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Extra information from Red Cloud profile

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Surname/tag: Lakota==Research Notes== [http://www.american-tribes.com/Lakota/BIO/MaryGoodRoad.htm American Tribes.com] - ''Mary Good Road also known as Pretty Woman also known as Pretty Owl Bad Face Band, Oglala Wife of Red Cloud'' It is written that Red Cloud had on
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Research Notes

American Tribes.com - Mary Good Road also known as Pretty Woman also known as Pretty Owl Bad Face Band, Oglala Wife of Red Cloud It is written that Red Cloud had only one wife,but it was reported by Mrs. James Cook in J. Olson, Red Cloud and the Sioux Problem, that in his younger days that Red Cloud had 5 wives. Although it seems that Pretty Owl would not share her husband with other women, she supposedly said to an old friend, Charles P. Jordan.[citation needed] "When he, Red Cloud was a young man, I was very jealous of him and used to watch him very closely for fear some other woman would win him from me."

Another source claims Chief Red Cloud had two wives and eight children.[citation needed]

Additional information from Hyde, George E. Red Clouds Folk: A History of the Oglala Sioux Indians University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 1937.

When Red Cloud was born, the Oglala Winter Camp was near Bear Butte, between the Black Hills and Missouri River in the winter of 1821-22. The author states that although Red Cloud said in 1870 he was born at the fork of the Platte River, his statement was "negatived by every bit of evidence we have" and that the claim was a "political prevarication"(Page 34. )
Red Cloud's name came from a meteorite visible that winter that caused a red sky. The author cites Keating. Expedition to the Sources of the St. Peters River. Philadelphia, 1824. Volume 1, Page 316, for the information that the meteorite was seen on 20 September 1822 from Fort Snelling near the mouth of the Minnesota River. (Page 34. ) The author discounts several other name origin stories in the appendix to the book and points out several other individuals with same or similar names also born the winter of the meteorite. (Page 316-17)
Hyde speaks of Red Cloud's nephew (sister's son), He Dog, giving family information in 1931 but does not cite where the information from He Dog was found. He Dog apparently said Red Cloud's father was Brulé Chief Ishna Witca (Lone Man) and his mother was Walks-as-She-Thinks, from Saone band of Oglála, sister to Old Smoke. Old Smoke took their orphaned children into his camp.(Page 317)
Hyde mentions death of Bull Bear as the result of rivalry between Bull Bear and Old Smoke fueled by the fur traders and liquor. Hyde mentions that "some say" Red Cloud was the one who shot Bull Bear and Red Cloud's brother Yellow Lodge was among those who died in the fight. (Pages 53-54)
  • Price, Catherine. The Oglala People, 1841-1879: A Political History. (University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. 1996.) -this book can be "borrowed" on archive.org
    • Red Cloud abdicated his position of itancan (band chief) to son Jack Red Cloud in July 1903. (Page 10)
    • Two fur traders "forged ties" into Red Cloud's family. John Richard, Sr, was known for supplying illegal liquor in the fur trade. Jules Ecoffey was born in Switzerland but was living in the Fort Laramie area after 1854. (Page 20)
    • Near Fort Laramie, in 1841, the Bear group of tiyospaye (bands) and the Smoke group were both camped for trade with the fort. An incident occurred that led to the death of Bull Bear. This author discusses several different stories of what happened and states, "Moreover, all versions state that Red Cloud , a young nephew of Old Smoke who was born in 1821 in Bull Bear's tiyospaye on the Smoky Hill River, fired the fatal shot." (Pages 23-24)
    • Black Buffalo Woman: niece of Red Cloud, wife of No Water, left husband for Crazy Horse (Page 24)
    • John Richard, Jr: accompanied Lakota delegation to Washington as interpreter, "son-in-law" of Yellow Bear and son of John Richard, Sr, who married a sister of Red Cloud (Page 90)
    • Black Twin: brother of No Water who was Red Cloud's son-in-law (Page 99)
    • Spider: Red Cloud's younger brother (Page 136)
    • Sword: Oglala head shirtwearer, nephew of Red Cloud (Page 139)
    • Bear Brains: Red Cloud's "brother-in-law" (Page 137)
  • Powers, Marla N. Lakota Naming: A Modern-Day Hunka Ceremony. Lakota Books. Kendall Park, NJ. 1991. -can be "borrowed" on archive.org
    • detailed description of a Hunka ceremony includes the specific lineage of two children descended from Red Cloud (and other Grandfathers of note), "...their mother is Darlene, whose mother is Sadie Afraid-of-Horse, whose mother is Lucy Red Cloud, whose father is Jack Red Cloud, whose father is the old chief Red Cloud." (Page 37)

Needs Incorporation into Narrative Above

  • Chief Red Cloud fought at the Battle of Bighorn. [citation needed]
  • Red Cloud's War [citation needed]
  • Red Cloud was instrumental in organizing resistance to white expansion into his people's territory. He had refused to sign several treaties with the U.S. government and even stormed out of negotiations held at Fort Laramie in Wyoming in 1866. Fort Laramie was on what was known as the Bozeman Trail, which was developed by John Bozeman as a shortcut to the Oregon trail and the gold-rich lands in what is now Montana.
  • At the time the 1866 meeting was held, the U.S. government was building new forts along the trail north of Fort Laramie. This expansion enraged Red Cloud, who managed to unite several different Native American groups to drive away the soldiers from Fort Phil Kearny. When the U.S. government sent in reinforcements, Red Cloud and his warriors showed them just how powerful they were.
  • On December 21, 1866, Captain William Judd Fetterman led of party of 80 soldiers to eliminate their Native American problem. But they were quickly slaughtered by more than 1,000 warriors who rose up against them. This incident became known as the Fetterman massacre.
  • By the spring of 1868, Red Cloud had finally forced the white man's hand with his continued assault on those who ventured into his territory. General Ulysses S. Grant decided to abandon the forts in the northern part of the Bozeman trail. While he signed a treaty later that year, Red Cloud resisted government efforts to move him and his people from their lands.
  • In 1870, Red Cloud traveled to Washington, D.C., to lobby for Native American rights. He attended a special reception at the White House and later traveled to New York. The mighty leader impressed crowds with his eloquence and diplomatic skills, but could do little to preserve his lands in face of greed over gold. Once the precious metal was found in the Black Hills, the Sioux were soon pushed from their sacred lands.
  • While other Native American leaders, including Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, rose up against the whites, Red Cloud seemed to stay out of the fighting. He moved with his people to the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota in the late 1870s. In the early 1880s, Red Cloud stepped down as leader. He continued to work to improve the lives of his people, however. In 1897, he headed to Washington, D.C., to campaign for better living conditions on the reservation.




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