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DNA and Adoption

Privacy Level: Open (White)
Date: [unknown] [unknown]
Location: Worldwidemap
Surnames/tags: Adoption DNA Adoption_Angels
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Categories: Adoption Angels | Adoption | DNA.

Adoption Angels Project DNA Project


Betty Jean's Adoption Search. This blog series (by WikiTreer Mags Gaulden, Grandma's Genes) might be helpful as she covers how to use WikiTree in an adoption search.


DNA quite plainly is what makes us us. It's the blueprint by which we are built.

There are three basic types of DNA tests for genealogical purposes:

  1. Y-Chromosome DNA Tests for direct paternal lines.
  2. Mitochondrial DNA Tests for direct maternal lines.
  3. Autosomal DNA Tests (23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA Family Finder, My Heritage) that are relevant for your entire genetic inheritance for roughly five to seven generations.  More distant auDNA connections are less reliable. These are the most popular and least expensive tests (about $99 with AncestryDNA and FT DNA). X-chromosome results are now included with autosomal tests.

Click on the links above for more information about specific tests and see below for and overview of each test with information on results.


Contents

What DNA Testing can do for you, the adoptee/birth relative.

Finding someone who matches your DNA who knows their genealogy could tell you about your genealogy. The closer the relationship between you and your DNA match the closer you are to knowing your family connection. It's a little more involved, but that is the basic premise.

Build your own 'likely' trees as much as you can working with genetic matches until you can identify some common genetic ancestors

DNA is measured generally in a genealogical time frame - Generations or by the mutations that happen over time.

In yDNA, a genetic difference of 4 would mean there were four mutations between the two men which would put their common ancestor probably back a few hundred years. (In yDNA, each number difference is one mutation, so if one DYS marker is 8 and the other is 10, there were two mutations on that marker).
In mtDNA you might also see this information listed in mutations, meaning a match of 0 has no mutational differences from you, a mutation difference of -3 means you have three mutation differences from them a 3 means they have three mutations from you. Just make sure when you are looking at your results you know which one you are looking at, generations or mutations.
For auDNA, when you get your results you will see your genetic distance from your match in generations. So a genetic distance of 4 would put your connection to your match at 4 generations back from you, or your shared great great grand whatever (which isn't a great help but it's a step in the right direction).

Fathers Line YDNA

Direct Paternal Line - this would be your your biological father's paternal line of forefathers. So, your father, then his father, then his father, then his father, etc.

  • For men only.

Earle Gaulden's YDNA connections on WikiTree. To get to yours from your profile go over to the right side of your profile page where it says "DNA Tested", then click on the words "DNA has been tested". This will take you to your DNA Tests Page. Under each test there will be the words, "Test details URL:", click on the link and you will see your DNA test connections.

Mothers Line mtDNA

Direct Maternal Line - this would be your biological Mothers, Mothers, Mothers, Mothers, Mothers Line.

  • For Women and Men

M. Gaulden's mtDNA connections on WikiTree. To get to yours from your profile go over to the right side of your profile page where it says "DNA Tested", then click on the words "DNA has been tested". this will take you to your DNA Tests Page. Under each test there will be the words, "Test details URL:", click on the link and you will see your DNA test connections. You can also see an Ahnentafel mtDNA Ancestor list for your results by clicking on Family Tree & Tools Tools, scroll down to DNA Ancestors and click on it. Another way would be from your My WikiTree drop down menu, scroll to and click DNA Confirmation, then click on DNA Ancestors from the menu bar across the top.

General Family Lines auDNA & xDNA

Autosomal

Entire Genetic Inheritance - Autosomal DNA is a term used in genetic genealogy to describe DNA which is inherited from the autosomal chromosomes. An autosome is any of the numbered chromosomes, as opposed to the sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (the X chromosome and the Y chromosome).[1]

  • For Men and Women.

M. Gaulden's auDNA connections on WikiTree. To get to yours from your profile go over to the right side of your profile page where it says "DNA Tested", then click on the words "DNA has been tested". this will take you to your DNA Tests Page. Under each test there will be the words, "Test details URL:", click on the link and you will see your DNA test connections. Another way would be from your My WikiTree drop down menu, scroll to and click DNA Confirmation, then click on DNA Tests from the menu bar across the top.

WikiTree's DNA tools create a surname list for you that is nice visual representation of the auDNA connections. M. Gaulden's Surname list and Kitty Smith's Surname list.

X

A sex chromosome. A female child receives one X-chromosome from her father and one X-chromosome from her mother. A male child receives an X-chromosome only from his mother.

  • For Women and Men.

M. Gaulden's Ahnentafel xDNA connections on WikiTree. You can see yours by clicking on Family Tree & Tools Tools, scroll down to DNA Ancestors and click on it. Another way would be from your My WikiTree drop down menu, scroll to and click DNA Confirmation, then click on DNA Ancestors from the menu bar across the top.

Ordering or Recommending a Test

If you plan to order a test for yourself, or would like to recommend that a family member or friend be tested, please use one of these URLs. This way WikiTree gets the referral credit.

Thanks!

Posting Your Results Everywhere

Your Results Are In, Posting Your Results

Notice how I didn't say anything about understanding your results. Your test results will show many things. Have fun looking at your ethnic make-up and enjoy the Origins map showing the route your ancestors took out of Africa. If you took a y/mtDNA test you will also know your Haplogroup (see link to Glossary below). This is all fun, but lets get down to business.

You will want to post your results to a few different places.

WikiTree

Since your genealogy is on WikiTree, you will want to add your DNA tests so that WikiTree can work its magic by automatically making DNA Connections to all of your known Ancestors.

To add your tests from your profile, go over to the right side of your profile page where it says "DNA Has Not Been Tested", then click on the words "Add DNA Test". This will take you to your DNA Tests Page where you can Add, Edit or Delete Tests. Another way would be from your My WikiTree drop down menu; scroll to and click DNA Confirmation, then click on DNA Tests from the menu bar across the top. WikiTree does not upload raw data - just the specific tests you have taken.

Some of the other sites listed below have the option of uploading a GEDCOM (a genealogy file formatted to be easily transferred between systems/computers). This can be helpful to others as they will be able to see your tree in simple form. Download a GEDCOM file of your limbs on WikiTree.

Y-Search

Ysearch.org

This is where you will post your yDNA results. Create an account and follow their directions for getting your raw data file from your testing company and follow their directions for uploading your raw data file. You will also find it helpful to upload your GEDCOM file to their site as this will help others determine your connection. Follow their directions for doing this as well. Download a GEDCOM file of your limbs on WikiTree.

Mitosearch

Mitosearch.org

This is where you will post your mtDNA results. Create an account and follow their directions for getting your raw data file from your testing company and follow their directions for uploading your raw data file. You will also find it helpful to upload your GEDCOM file to their site as this will help others determine your connection. Follow their directions for doing this as well. Download a GEDCOM file of your limbs on WikiTree.

GEDmatch

GEDmatch.com

This is where you will post your auDNA results. Create an account and follow their directions for getting your raw data file from your testing company and follow their directions for uploading your raw data file. You will also find it helpful to upload your GEDCOM file to their site as this will help others determine your connection. Follow their directions for doing this as well. Download a GEDCOM file of your limbs on WikiTree.

Tier 1 Utilities - For a one-time donation of any amount, or the 'Join GEDmatch' button to establish a recurring $10 per month amount. Will give you the following Utilities:

  • Matching Segment Search - Find other kits with segments that match yours.
  • Relationship Tree projection
  • Lazarus - Create surrogate kits to represent close ancestors
  • Triangulation - Identify and confirm triangulation groups (TG) from your matches.

Promethease

Promethease

Promethease is a literature retrieval system that builds a personal DNA report based on connecting a file of DNA genotypes to the scientific findings cited in SNPedia.

Biomedical researchers, healthcare practitioners and customers of DNA testing services (such as 23andMe, Ancestry.com, FamilyTreeDNA, etc.) use Promethease to retrieve information published about their DNA variations. Most reports cost $5 and are produced in under 10 minutes. Much larger data files (such as imputed full genomes from dna.land) cost $10 and have increased runtime.

Your report will remain anonymous.

DNA.Land

DNA.Land

This is where you can post your auDNA results. Create an account and follow their directions for getting your raw data file from your testing company and follow their directions for uploading your raw data file. You will also find it helpful to upload your GEDCOM file to their site as this will help others determine your connection. Follow their directions for doing this as well. Download a GEDCOM file of your limbs on WikiTree.

Using WiiTree to make DNA Connections

You have your test information posted to WikiTree, now what can you do to make those famous WikiTree connections?


Tags

Tags are a way for members to:

  1. follow activity in the topics that interest them, and
  2. connect with other genealogists who share the same interests.

You can enter tags to follow here.

Many of the commonly followed tags are surnames, e.g. SMITH and JONES. Tags can also be locations, e.g. NEW_BRUNSWICK, or for special projects, e.g DNA and EUROARISTO.

When you're following a tag you're alerted to new activity through your daily "Wiki Genealogist Feed" e-mail updates. The updates include WikiTree activity in followed surnames, tagged G2G discussions, and new members who added the tag.

Create a DNA Section on Your Profile page

Once your test results are posted everywhere you are going to start receiving emails from others who are matches to you - or to kits you manage. Instead of creating a stock message to send out - every situation is different - create a DNA section on your profile page, or the profile page for a kit you manage, and post your information.

My Surnames

Create an alphabetical surname list. Identify your maternal and paternal surnames using a color background as as shown below.

Clicking on the name(s) will take you to my, known most distant ancestor blue is paternal and pink is Maternal side:

Allen, Amphlett, Arnold, Anderson, Anderson, Anthony, Ashwell, Atwood
Bacon, Ballentine, Barnard, Bates, Bell, Berrong, Bobo, Bowen, Brown, Brewer, Brumfield, Bullfinch, Burfoote, Burford

Pedigree Chart

Click for larger image.

FTDNA Family Finder Connections, auDNA

FTDNA mtDNA and xDNA Ancestors

FTDNA mtDNA Connections

My Haplogroup Information

mtDNA
Gaulden
Templeton
Hunt
Dillard
Crisp
WikiTree Specifc DNA Connections
DNA Matches on Wikitree who are not connected
Confirmed DNA Cousins on WikiTree

Create your own WikiTree DNA Sandbox

DNA Sandbox Directions

  • Cut and paste the headings from the WikiTree DNA sandbox into your own DNA Sandbox.
  • Use this sandbox to work on your DNA Matches to find the pattern in the DNA.
Group unknown familial surnames together. As familial surname connections become obvious create surname sections for that familial surname. Move unknown familial Surname connected DNA Matches sections into familial surnames sections as the familial surnames are discovered.
  • Follow the example below. Listing Chromosomes with segment matches gives a quick glance overview of Chromosomes within familial surname groups in the Table of Contents.
Chromosome's that connect to a specific family will become obvious, I quick review of matching segments can be made visually to identify overlapping segments between matches within a familial surname section.
  • Add other information you find helpful, do it your way! Make this a one stop shop for information at your fingertips accessible anywhere you have internet to access WikiTree.
Privacy settings should be set to prevent personal information from being seen by anyone other than you or family members/Genealogists who are collaborating with you on DNA. DO NOT PUBLICLY POST PERSONAL INFORMATION.

Workbooks, Spreadsheets and Emails

Whether you are old school or a geek with the fastest and newest computer you have to keep track of all the overflow of information you will be receiving once you get your results and once they are "out" there.

Workbooks

Old School and still in. Keeping a written record of your matches, emails and information works. Make sure, though, that you have your workbook organized well and that it has space for expansion.

Emails

You will be sending a lot of emails to people who match you. Set-up your email program with a folder called DNA then break that folder up into sub folders in whatever way works for you. Be sure to move your emails into these folders after you have read them. Going through your entire inbox to find an email about a specific person after the fact is grueling even with search capabilities.

You could set up an email address specifically to use for contacting people regarding their DNA. Gmail offers free accounts, as do others. Set up the email before you order any tests. Then use it for the testing sites as well as registering with Gedmatch and other reporting sites. This allows you to maintain anonymity as well as allowing you an easier way to keep your DNA emails separate from your primary personal email.

Spreadsheets

Spreadsheets work great at doing a lot of things with your DNA results. Why? Because DNA results are numbers.

If you have one of the many Spreadsheet programs great, if not you can find free ones by searching "Open Source Spreadsheet program". Online spreadsheets are also a good way to work AND you can share your spreadsheets with others looking - if you want to do that. Always keep in mind that most people you match with will appreciate you not posting their information publically.

  • Create a sheet for your data and geek out by adding others results to compare against yours. This works especially well if you join a DNA study and you want to compare mutations side-by-side.
  • Create a sheet to keep track of all of your matches.
  • Use a spreadsheet to keep track of who you have emailed, when and if they have replied.

In all of the above you will want to be mindful of the columns you use, Contact Name, Contact Last Name, Match Name, Match Last Name, Relationship To You, Birth Date, Birth Location, Mothers Name, Fathers Name, Residence Location, Match cM, Chromosome #, SNP's, Generation #, Kit or #, Gedmatch #, Y-Search #, Mitosearch #, Most Distant Ancestor (MDA) Connection, MDA DOB, MDA POB, Other Kits who match, Name, Shared cM, Chromosome, Generation and whatever else makes sense to you. PLUS you are not limited, you can always add columns later.

Analyzing the Data

Triangulation

Genetic triangulation is rather simple. Think of a triangle. /_\

Person A & B match genetically and that forms the base of the triangle. _
Person A has a paper trail (genealogy) that goes back in time. /
Person B has a paper trail that goes back in time. \
The top of the triangle is the MRCA or most recent common ancestor.[2]

Triangulation refers to a group of three individuals (they shouldn't be closely related like 1-2 generations) that are all matching at the same locus (location on a chromosome) with overlapping matching segments between them (they can start/end sometimes earlier or later than with others in the group but they must overlap). Triangulation is the only method to identify an ancestral segment that was given down from a common ancestor that all individual in this one triangulation group are descendants from.

How triangulation can help?

In a simpler terms:

  1. Find your closest matches.
  2. Find who they are in common with (ICW), AND if they also match each other on those overlapping segments. (Remember that there are 2 sides to a chromosome so some of these ICWs may be maternal and some paternal).
  3. Work the ancestral trees of those overlapping AND matching ICWs (both linearly and laterally) to find their common ancestor.
  4. Somewhere in the descendants of that common ancestor will be your family also.

Charts

xDNA Inheritance Percentages Chart.
Male xDNA Inheritance, click for larger image and print to fill in.
Female xDNA Inheritance Chart, Click for larger image and print to fill in.
  • auDNA Chart

Thank you to Genealogy.About.com for this perfect family tree that I have used to explain some different DNA tests.auDNA Fan Chart

auDNA fan Chart, click for larger image.

Free Space Profiles

Free Space profiles work great and can be privacy protected so you can put all your WikiTree and outside matches together in one place.

Analyzing from Birth Family side of adoption

You are a birth parent or relative and you are trying to find your family member using DNA

Create a spreadsheet of all your family matches and add the following information or any variation you find works: Contact Name, Last Name, First Name, Relationship To You, Birth Date, Birth Location, Mothers Name, Fathers Name, Residence Location, Match cM, Chromosome #, SNP's, Generation #, Kit or #, Gedmatch #, Y-Search #, Mitosearch #, Most Distant Ancestor Connection, MDA DOB, MDA POB, Other Kits who match, Name, Shared cM, Chromosome, Generation.

Analyzing when you have adoption connections

You know your birth family, but adoptees or their relative(s) contact you because you match them.

Make a spreadsheet of all your adoptee matches and add the following information or any variation you find works: Contact Name, Last Name, First Name, Who, Birth Mothers Name, Birth Fathers Name, Birth Date, Birth Location, Adoption Date, Adoption Location, Adoptive Name, Adoptive Mothers Name, Adoptive Fathers Name, Residence Location, Match cM, Chromosome #, SNP's, Generation #, Kit or #, Gedmatch #, Y-Search #, Mitosearch #, Story, Most Distant Ancestor Connection, MDA DOB, MDA POB, Other Kits who match, Name, Shared cM, Chromosome, Generation.

Once you have as much information as you can find on them, do a sort of the data by the Chromosomes. Then pull up the spread sheet you have made for your known connections also sorted by Chromosome. Then compare the two lists and see if any of your known DNA matches fall on the same chromosome of your Adoptee matches.

WikiTree G2G DNA and Adoption Questions

DNA Resources


Programs for DNA work

  • Genome Mate Pro Use this to plot the chromosomes for each match and yourself. You can import data from all the key sites into one place eliminating the need to access multiple sites all the time.
  • Ancestry DNA Helper Extension An extension used in conjunction with Google Chrome Browser. The extension helps with analyzing and comparing your AncestryDNA test results. This extension downloads list of matching users and ancestor information.
  • DNAGedcom.com This site helps you identify triangulated matches from Gedmatch and FTDNA. It's a good site to get a visual on triangulated groups. The combination of Genome Mate , Gedmatch, and DNAGedcom is unbeatable for helping identify and track your segments and matches.
  • 529andyou A Google Chrome add-on for collecting 23andMe data. This links takes you to Genealogy Puzzles DNA Blogspot for how to download both Chrome and the add-on.

DNA Coursework

DNA Articles

Glosary of Terms

ISOGG Genetics Glossary

Sources

  1. ISOGG Autosomal DNA
  2. Triangulation from International Society of Genetic Genealogy Wiki






Collaboration