “Leving’s Town” or “Livingston”. The story of the Livingston Family begins, as do many families, with a legend: the Saxon or Hungarian or perhaps Highland Scottish nobleman Baron de Leving.

141 Livingston 142 Some of the dates in the following chart suggest that some generations may be missing. Baron de Leving circa 1057. Legend tells us that Baron de Leving accompanied St. Margaret the Exile when she arrived at the Court of St. Edward the Confessor in 1057. It has been suggested that Baron de Leving, or more likely his forebear, accompanied the family of Edward the Atheling (St. Margaret’s father) when they were forced to flee England following the victory of Canute over Edmund Ironside (St. Margaret’s grandfather) in 1016.

Leving Legend tells us that Leving’s father was Baron de Leving and his son was Leving de Levingstoun.

Leving of Levingstoun circa 1100; shown in E.B. Livingston: The Livingstons of Callendar, p. 3 & 4. Leving settled in West Lothian, southwest of Edinburgh during the reign of King Edgar (1097 – 1107) and is also known to have been there during the reign of King Alexander I (1107 – 1124) and King David I (1124 – 1153). It is from Leving that we get the name “Leving’s Town” or “Livingston”. His name was recorded in the latinised form “Levingus” when he presented the church of his manor to the newly founded Abbey of Holyrood in 1128. Leving of Levingstoun had the following children: • • • Thurston of Levingstoun, mentioned next. Hugh of Balbard in Fife German, Burgess of St. Andrews in Fife Thurston of Levingstoun circa 1150; shown in E.B. Livingston: The Livingstons of Callendar, p. 3. In 1187, two of Thurston’s sons, Alexander and William, witnessed a charter in which Thurston was involved. Thurston of Levingstoun had the following children: • • • Alexander of Livingston, mentioned next. William the Lion of Livingston Henry, who married Maria de Scalebroc Alexander of Livingston who was known to have been living during the reign of King David I (1124 – 1153); shown in E.B. Livingston: The Livingstons of Callendar, p. 5. Alexander Livingston is said by Sir Bernard Burke in A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire, London, 1866 to have had the following son:

• Sir William Livingston, mentioned next. Sir William Livingston who is said by Sir Bernard Burke in A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire, London, 1866 to have been living during the reign of King William I the Lion (1165 – 1214) and to have had the following children, but the dates suggest strongly that a generation or two may be missing:

• Sir Archibald de Livingston (died 1313) was the founder of the Livingstons of Linlithgow and Stirling, but the main line became extinct in 1512. He was Sheriff of Linlithgow in 1302 and Sheriff of Linlithgow and Stirling in 1303. Sir Bernard Burke wrote that Sir Archibald was the next in this line, and the father of Sir William Livingston who fought against the English at Halidon Hill, July 19th, 1333 and died in 1339. However, on pages 7 and 8 of The Livingstons of Callendar Mr. E. B. Livingston clearly refutes this and other errors by Sir Bernard Burke. As well, Mr. Livingston 143

• Livingston outlines the known descendants of Sir Archibald on pages 8 and 9 of The Livingstons of Callendar until the death of Master Bartholomew de Livingston in 1512 when the lands were distributed among his three sisters or their heirs as his next of kin.

Sir Andrew de Livingston, brother of Sir Archibald de Livingston and forebear of the Livingstons of Callendar, was slain in 1297 during the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. Sir Andrew is the first of an unbroken line; and it is with him that we will begin this genealogy.

Generation One Sir Andrew de Livingston

Died in 1297, slain during the revolt led by by Sir William Wallace. Sir Andrew de Livingston was one of the Scottish knights summoned by King Edward I on May 24th 1297 to attend his expedition to Flanders. He was killed the same year in the revolt led by the great Scottish hero Sir William Wallace. Sir Andrew was the Sheriff of Lanark, and it appears that Sir William Wallace emerged as the leader of the Scottish forces after Sir Andrew was killed. Saxon and then Norman monarchs in England constantly put pressure on Scottish kings. In 1068, King Malcolm (III) Cænmore of Scotland (reigned 1058 – 1093) married St. Margaret the Exile, a member of the West Saxon dynasty, and their sons ruled Scotland until 1153. The Scottish kings who followed established ever stronger feudal ties to the English Crown. The Norman Conquest of England in 1066 made a deep and lasting impression on Scottish history. The Kings of Scotland looked with favour on Norman settlers who came north to live in Scotland, since these Norman newcomers strengthened the Scottish monarchy. The Scottish kings gave the Norman settlers land and titles in return for which the settlers became loyal followers who helped the Crown quell uprisings and control rebellious Scottish lords.

Relations between Scotland and England became critical following the death in 1290 of Queen Margaret, the Maid of Norway who was the last of the direct descendants of Malcolm Cænmore and St. Margaret the Exile. In 1286, the three-year-old Maid of Norway had become Queen of Scotland under a regency. In 1290, Margaret, then seven years old, set sail from Norway to Scotland to assume her crown and marry Edward, the eldest son of King Edward (I) of England. En route, however, she fell ill and died in Orkney, never having reached Scotland.

A struggle for the succession ensued, and thirteen Scottish nobles claimed the throne. King Edward (I) of England interceded and chose John Balliol as king. To be fair, John Balliol’s claim to the throne was as legitimate as that of any of the thirteen claimants; but there is little doubt that he was chosen because his support for King Edward’s policies was certain. Scottish resistance to King Edward’s plan to bring Scotland into the English fold found its first leader in Sir William Wallace, a poor knight who enjoyed the support of the growing middle class of small landowners, merchants and townspeople; especially after King Edward deposed John Balliol and declared himself King of Scotland in 1296.

In 1297, Sir William Wallace led a small force of about 30 men that burned Lanark and killed the Sheriff, who was our forebearer Sir Andrew de Livingston. It is on official record that the Sheriff of Lanark was killed when Scottish rebels burned Lanark in 1297. Blind Harry, the Livingston 144 Minstrel, asserts that this sheriff was an Englishman by the name of Hesilrig; but there is no record of such a man having held this office. Sir Andrew de Livingston is known to have been Sheriff of Lanark during the year preceding Wallace’s Revolt; and it is also evident that he must have been deceased about this time due to the fact that after Wallace’s Revolt there is no further reference to him in the public records. Mr. E.B. Livingston writes in The Livingstons of Callendar: “The earliest Livingston documentary seal, so far as known, is that of Sir Andrew de Livingston, Sheriff of Lanark, which is appended to his homage roll, dated 28 August 1296. This, however, is evidently not heraldic. It is described by the late Mr. Joseph Bain in his list of Homage Seals as: ‘Lozenge shape, a wolf (?) passant to sinister, a tree behind; S’Andree D’Levingistun Mil.’”

Wallace then mobilized a much larger force that routed the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge on September 11, 1297. However, King Edward I defeated Wallace’s forces at the Battle of Falkirk on July 22, 1298. The leadership of the resistance then passed to Robert the Bruce, grandson of Robert de Bruce, Lord Annadale; who had been the most elderly of the thirteen claimants to the throne in 1290.

King Robert the Bruce’s great X4 granddaughter, Beatrice Fleming, daughter of Robert Fleming, 1st Lord Fleming, was to marry James Livingston, 3rd Lord Livingston of Callendar in the 15th century. (See Generation Eight below.)

Sir Andrew de Livingston married Lady Elene de Quarantley or de Carantelegh and they had the following son:

• Sir William Livingston, mentioned next. Generation Two Sir William de Livingston of Gorgyn, Crainmillar and Drumry, Died in 1339 Sir William was a firm adherent of the House of Bruce, and fought against the English at Halidon Hill, July 19th, 1333. He Margaret; perhaps a daughter of Sir Fergus Comyn, Lord of Gorgyn and they had the following children: • John Livingston (died 1366) married a daughter of Wemyss of Wemyss and was the founder of the Livingstons of Drumry and East Wemyss, but the line became extinct when Sir Robert Livingston was slain at the Battle of Flodden Field on September 9, 1513. • Sir William Livingston of Callendar, mentioned next.

Generation Three Sir William Livingston of Callendar

Died on November 30, 1364 Sir William supported the House of Bruce, and he accompanied King David II on his ill-fated invasion of England in 1346. Following the Scottish defeat at the battle of Neville’s Cross on October 17, 1346, King David along with many of his followers, including Sir William Livingston, were taken prisoner. King David was not released until the Treaty of Berwick in October 1357, but Sir William was back in Scotland in 1350 or earlier. About that time, the lands of Sir Patrick de Callendar were taken from him for his adherence to the English, and given to Sir William Livingston who then married Sir Patrick’s only daughter.

Livingston 145 It was uncertain who would gain the upper hand in Scotland, and it appears that Sir William made sure his situation was covered. In the event of a Scottish victory, he was a supporter of the House of Bruce. In the event of an English victory, his wife was from a family of English supporters; and he was doing his best to safeguard the lands of Sir Patrick de Callendar. Sir William’s Coat of Arms was the Livingston Arms (Argent, three cinquefoils Gules; i.e., Silver with three red five pointed leaves) quartered with the Callendar Arms (Sable, a bend between six billets, Or; i.e., Black with a gold diagonal between six gold bars.) As one of the Scottish magnates who negotiated the treaty of peace with England, Sir William’s seal of arms is attached to that document which is still preserved and bears the date 5th October, 1357.

The ancestors of Christian de Callendar from The Livingstons of Callendar: Sir William Livingston married Christian de Callendar and they had the following children: • Patrick Livingston who died while a hostage in England • Sir John Livingston of Callendar, mentioned next. • William Livingston who was appointed in 1402 one of the guardians of his nephew Archibald de Livingston. • Walter Livingston who was appointed in 1402 one of the guardians of his nephew Archibald de Livingston.

Generation Four

Sir John Livingston of Callendar Born circa 1356 Died (slain) on September 14, 1402 Sir John was slain at the Battle of Homildon Hill on September 14, 1402; as was his cousin Sir Robert Livingston of Drumry and Wemyss. He married to (first name unknown) Menteith, daughter of John Menteith of Kerse and they had the following children:

• Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar, mentioned next. Alwin, first Earl of Lennox, died circa 1199 Alwin, second Earl of Lennox, died circa 1217, m. Eva, daughter of Gilchrist Earl of Menteith Eva m. Malcolm, son of Duncan, Thane of Callendar Alwin, Thane of Callendar, circa 1240 Sir John de Callendar, performed homage to Edward I, 1296; died February 22, 1303/04 Alwin de Callendar, 28 years of age in February 1303/04 Patrick de Callendar Christian de Callendar, only daughter m. Sir William Livingston

Livingston 146 • Robert Livingston, Burgess of Stirling, reputed to have been the ancestor of the Livingstons of Westquarter. • John Livingston, reputed to have been the progenitor of the Livingstons of Banton or Ballintoun in Stirlingshire. • James Livingston who got into trouble with the officers of the Exchequer in 1417, in an attempt to evade the Linlithgow customs over the export of some wool. Sir John Livingston married second on August 5, 1381 to Agnes Douglas, daughter of Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith and had the following children: • Archibald Livingston, who was a “natural idiot”, and after his father’s death was placed under the charge of his uncles William and Walter Livingston and Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith. • William Livingston who became 1st Viscount of Kilsyth; his great X3 grand daughter Barbara Livingston married {Reverend} Alexander Livingston circa 1570. (See Generation Eleven, below and Livingston: Livingston of Kilsyth.) • Henry Livingston who was Knight Commander of the order of St. John of Jerusalem in Scotland and Preceptor of Torphichen. Generation Five Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar Died in 1451

Sir Alexander was the favourite counsellor of James I (of Scotland), after whose death he acted as guardian to the young King James II during his minority, and, in that capacity was for some time the virtual ruler of Scotland.

The following account of Sir Alexander Livingston is copied from Sir Hector Livingston Duff, The Sewells of the New World, William Pollard and Co., 1924:

“Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar, a man of transcendent ability and far-reaching ambition, left his mark deeply on the Scottish history of his time. He was the favourite counsellor of James I (of Scotland), after whose death he acted as guardian to the young King James II during his minority, and, in that capacity was for some time the virtual ruler of Scotland.

“Even in the turbulent age in which he lived, Sir Alexander Livingston was distinguished by his uncommon boldness and decision. These qualities are apparent in everything he did, but are nowhere more strikingly shown than in his high-handed interference with the re- marriage of the Queen Mother, Joan Beaufort grand-daughter of John of Gaunt and widow of James I. This singular affair and other violent passages in the life of Sir Alexander are very well described by Mr. E. B. Livingston in his Livingstons of Callendar, pp. 38-49.

“During his eventual career Sir Alexander Livingston filled various offices of the highest dignity and importance, including those of Justiciary of Scotland and Ambassador to England. He died in 1451. By his wife, a daughter of James Dundas of Dundas he had, among other children, two sons, of whom the younger, Alexander Livingston of Feldes, Constable of Stirling Castle, was the ancestor of the Livingstons of Dunipace (extinct 1678).”

Unfortunately for the memory of Sir Alexander Livingston, no other source gives such a glowing account of his life during this troubled time in the history of Scotland. Sir Alexander Livingston,

Livingston 147 whose son Sir James Livingston (later 1st Lord Livingston of Callendar) was Governor of Stirling Castle, was in a power struggle with Sir William Crichton, Governor of Edinburgh Castle for control over King James II who was in his minority. Originally James’ mother, Queen Joan Beaufort, was installed as co-Regent of the kingdom until the boy came of age. She shared control with the Governor of Scotland, Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Douglas, who, from motives which are unknown — probably ill health was the reason — does not appear to have taken his duties very seriously. The government of the country was much neglected by him, and seems to have been carried on by whatever person happened to have custody of the young king for the time being. It was around this time that Sir William Crichton had control of James II, and Joan took her leave of Edinburgh Castle after imploring Crichton to look after the boy. Unknown to Crichton, she had concealed James in a large chest, and took him to Stirling Castle and Sir Alexander Livingston. Before long, however, Joan decided to return to Edinburgh and Crichton; with Livingston in hot pursuit. The government of Scotland was truly in a shambles.

The inept Governor, Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Douglas, died on June 24, 1439, and Joan Beaufort married Sir James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn. Probably she wished to secure some male protector in these stormy times, when her son was so freely used as a pawn in the ever changing game of politics; but this knight adherred to the supporters of the House of Douglas, now led by the youthful William Douglas, 6th Earl of Douglas. Sir Alexander Livingston undertook a very decisive series of actions. He had Sir James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn and his brother Sir William Stewart arrested and incarcerated at Stirling Castle. They were later released on finding security for their future good behaviour. On August 3, 1439 he arrested Joan Beaufort and had her confined to her apartments at Stirling Castle. Sir William Crichton felt neglected, so during Sir Alexander Livingston’s absence from Stirling Castle, he found means to ambush James II in a park where the boy was accustomed to playing, and took him to Edinburgh Castle. Livingston then formed an alliance with Crichton, agreeing to give the latter a greater role in the governing of the country. Sir Alexander Livingston and Sir William Crichton then arranged to have the William Douglas, 6th Earl of Douglas and his only brother David Douglas executed at the infamous Black Dinner of 1440. The custody of James II remained in Sir Alexander Livingston’s hands until he became Justicary of Scotland in 1444, when he transferred the guardianship to his eldest son Sir James Livingston, Governor of Stirling Castle. King James II began ruling Scotland in his own right about 1448, but it appears to have taken a few years to establish full control. In 1452, James personally stabbed and killed William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas who was plotting against him by entering into an alliance with the Lord of the Isles and the Earl of Crawford and negotiating with England.

It is difficult to form any conclusion as to what were the motives which influenced Sir Alexander Livingston in taking these high-handed proceedings. Some historians argue that it was solely to gratify his own selfish ambition for keeping the reins of government in his own hand which influenced Livingston. On the other hand, we must bear in mind that Sir Alexander Livingston was a man well advanced in years. He was in a position to remember the long regency of the Dukes of Albany during the minority of James I; and as a councillor of the late King James I, he understood the dangers the young James II would incur should he fall into the hands of a powerful noble such as the Earl of Douglas. It is significant to note that when James II came of age and proceeded to establish control over the nobles, he apparently felt considerable attachment to his Livingston guardians. While

Livingston 148 Livingstons, Douglases and others were arrested, charged with high treason and executed, Sir Alexander Livingston and his son Sir James Livingston were released after a very brief impisonment; the latter being raised by James II to the peerage of Scotland as the 1st Lord Livingston of Callendar in 1454.

The Black Dinner of 1440

Sir Alexander Livingston and Sir William Crichton, who had recently come to a power sharing agreement of sorts, were convinced that the Douglases, led by the young, headstrong 6th Earl of Douglas, were enemies of the throne. They felt it necessary to crush the Douglases to secure their own authority. Although it was fairly easy to secure sufficient evidence to support a charge of high treason against the 6th Earl of Douglas and his associates; it was an entirely different matter to arrest this powerful baron in the midst of his own people in his own castle.

It does not appear to have been difficult for Sir William Crichton to lure the young earl from his castle, and to convince him to present himself at the court of the boy king, James II in Edinburgh Castle for a celebratory dinner of reconciliation. Thus, the 6th Earl of Douglas, his brother David, and his advisor Sir Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld arrived at Edinburgh Castle on November 24, 1440.

According to legend, a banquet was held in the Great Hall of Edinburgh Castle, and the young James II was charmed with the company of the Douglases. At the end of the feast, the head of a black bull was brought into the hall. Under Scottish custom, this formality presaged the death of the principal guest(s) at a dinner. James II is alleged to have pleaded for the lives of his new friends to be spared, but they were said to have been beheaded in front of the ten year old king.

However, Mr. E.B. Livingston suggests a more likely scenario on pages 43 and 44 of The Livingstons of Callendar, Edinburgh University Press, 1920: “But what we do know for certain is that on the arrival of the Earl of Douglas at the castle, he was at once arrrested, together with his only brother David, and his friend and consellor Sir Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld, who had accompanied him; that the three of them were hastily tried for high treason, found guilty, and proptly beheaded on the Castle Hill. The earl and his brother were executed on 24 November, 1440, and Sir Malcolm Fleming four days later. The later execution must have been carried out contrary to the wishes of Livingston, hence probably the four days’ delay. For about three years later, on 16 August 1443, Sir Alexander Livingston, in the presence of Robert Fleming and four bishops, solemnly purged himself upon oath of having given any counsel, assistance, or consent to the slaughter of Sir Malcolm Fleming.

“Some of the old chronicle writers, who like some modern journalists were not averse to inserting fictitious picturesque details, so as to enliven their narratives, declare that the Douglases were arrested while sitting at dinner, on the signal being given by a black bull’s head, supposed to be a sign of sudden death, being placed on the table; and this fable, according to an old historian of the House of Douglas, gave rise to the following doggerel rhyme:— ‘Edinburgh castle, toun, and tower, God grant ye sink for sin; And that even for the black-dinner, Earl Douglas gat therin.’

Livingston 149 “It is, however, highly improbable that either Livingston or Crichton would have been parties to the introduction of such a theatrical dénouement into this ghastly tragedy . . . .”

Following the demise of William, 6th Earl of Douglas and his brother at the Black Dinner, William’s great uncle James, known as “James the Gross” became the 7th Earl of Douglas. Apparently, he had connived at the execution of his nephew, and thus inherited the earldom and the Douglas Estates.

In another interesting development, Beatrice Fleming, the granddaughter of Sir Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld and daughter of Sir Robert Fleming, 1st Lord Fleming, married circa 1472 to Sir James Livingston, 3rd Lord Livingston of Callendar whose great grandfather, Sir Alexander Livingston, was deeply involved in the Black Dinner of 1440 that had resulted in the execution of Sir Malcom Fleming of Cumbernauld. Sir Alexander Livingston married (first name unknown) Dundas; reputed to have been a daughter of James (or John) de Dundas of Dundas, the elder and a great X3 granddaughter of King Robert the Bruce of Scotland. This descent is uncertain. (See Scotland, Generation Twenty-nine.) Sir Alexander Livingston and (?) Dundas had the following children: • Sir James Livingston, 1st Lord Livingston of Callendar, mentioned next. • Alexander Livingston of Feldes or Phildes, of Perthshire, Constable of Stirling Castle, Captain of Methven Castle, etc., executed by hanging and/or beheading on Castle Hill in Edinburgh on January 21, 1449/50 for high treason. Robert Livingston of Linlithgow, Comptoller, was executed for high treason as well. Alexander Livingston of Feldes or Phildes was the ancestor of the Livingstons of Dunipace, Bantaskine, Kirklands of Dunipace, Balrownie, and Halls of Airth. Alexander’s great X4 granddaughter was Agnes Livingston who married {Reverend} William Livingston in 1601. (See Generation Twelve below and Livingston: Livingston of Falkirk.) Alexander Livingston’s daughter was probably: o Agnes Livingston who married Sir Robert Bruce of Airth (See Livingston: Bruce of Airth, Generation Four.) • Janet Livingston, born circa 1395, married Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, father of the first Lord Hamilton. • Elizabeth Livingston (doubtful) who is said to have married James Dundas of Dundas, the younger. • Helen Livingston who married William Menteith of Carse of Kerse.

Generation Six

Sir James Livingston, 1st Lord Livingston of Callendar Died in 1467 Sir James succeeded his father as guardian to James II and became Great Chamberlain and Master of the Household to that monarch, who always held him in high esteem, and, in 1454, raised him to the peerage of Scotland as the first Lord Livingston of Callendar. He married Marion de Berwick, daughter of Thomas de Berwick and they had the following children: • James Livingston, 2nd Lord Livingston of Callendar who was “a fulle and natural idiot.” On July 6, 1445, before his insanity had proved to be incurable, he had been betrothed to Christian Erskine, daughter and heiress of Sir John Erskine of Kinnoul. However, he was debarred from marriage and died without issue. He was put under the care of his brother,

Livingston 150 Master David Livingston; and his nephew administered the estate during the advancement of his insanity. This nephew, also James Livingston, evenutally succeeded in 1497 as 3rd Lord Livingston of Callendar • Alexander Livingston, mentioned next. • Master David Livingston, Rector of Ayr, afterwards Provost of Lincluden and Keeper of the Privy Seal, and curator to his elder brother, James 2nd Lord Livingston of Callendar. • Elizabeth, who married John, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles. After her husband’s forfeiture, King James III on February 8, 1475/76, settled on her a liferent in certain lands for an honourable sustenance in consideration of her loyal services to his parents, himself and his queen, Margaret of Denmark. • Euphemia who married first, Malcolm, son and heir of Robert, 1st Lord Fleming; and secondly, William Fleming of the Bord. Euphemia’s nephew, Sir James Livingston, 3rd Lord Livingston, married Malcolm Fleming’s sister Beatrice • Marion who married William, 3rd Lord Crichton, an alliance probably intended to finally end the long continued rivalry between the two families.

Generation Seven

Alexander Livingston Born before July 6, 1445 Died in 1472 Alexander Livingston is known to have married, but his wife’s name has been lost. They had a child: • Sir James Livingston, 3rd Lord Livingston of Callendar, mentioned next. Generation Eight Sir James Livingston, 3rd Lord Livingston of Callendar Died in 1503 Sir James succeeded his childless and insane uncle as 3rd Lord Livingston of Callendar in 1497. He married circa 1472 to Beatrice Fleming, daughter of Robert, the 1st Lord Fleming and granddaughter of Sir Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld who had been executed following the Black Dinner of 1440. (See Generation Five above.) Beatrice Fleming was a great X4 granddaughter of Robert the Bruce (1274 - 1329), King of Scotland (1306 - 1329) (See Scotland, Generation Thirty- five, Sinclair Generation Eight and and Livingston: Fleming, Earl of Wigtown) Sir James Livingston and Beatrice Fleming had the following children: • Sir William Livingston, 4th Lord Livingston of Callendar, mentioned next. • Elizabeth Livingston, who married Robert Callender or Callendar, grandson and heir apparent to Robert Callender of Durator. Their son, Robert Callender of Bancloich, married Marion Lindsay, and this last couple’s daughter married James Livingston of Inches, a member of a younger line of the Livingstons of Kilsyth. Sir James Livingston married second to Agnes Houston and had a child: • Alexander Livingston of Terrintiran

Livingston 151 Generation Nine Sir William Livingston, 4th Lord Livingston of Callendar Died before April 25, 1518 Sir William resigned the whole of his lands in the Barony of Callendar on February 1509/10 in favour of his son and heir Alexander, 5th Lord Livingston of Callendar; leaving his liferent interest and a reasonable terse for his wife. His married life, owing to his dissipated habits, was not a happy one. In 1516, Lady Livingston applied to the Ecclesiastical Court of St. Andrews for a decree of divorce on account of her husband having committed adultery with one Mariota Taylor and having had issue by her. On September 29, 1516, the court granted Lady Livingston a separation “a mensa thoro et mutua cohabitatione ac servitute” from her husband while he was ordered to support her in accordance with her rank and means. Sir William married before April 5, 1501 to Agnes Hepburn, daughter of Alexander Hepburn, the Younger, of Whitsome, who was son of Sir Patrick Hepburn, Lord Hailes. They had a separation on September 29, 1516. Sir William Livingston and Agnes Hepburn had the following children: • Alexander Livingston, 5th Lord Livingston of Callendar who was the guardian of the young Mary Queen of Scots. He married first to Janet Stewart and they had no issue. He married second to Agnes Douglas, daughter of John, 2nd Earl of Morton. Alexander Livingston, 5th Lord Livingston of Callendar died in 1553. o His eldest son, John Livingston, the Master of Livingston, married Janet, eldest daughter of Malcolm, 3rd Lord Fleming. They had no issue. John was slain at the Battle of Pinkie, September 10th, 1547. o His second son, William Livingston, became the 6th Lord Livingston. He married Agnes, youngest daughter of Malcolm, 3rd Lord Fleming. Their eldest son, Alexander Livingston, 7th Lord Livingston of Callendar, married Helenor Hay, elder daughter of Andrew, 8th Earl of Errol. o His youngest son, Thomas Livingston, married Agnes Crawford of Haining. Their 11X great granddaughter Helen Hanson (born 1947, living in Australia as of 2001) supplied much of the previously missing Livingston genealogy from the 12th and 13th centuries. • Master James Livingston, mentioned next. • William Livingston who was Captain of the Royal Castle of Kirkwall in the Orkneys. He married Margaret Strang. • Margaret Livingston who married John, 4th Lord Hay of Yester. • Dame Isobel Livingston, Lady Roslin who married Sir Oliver Sinclair of Roslin as his third wife. According to Douglas’s Peerage, this Isobel Livingston married Nicol Ramsay of Dalhousie, while the Scots Peerage declares Ramsay’s wife was the daughter of Sir Robert Livingston of Wemyss.

1) 2) 3) Master James Livingston, Rector of Culter, Lanakshire. Master James Livingston of Baldoran, a descendant of the Livingstons of Kilsyth. Master James Livingston, chaplain of St. John the Baptist’s Aisle, Falkirk Parish Church.

Livingston 152 Generation Ten Master James Livingston Died on September 10, 1547, slain at the Battle of Pinkie, near Edinburgh. James Livingston fought at the Battle of Pinkie (September 10, 1547) under the command of his relative, James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, and was there killed, as was also the Master of Livingston, his nephew. James Livingston, as he is styled “Master”, must have taken a degree in Arts at one of the Universities, probably the University of Glasgow. Unfortunately, there is a gap in the records of this university for the period between 1509 and 1536 which would have covered his student days. This James Livingston must not be confused with other contemporary Master James Livingston, of which there are at least three: James married circa 1544, but the name of his wife has been lost. They had the following child: • {Reverend} Alexander Livingston, M.A., mentioned next.

Generation Eleven

{Reverend} Alexander Livingston, M.A. Died circa 1598 Alexander was the first Protestant Rector of Monyabroch. He was known as Master Alexander Livingston, a reference to his degree of Master of Arts. He married circa 1570 to Barbara Livingston, daughter of Alexander Livingston of Over & Nether Inches, and grand daughter of William Livingston, 4th Viscount of Kilsyth and Janet Bruce of Airth. Barbara Livingston was a great X5 grand daughter of King Robert II. (See: Livingston: Livingston of Kilsyth, Livingston: Bruce of Airth and Scotland, Generation Thirty-one.) Barbara and Alexander were 5th cousins, their common ancestor being Sir John Livingston of Callendar. (See Generation Four, above.) {Reverend} Alexander Livingston and Barbara Livingston had the following children: • Katherine Livingston who married James Livingston of Belstane. • {Reverend} William Livingston, M.A., mentioned next. Generation Twelve {Reverend} William Livingston, M.A. Born circa 1576 at Kilsyth Castle, Died before October 1641, Lanark “When only twenty years old William Livingston was presented by his kinsman, Alexander, 7th Lord Livingston, afterwards first Earl of Linlithgow, to the family living of Callendar in Perthshire, but, finding that his ignorance of the Gaelic language stood in the way of his properly discharging the duties of this Highland parish, he was eventually • • • • Jean Livingston who married in September 1651 to Gideon Penman, minister of Crichton who was said to be a figure in witch-dance fertility rites. (See: Livingston: Penman.) Martha Livingston Janet Livingston who died on April 3, 1690. Henry Livingston {Reverend} William Livingston married third to Marion Weir (died January 7, 1632)

Livingston 153 transferred, by the same patron, to the rectory of Monyabroch in succession to his father.” (Sir Hector Livingston Duff, The Sewells of the New World, William Pollard and Co., 1924 pg. 114 - 115) “He graduated from the University of Glasgow in 1595. He was ordained July 13, 1596, and had temporary charge of his father’s parish of Monyabroch after the deposition, and he was subsequently given the ministry permanently. Six years later he was also deposed, having opposed the restoration of Episcopacy and not submitting to canons and ceremonies, yet King James himself presented him with the living of Lanark soon afterward, but he was again deposed for denouncing the legality of the General Assembly that passed the Five Articles of Perth, and he was thrown in prison. After his release, however, he boldly continued his antagonism. He was a leader in the struggle between the bishops and the Presbyterian clergy.”

{Reverend} William Livingston married on December 14, 1600 at Falkirk to Agnes Livingston, daughter of Alexander Livingston of Falkirk, and Marlan (or Marion) Bryson of Falkirk. The marriage was proclaimed on January 6, 1601. (See Livingston: Livingston of Falkirk.) Agnes and William were 5th cousins once removed, their common ancestor being Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar. (See Generation Five above) {Reverend} William Livingston and Agnes Livingston had the following children: • {Reverend} John Livingston, M.A., mentioned next • Samuel Livingston • Barbara Livingston • Lillias Livingston • Anna Livingston who married on May 5, 1627 to Thomas Vassie, minister of Torphichen; son of William Vassie, burgess of Lanark. • Margaret Livingston who married on January 4, 1632 to Matthew Young, schoolmaster in Lanark; died November 1632. • William Livingston who was apprenticed to James Nairn, merchant, Edinburgh on July 21, 1630. William Livingston married Mary Lindsay. Their great X 7 granddaughter Margaret Nell Livingston Blay kindly provided many leads and much information on Livingston genealogy. {Reverend} William Livingston married second to Nicolas Somervell and had the following children:

Livingston 154

Generation Thirteen

{Reverend} John Livingston, M.A. Born on June 21, 1603 at Monyabroch Died on August 1672 at Rotterdam, Holland,

At the very outset of his career {Reverend} John Livingston became involved in a bitter dispute with the Bishop of Glasgow, and from then onward was constantly being censured for insubordination, and was more than once suspended from his holy office. Yet, in spite of all this, “Worthy, famous Mr. John Livingston,” as he is affectionately called by contemporary chroniclers, carried more weight with the Scottish people than any churchman of his time.

“John, like his father, entered the Church, and held various livings, of which the last was Ancrum in the county of Roxburgh, whence it happens that he is usually referred to in the family annals as Master John Livingston of Ancrum in Teviotdale. This celebrated man was one of the most eminent divines in the history of the Church of Scotland, and, after the lapse of more than two hundred years, his name is still well remembered in that country. He was nearly always in trouble of one kind or another, being of an uncompromising character and essentially a fighter, as anyone could tell from his original portrait now in possession of the Earl of Wemyss, which shows a face singularly massive, rugged and sombre. At the very outset of his career he became involved in a bitter dispute with the Bishop of Glasgow, and from then onward he was constantly being censured for insubordination, and was more than once suspended from his holy office. Yet, in spite of all this, ‘Worthy, famous Mr. John Livingston,’ as he is affectionately called by contemporary chroniclers, carried more weight with the Scottish people than any churchman of his time.

“On the account, and partly, too, perhaps by reason of his aristocratic connections, he was chosen as one of the Commissioners who, in 1650, proceeded to Holland to negotiate with the then Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles II, the terms on which the Scottish nation was prepared to support the restoration of the Stuart dynasty, and it was Livingston himself who administered to the young prince the oath by which he swore to observe the Solemn League and Covenant. When, after his recall to the throne, Charles broke this promise, Livingston refused to recognise him as head of the Scottish Church, in consequence of which this brave and honest man was banished to Rotterdam (in 1664), where, in August, 1672, he died.” . . . Sir Hector Livingston Duff, The Sewells of the New World, William Pollard and Co., 1924 pg. 115 - 116 {Reverend} John Livingston married on June 13, 1635 at Edinburgh to Janet Fleming who was born in 1613, died Rotterdam, Feb. 1690/1 and was a daughter of Bartholomew Fleming by Marian Hamilton. (See Livingston: Fleming of Edinburgh.) They had fifteen children, eight of whom died before reaching the ten years of age, many of them as infants: • • • John Livingston, born at Iron Furnace of Milton, Co. Down, Ireland on June 30, 1636 and died at Stranraer, Wigtown, Scotland on January 8, 1639. John was buried in Inch Churchyard. William Livingston, born at Lanark, January 7, 1638. William married Ann Veitch on December 23, 1663, and he left surviving issue. He was buried in Greyfriars’ Burial Ground on June 12, 1700 Bartholomew Livingston, born September 3, 1639 and died September 24, 1641

Livingston 155 • Agnes Livingston, born September 20, 1640 and died October 17, 1641 • Marion Livingston, born October 10, 1642, married {Rev.} John Scott September 28, 1658 and died July 1661 or 1662. • Janet Livingston, born September 28, 1643, died August 1696. Married Andrew Russell; but had no issue. • John Livingston, born August 20, 1644 and died October 1645. • Agnes Livingston, born August 18, 1645 and married David Cleland June 6, 1676. • James Livingston, mentioned next. • Joanna Livingston, born September 1647 and died October 1648. • Barbara Livingston, born June 21, 1648 and married James Millar or Miller. • John Livingston, born June 24, 1652 and died October 12, 1652. • Andrew Livingston, born August 1653 and died February 7, 1655. • Robert Livingston, “Robert the Grantee”, also know as “Robert the First Lord of the Manor” landed at Charlestown, Massachusetts in December 1673. Among his grand children are: o Philip “the Signer” Livingston (1716 – 1778) who signed the American Declaration of Independence. Philip married (1740) Christina Ten Broeck (1718 - 1801); their great X 2 grandson: ! Edwin Brockhost Livingston who wrote The Livingstons of Callendar, Edinburgh, 1920. o William Livingston who was the First Governor of New Jersey. o {Judge} Robert R. Livingston who married Margaret Beekman. (see below.) o {Colonel} Robert Livingston, Third Lord of the Manor, whose son {Colonel} Peter Robert Livingston was a member of the “Sons of Liberty” prior to the American Revolution and who married his third cousin Margaret Livingston. (See Generation Sixteen.) • Elizabeth Livingston, born January 7, 1657 and died October 31, 1666.

Generation Fourteen

James Livingston Born on September 22, 1646 at Stranraer, Scotland, Died in 1700 James “was apprenticed on September 24, 1662 to Edward Stevenson, a merchant in Edinburgh. He subsequently became a merchant in that city himself, where he died in 1700; and was interred in the Greyfriars’ Burial Ground on June 4, 1700. He married twice, but the name of his first wife, the mother of Robert who joined his uncle in America, is unknown. James married second to Christian Fish on August 15, 1683.” . . . Mr. E. B. Livingston, The Livingstons of Callendar, page 448 James Livingston and his first wife whose name is unknown had the following son: • Robert Livingston, mentioned next. o o Henry Beekman who died young. Margaret Beekman (1724 - 1800) m. 1742 {Judge} Robert R. Livingston (1718 - 1775); their children: ! Janet Livingston (1743 - 1828) m.1773 {General} Richard Montgomery (1736 - 1775) who was killed while attempting the capture of Quebec in 1775. (dsp) ! Robert R. “The Chancellor” Livingston (1746 - 1813) who administered the inaugural oath to the first American President, {General} George Washington and was a partner of Robert Fulton who, in 1807, built the “Clermont”, the first successful steamboat in the United States.

Livingston 156 Generation Fifteen Robert Livingston Born in 1663 at Rotterdam, Holland, Died on April 21, 1725 at New York Robert, our ancestor who came to America in 1696, is known as “Robert the Nephew” to distinguish him from his Uncle “Robert the Grantee” referred to previously, who landed at Charlestown, Massachusetts in December 1673 and moved on to New York in 1674 and then to Albany. He married in1697 to Margaretta Schuyler, who was a daughter of Colonel Peter Schuyler and Engeltie Van Shaik. (See: Livingston: Schuyler.) and they had the following children: • Angelica Livingston who married Johannes Van Rensselaer; their greatX3 granddaughter: o Florence Van Rensselaer who wrote The Livingston Family in America, New York, 1949. • James Livingston, shown next. • Janet Livingston who married {Colonel} Henry Beekman; their children: ! Nine additional children. • Pieter Livingston who married Zeba Holland • John Livingston who married Catherine Ten Broeck • Thomas Livingston who died young

Generation Sixteen

James Livingston Born before December 21, 1701 at Albany New York Died on September 7, 1763 at New York With James our descent from the male line of Livingstons ceases, passing next, for the first time in nearly 700 years, through an ancestress in the person of Janet Livingston. James married on May 18, 1723 to Maria Kierstede who was born on April 2, 1704 and died on November 1, 1762. James and Maria had the following children: • Robert James Livingston (1729 – 1771), who married Susanna Smith (1729 – 1791), a sister of {Chief Justice} William Smith II who married Janet Livingston. Robert James Livingston and Susanna Smith had children: o Mary Livingston (1748 – 1830) who married 1st {Capt} Gabriel Maturin and 2nd {Dr} Jonathan Mallet o James Kierstede Livingston (1749 – 1777) o Elizabeth Livingston (1751 – 1752)

Sources The information on this page represents a compilation of material kindly shared by the following Livingston descendants: Nell Livingston Blay, Steven R. Edington, Helen Hanson, Don C. Livingston, Robert Livingston, W. Darcy McKeough, Sewell Vincent Sample, Joe Slavin, John P. Stewart and Carma Kathleen Wallace. See Profile for Thurson Livingston (Livingston-773) for more info.

House of Kilsyth Livingston

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Categories: Clan Livingstone