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Crawford DNA

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Date: [unknown] [unknown]
Location: [unknown]
Surnames/tags: Crawford Craufurd
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Contents

Crawford DNA

Welcome to the DNA page for the Crawford Name Study. Here you will find free-space pages for each of the known Y-DNA groupings for testers named Crawford and their family members. If you believe you have additional information regarding DNA groupings or profiles that need added to a group, please post a comment to this page or to the page of the group where they belong.

Type of DNA Testing

DNA testing can be used to supplement paper genealogy research and isolate or group lineages into related categories. This can be accomplished in the following ways:

  1. Y-DNA - (patrilineal) the Y chromosome DNA testing that is commonly used for ancient genealogy lineage groupings related to surname. The Y chromosome is passed from father to male children (not female children since they do not receive a Y chromosome), and therefore has a strong correlation with surnames (at least since surnames became commonly used).
  2. MtDNA - (matrilineal) the Mitochondrial DNA testing that reflects genes passed from Mother to child, not solely to female children but each child only holds genes from their matrilineal line.
  3. auDNA - Autosomal DNA testing reflects the genes received from each parent, roughly (but not exactly) 50% from each parent, who received 50% from their parents, and so on. The proportion of genes received is never exactly 50%, and therefore this testing is only useful for recent genealogical timeframes.

Haplogroups Found Within The Crawford Surname

On this page we will focus on the Y-DNA test data, since that is closely related to the Crawford surname. There is an existing Clan Crawford Association Y-DNA project which is tracking the actual DNA results on FamilyTreeDNA, and we will attempt to follow the same groupings here on WikiTree.

Y chromosomes have known major mutations at the "haplogroup" level, meaning ancient large branches of evolution reflecting major changes between family lines. Most of these happened thousands or tens of thousands of years ago, and therefore if two people have different Haplogroups, it is almost 100% certain they are not related in any genealogical timeframes that can be supported with written records.

The known haplogroups and major sub-categories of haplogroups are as follows within the Crawford surname (alphabetically by haplogroup, not by frequency):

  1. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group A
  2. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group B
  3. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group E
  4. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group F
  5. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group I1
  6. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group I2
  7. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group J1
  8. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group J2
  9. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group R1a
  10. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group R1b
  11. Crawford DNA Y-STR Group ZZZ

The most common of the tested Crawford haplogroups seems to be in R, with the documented ancient clan line in either I1 or R.

Important points to be considered as you research your DNA

  1. "Crawford is a place name not a patronymic name associated with Thorlongus"[1]
    1. "Scottish family surnames were first formalized in the 11th century. [...] Origins of the Barony of Crawford may pre-date Thorlongus by as much as a thousand years"[1]
    2. "The fact that there was a Barony to confer to Thorlongus implies that one existed beforehand and that it was of importance to the Lowlands"[1]
    3. The place name may date back to Roman occupation, or could be derived by the Celtic Pictish Damnonii (prior to 848 A.D.) or Saxons (prior to 1066 A.D.) (paraphrased summary [1]).
  2. Holding a Y-DNA Haplogroup that does not fit into the Clan Crawford "cadet" lines (those with lands and titles related to Thorlongus and descendants) is not unusual, and should not make one feel "excluded". It is possible that the blood of ancient Celtic Pictish tribes like the Damnonii flows in your veins.
    1. "Clan Loyalty Changed Surnames" [2]
    2. "Calamity, War and Alliances Created Adoptions"[2]
    3. "Titles Were Maintained Through Assuming the Maiden Name of the Spouse"[2]
  3. Uniting all known lineages is not possible within "genealogical timeframes" where the surname of Crawford was in use, but instead lineages seem to intersect anywhere from 840 B.C. to as recent as 1260 A.D. (when depends which branches are crossing)[3]
  4. Research continues to try to identify the many lineages and how they fit together, and this effort at WikiTree is but one of those attempts.
  5. Those so inclined should join the Crawford project at FamilyTreeDNA.com and work with the administrators to find the most applicable test for your situation to further the research.

Relationship Between Known Branches

The clan lines include the following lineages. Since we cannot identify how they all fit together, this will change over time. Here we attempt to list them in order of earliest to latest, within each lineage. Sources used include Laurus Crawfordiana[4] and "Arms of Branches of the Crawfurd Family Second Edition"[5]

  1. Galfridus de Crawford (assumed to be I1)
    1. Crawford (descendants of Hugh, married into Douglas and Lindsay, "daughtered out") (I1)
    2. Crawfordjohn (descendants of John, son of Reginald, son of Galfridus) (I1)
      1. Loudon
      2. Crosbie
      3. Auchenames (chiefly line, unites with Drumsoy in 1700s) (I1)
      4. Kilbirnie (R-DF13 or R-CT4169)
      5. Craufurdland
      6. Ardmillan (R1b)
      7. Castlemilk
      8. Ferme and Flaschis
      9. Fedderat
      10. Haining
      11. Possil
      12. Easter Seaton and Monargon
      13. Naughton and Miramar
      14. Newfoundland
      15. Bothkenner and Mountquhame
      16. Achnoris
      17. Cloverhill
      18. Doonside
      19. Flatterton
      20. Grennan
      21. Hamilton
      22. Newton
      23. Rossallogh
      24. Seidhill
      25. Thorn
      26. Kyncaid of that ilk
      27. Ballyshannon (Ireland)
      28. Crafford of Netherlands
    3. Dalmagregan (descendants of Gregan, son of Reginald, son of Galfridus)
      1. Dalmagregan
      2. Drongan
      3. Lefnorris/Lochnorris
      4. Camlarg
      5. Kerse
      6. Drumsoy/Drumsuie (reunites with Auchenames in 1700s via marriage between Patrick of Drumsoy and Jane of Auchenames) (I1)
      7. Drumlaucht
      8. Newington

Unknown Connection

  1. Descendants of John Crawford/David Crawford of Virginia (I2)
  2. Other Crawford Y-STR Group R1b
    1. R1b-07
      1. Descendants of Sir John Crawford of Renfrewshire b.1700 (Scotland -->North Carolina/Illinois)
      2. Descendants of James Crawford b.1701 (Pennsylvania --> Ohio/Iowa)

Research Needed

  1. Chiefly lines & candidates:
    1. R1b-01A (Ardmillan):
      1. Crawford-1137 descendants should be compared to Y-DNA descendants from the listed father, to see if any Y-DNA carriers can be tested to confirm/deny possible lineage match.
      2. Lineage link from Crawford-1137 up through Patrick of Auchinames (m. Jean Crawford granddau of Archibald) needs confirmed/denied
  2. Other lines:
    1. R1b
      1. R1b-5
        1. Confirm/deny father of Crawford-1445 as Crawford-566 by finding other Y-DNA descendants of Crawford-566 and/or confirming paper trail down from Crawford-334 (David II) to Crawford-566. Known descendants of Crawford-334 are in I2 through David III.
      2. R1b-24
        1. Chart out all cousins to Tarleton-264 with tests that can be compared via:
          1. Gedcompare
          2. mitoYDNA.com
          3. FamilyTreeDNA
          4. Ancestry
          5. dnaPainter
          6. located via:
            1. wikitree DNA ancestors and descendants of ancestors
            2. familytreedna matches
            3. Ancestry thrulines
            4. does MitoYDNA have info on who to match to?

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Crawford, Joanne, Ph.D., Kevan Crawford Ph.D., Raymond Crawfurd, Georgina Craufurd, Bruce Crawford, MS, Eleanor Moore. The House of Crawford, Volume II: New Perspectives on Crawford Heritage. South Carolina, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012. ISBN-10: 1467914037. ISBN-13: 978-1467914031
    • Part I: Crawford Y-DNA and its relationship to the Ancient Name of Crawford - Bruce Crawford. Pages 94-99.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Crawford, Joanne, Ph.D., Kevan Crawford Ph.D., Raymond Crawfurd, Georgina Craufurd, Bruce Crawford, MS, Eleanor Moore. The House of Crawford, Volume II: New Perspectives on Crawford Heritage. South Carolina, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012. ISBN-10: 1467914037. ISBN-13: 978-1467914031
    • Part II: Physical and Historic Conditions Supporting Broad Crawford Y-DNA Diversity - Bruce Crawford. Pages 100-104.
  3. Crawford, Joanne, Ph.D., Kevan Crawford Ph.D., Raymond Crawfurd, Georgina Craufurd, Bruce Crawford, MS, Eleanor Moore. The House of Crawford, Volume II: New Perspectives on Crawford Heritage. South Carolina, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012. ISBN-10: 1467914037. ISBN-13: 978-1467914031
    • Part III: Comparison of Crawford R1b1a2 Subclade Y-DNA Diversity with Scot Dal Riata & three other Surnames - Bruce Crawford. Table 4, pg 111.
  4. Crawfurd, George. Laurus Crawfordiana. (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1st edition (August 28, 2013)). Clan Crawford Association URL https://www.amazon.com/Laurus-Manuscript-Crawfurds-%20Crawford/dp/148235652X
  5. Arms of Branches of the Crawfurd Family Second Edition Arms research by Raymond Crawfurd — Illustrations by Allen Crawford — First Edition research and editing by Kevan Crawford, PhD




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