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Right now there are over 10,000 Family Tree DNA (ftDNA) Group Projects
Father, in the diagram, would form a Haplogroup for G Son 1 and G Son 2
There is a 1% chance that a sur-name will change over every generation and that works out that 50% of people had a sur-name change some where in time.
There are many reasons why a sur-name changes over the years
- Genetics Glossary @ International Society of Genetic Genealogy Wiki
- haplogroup - a genetic population group of people who share a common ancestor on the patriline or the matriline.
- SNP signature (SNP sequence) F>S1>GS1
- Terminal SNP - The last number in a SNP signature