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Floyd County, Georgia

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History

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Etowah Burial Grounds..
12,000 years ago Big game hunters hunted here in the Etowah River Valley. Clovis and Folsom Fossils from a cave of Ladds Mountain, near Cartersville, Georgia were found near the rivers. The early native Indians were ancestors of the Southern Siouans. The Muskogeans arrived about 400 BC.[1] [2][3]
The 3rd river, Coosa River near the crossing of the Oostanula and Etoway Rivers is the locale of the Moundbuilders settlement. [3]
King site, Artist's conception
A.D. 800-1600 "The King Site in western part of the county, 170 miles from Rome, Georgia has some remains of an Indian village on the Coosa River.[4][1]
july, August 1540 Hernando De Soto left South Carolina, traveling on the Etowah, the Oostanula and the Coosa Rivers to Floyd County on his way to Alabama, and back again in late August... He encountered a settlement of Moundbuilders northeast of the Rome, Georgia area. Near the Moundbuilders area he heard stories of wealth near the Etowah settlement, stories about unknown villages called Chiaha, or Ichiaha or Ulibahali. [3]
Fall, 1540 A part of of Cherokee Indian folk lore said De Soto found the palisade town, and asked the natives to carry the out the town's wealth. [3]
Native Americans built permanent villages near the Etowah, Chattahoochee and Flint River Valleys. Their food sources were game, freshwater mussels and chestnuts. Gardens had native squash, native sweet potato, Jerusalem artichoke, amaranth, sumpweed, and chenopodium. The villages were small, round, built of saplings, river cane and thatch.. They found spouses that were not closely related by visiting the other villages.[2]
The Woodland Period natives built some small mounds, which erosion and agriculture have destroyed. Most mounds were primarily for burials, then layered with piling soil on top, which would increase the size of the burial mounds. [2][1]
A road called "Indian Trace" was used for traveling near the rivers.
Muskogeans brought more advanced cultural traditions from Mexico and the Lower Mississippi Valley. The early Muskogeans formed small communities, governed by large towns. The large towns were usually located in the bottomlands on major rivers such as the Etowah, Ocmulgee and Chattahoochee Rivers. Smaller villages located near creeks. Villages located in this area would have used the regional of the Etalwa (Etowah Mounds) built on the Etowah River, near Cartersville. [2]
Meeting with Tomo-chi-chi and Verelst.


1540 Itaba was assumed by archaeologists to be the location for Etowah. Spanish explorers did not mention the temple mounds. The word Itaba means "border crossing where one trail crosses between (2) provinces. De Soto visited Ypahale, "Horned Lord People" in Tamale Creek", which translated to being a large city near gold mines, possibly Track Rock Terrace Complex, of the north central mountains of Union County, Georgia. [2]
1540 the Native Americans had no immunity to the European Diseases. Traders carried the bacteria northward from Cuba, into the lowlands of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf Coast, where disease struck the coastal groups, After the De Soto Expedition the diseases began to decrease the Native American populations.[2]
Etowah Mounds
1585 The Etowah mounds were abandoned, 1585. Anthropologists feel that the native population of Georgia dropped about 95% between 1500 and 1700 AD. [2]
1764 - Some French maps reflect the Etowah River Basin occupied by the Conchakee Creeks or Apalachicola. (Upper Creeks and Chickasaws). The Upper Creeks lived near the Oostanaula River near the northwestern part of Georgia which extended into southeastern Tennessee and the Tennessee River Basin. [2]
Pre 1776 Cherokees attacked both white and non-Cherokee Indian settlements in the Carolinas. Some North Carolina Cherokee refugees came into the Georgia Mountains after a counter attack by the Carolina and Virginia Patriot militias had destroyed most of the villages. [2]
1776 Some White Indian traders who had Chickasaw or Cherokee wives and children settled near Talking Rock and Scarecorn Creeks, Bartow County area. James Adair was the leader of the settlement near Floyd and Gordon Counties. Adair published his book on the North American Indians. The town of Adairsville on the north part of Bartow County is named for James Adair. [2]
1777 Most of the Cherokees surrendered to the Patriots and renounced their alliance with the British. The Overhills Cherokee faction, led by 'Dragging Canoe' would not surrender, moving into into the Chickasaw village, Chickamauga on the Tennessee River near the northwestern tip of Georgia.[2]
Jackson Hill Canon
More Cherokees came to Chickamauga and settled, hiding in the mountain valleys to avoid detection. The Chickasaws became the minority, and Chickamauga became known in history as Cherokees in the northwestern part of Georgia.. [2]
1777-1793 During the Chickamauga -Cherokee War, the Tennessee Cherokee refugees fled into northwestern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. There are (2) houses and sites still showing the Cherokee occupation of the late 1800's. The site of Battle of Etowah Cliffs is located near downtown Rome, Georgia. [2]
Floyd county has several caves. When Rome, Georgia was founded, settlers discovered Native American burials that hat been carved into the Etowah River mudstone cliffs of Etowah Caves are common in the county. [2]
Oct 17, 1793 Chickamauga Cherokees attacked Cavett's Station, a white settlement on the French Broad River, massacred any prisoners. Col John Sevier led an army of Tennessee Militia into the north Georgia hills near the Etowah and Ostanaula Rivers. [2]
October 17, 1793 The Tennessee Militia attacked the Chickamauga Cherokees after surrounding the (2) hills near the Etowah and Ostanaula Rivers. Cherokee history says the Native American causalities were (over 800), including women and children. Some bands of Chickamauga-Cherokees attacked periodically as Georgia became a Cherokee territory. [2] Some of northwest Georgia was taken from the Upper Creeks for assisting the British. The Creeks felt the land theft was a mistake. They had been promised the Ocmulgee Bottoms as their land forever, but this also was lost within a generation. [2]
1793-1838 Floyd County land was part of the Cherokee Nation. Some of the wealthy mixed blood Cherokees had plantations on the Oostanaula and Etowah. They also owned African slaves.. Major Ridge owned at least (93 ) slaves. [2]
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The settlement called "Head of Coosa" was later renamed Rome, Georgia. History tells us the name "Rome" was given due to the (7) seven hills in the region. (This name was one of 5 names the County founders selected with a random drawing. The Rome, Georgia citizens developed their commerce on the same trading paths used by the American Indians.[3]
John Floyd was born in Beaufort, SC who moved to Northeastern Georgia to become a carpenter. He became a Brigadier General by 1813, commanding the First Brigade of Georgia Militia and (400 Georgia Creek Indians. See:War of 1812 and the resulting Creek war [[[Project:Creek_War||Creek War]]]. Gen. Floyd and the army were victorious at the Redstick village of Autose, where he was severely wounded. See War of 1812 Georgia and Indian Nation in the War of 1812. John Floyd's war service led to being elected to Congress. [2]
Dec 3, 1832 The Georgia Assembly passed an act which extended the jurisdiction over Cherokee territory. First the Act divided the territory into (10) large counties. Floyd County was the #84 County. This was named for US. Congressman, General John Floyd, and Indian Fighter.. [5] [1]
1834-35 The County Seat was moved from Livingston to Rome, Georgia. This was on a fertile spot of land where the Etowah and Ostanaula Rivers meet, forming The Coosa River. Gradually banks, law offices, stores, stage coaches, riverboats, and churches developed as more settlers moved into the county. The First Baptist Church, the oldest church in Rome, Georgia was founded. The "Western Georgian" was the first newspaper[6][1]
Oct, 1838Some of the wealthiest mixed blood Cherokees went to Tennessee for temporary refuge from being sent to Oklahoma on the Trail of Tears.. Later they returned to Georgia to be protected by their white relatives. Eventually they were declared state citizens.. The Cherokee women who had married a white man, were not required to relocate and stayed in the region. Some families took the state citizenship and renounced their membership in the Cherokee Nation. [2][3]
https://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/counties-cities-neighborhoods/floyd-county
1840's The Western and Atlantic Railroad built a spur line to Rome, Georgia. Growth continued into the Civil war era. By this time the manufacturing and Rome, Georgia had developed an upper class of citizens. [3]
GA School for Deaf and Field Hospital in Civil War
1846 The school for the Deaf and Dumb had been suggested. Governor, Wilson Lumpkin approved the opening of the school. It would later be used as a hospital during the Civil War[3]
The Caldwell couple stopped to stay in the McEntee House on their way to accept a position as pastor of a Presbyterian Church in Selma, Alabama. The Rome citizens talked the couple into staying in Rome to teach from their house, the John Ross House. In 1856 the Caldwells took over the Rome Female College on East Second Street. [7]
1850 The steamship, J. J. Seay landed at the origin of the Etowah and Oostanaula rivers at Rome in Floyd County around 1850.[1]
1861 The beginning railway helped Rome, Georgia to produce and transport supplies when the Civil war began . [3]
1864 Union troops, commanded by Gen. William T. Sherman moved through the area twice. The troops under Sherman's command marched from Tennessee toward Atlanta, Georgia. After the Fall of Atlanta, John B Hood's army pushed came back through Floyd County toward Tennessee. [1]
1864 Rome, Georgia was a Union target. The Confederate forces, led by Nathan Bedford Forrest attacked the rear of the Union forces in his efforts to divert the Union forces. Nathan Bedford was rather uneducated with a natural ability for military tactics, visualizing maneuvers. Both Grant and Gen. Sherman feared this man who entered the Confederate forces a private and left as a general. The citizens gave Gen. Forrest a hero's welcome when he entered Rome, Georgia. [3]

Confederacy. [3]

Field Hospital in Civil War
1862 -65 James Noble, Senior and sons of Reading, Pennsylvania ran a foundry in Rome, GA that built boilers (for locomotives, furnaces (for homes and businesses). In 1861Civil War the Nobles converted a portion of their output to weapons, mostly cannon for the Confederates. The foundry was a major target of General William Tecumseh Sherman during the Atlanta Campaign. When Sherman's men withdrew to March to the Sea, they destroyed a lot of the foundry. [8]

Confederacy. [3] :1865 Within 2 weeks of the Atlanta Campaign, Floyd County was under the Union or Federal Forces control with the overall commander, Jefferson Davis. It was 71 miles northwest of Atlanta, Georgia.The campaign was decided in:Cave Spring. Franklin and Nashville, Tennessee blood-stained fields campaigns were disastrous for the Cave Spring The Confederate army established their camp in Cave Spring, Georgia.[9] Confederates, John Bell Hood and P.G.T. Bauregard met here to discuss options of the battle, deciding upon Tennessee. nathan Forrest [3]

Rolator Park, in Cave Spring, Georgia
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1865 The Confederates returned to Floyd and Chattooga County. There was a meeting of John Bell Hood and his commanding officer, Gen. P. G. T. (Pierre Gustave Toutant) Beauregard in Cave Spring.. From there they moved westward toward Tennessee in the Nashville Campaign. The disastrous campaign was decided here in the meeting: Cave Spring. The Tennessee blood-stained fields campaigns were disastrous for the Confederacy.[3]
1860's- 1918 Floyd County is located below the old Cotton Line, which marked the northern limit of cotton species grown before the Civil War. Following the Civil War, some cotton varieties were produced (with shorter growing seasons) which did grow well in Floyd County Georgia, plus it has some lower elevations, thus the growing season is longer. Thus northwestern Georgia is able to grow cotton. Rome and Floyd County has been covered in cotton fields. This continued until the boll weevil struck after World War I.[2]
1867-1870's Floyd County and citizens had to rebuild and recover just like the rest of the southern states and counties, it suffered during both physical damages in the war and adjustment to the economic changes. [1]
Cotton was the main economic contributor. Later the Armuchee, Georgia and Coosa, Georgia communities began the lumber industry in their areas. Cotton was transported on the Coosa river 200 miles southward, then the Oostanaula River transported it 100 more miles to the north. Thus cotton even found its way to markets of British textile mills in Liverpool and Manchester; Antwerp, Belgium, Genoa, Italy; Canada and even New England. [1]
1867-1870's Floyd County economy relied on the cotton it grew.. The cotton block in Rome, Georgia on the corner of Broad St., 2nd Avenue was still present in the 1890's.[1]
Clock Tower, Rome, Georgia.
1870-71 After the Civil War, James Noble, Sr. suggested a water tower be placed on Lowe's Hill, in Rome, Georgia to increase the water pressure. The first vote was against the suggestion, but the second vote passed, 1871. Noble Brothers Foundry produced iron sheets (10 feet X 10 feet), were moved to "Tower Hill" by a horse and cart. There the sheets were fastened together. Scaffolding was around the tower for the workmen. The tank is (26 feet in diameter), and they only filled it to the 60 foot level, holding (250,000 gallons of water). The clock was built in Massachusetts. [10]http://www.aboutnorthgeorgia.com/ang/Clock_Tower
1870's Following the war, Railroads became more important in transportation of industrial goods, and cotton to markets. Rome, Georgia developed into a railroad hub for its cotton and textiles. More jobs were provided for Floyd County citizens. [3]
1900 Floyd County, Georgia experienced a flare-up of racism and violence, called "whitecaps". it is thought these were poor white farmers, or sharecroppers who tried to force their victims to abandon their house and property. The postbellum agricultural depression contributed to this..The county had been growing cotton a long time, the land was probably worn out. At this time there was no knowledge of "rotating crops" .[11] [3]
Tornado A tornado touched down in northern part of Floyd County, March 13, 1913 The tornado moved westward, hitting Rosedale, Georgia, just as the citizens were going to bed. Rosedale was destroyed.. Curryville had some damage east of Rosedale, Georgia.[12]
Chieftain's Museum
The Plantation homes of Cherokee leaders, Major Ridge and son, John are located in Rome, Georgia. Major Ridge's last home, the Chieftains, is a museum filled with the history of the Cherokee People.[2]
Rome, Georgia has many historical buildings and sites from the 1800's. Since it was located at the confluence of the Coosa River with the Etowah and Oostanaula Rivers, the Native Americans occupied they area. In the spot of downtown Rome, Georgia was once home of a large Muskogean town. Later in mid 1800's Rome was a steamboat town and always boomed with its cotton trade. The town now is home to (3) colleges, Berry, Shorter, and Floyd Colleges. Berry College has 26,000 acres for its campus.[2]
Ford garden, Berry School
Berry College
Recently Floyd county has two major hospitals, and a cardiovascular center. This has brought the county to be a center fo medical care in northwest Georgia and Northeast Alabama. , Four higher schools are located here:[1]
Shorter university - Private school
Berry College - Private School
Georgia Highlands College - a two year state College
Georgia Northwestern Technical College - two year state college.

Adjacent Counties

  • Walker County – north
  • Gordon County – northeast
  • Bartow County – east
  • Polk County – south
  • Cherokee County, Alabama – west (CST)
  • Chattooga County – northwest

Government

  • Floyd county has a council-manager form of government, with five county council members elected at-large

1st Courthouse, 1833 was a log Cabin. Then the county seat moved to Rome, but no information on what they used for a courthouse. https://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/topics/counties/floyd

2nd Courthouse, Rome, 1840 Georgia and Floyd Co. raised taxes to pay for courthouse and jail. https://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/topics/counties/floyd

3rd Courthouse built before 1861 Union troops occupied Rome for 6 months, but the courthouse was spared. https://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/topics/counties/floyd

1892 Rome, GA courthouse, Clocktower

4th Courthouse built 1892-93 Has a tower. The building still stands. https://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/topics/counties/floyd

5th Courthouse, 1895, was originally a post office, which was converted to be the courthouse.. This was remodeled 1904, 1911, and 1941. In 1978 it was renovated and was later bought for a courthouses. :One of the older Floyd County Court houses is home for the Rome symphony which was founded 1922, disbanded (1941-1944) . Helen Dean Rhodes led the symphony for the next (28 years). The symphony attracts musicians during the annual concerts. [1]

1895 Post Office, and courthouse remodeled many times.

6th County Courthouse, 1995-98 - houses agencies as well as the superior courthouse.The current Floyd County Courthouse, built in Rome in 1995, is the county's sixth courthouse. The building functions as a multipurpose government facility, housing offices for various agencies in addition to the county and superior courts.[1] https://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/topics/counties/floyd

Geography

Size -Floyd county has a total area of 518 square miles (1,340 km2), of which 510 square miles (1,300 km2) is land and 8.6 square miles (22 km2) (1.7%) is water.
Soil - the Etowah River and Tributaries contribute silt to the soil as well as fertilization
Basins-ACT River Basin (Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basin)
Oostanaula River Sub-basin of ACT River Basin- Northern 1/3 of Floyd County is located in the Oostanaula River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin (Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basin).
Etowah Sub-basin - eastern third of the county
Upper Coosa River Sub-basin - western third of Floyd County
Lakes- Antioch Lake, Lake Conasauga, DeSoto Lake, Heath Lake, Lake Marvin, Powers Lake, Weiss Lake
Geology - Ridge and Valley region. is located in the Great Appalachian Valley section
Formations -Paleozoic sedimentary rocks left when eastern North America was flooded by the Iapetus Ocean.
Rock type -- Dolomitic limestone, limestone, sandstone, mudstone and shale
Caves -- Common in this region.
Creeks, Rivers - fast, clear creeks and rivers are here such as Armuchee, Johns, Big Cedar, Little Cedar, Toms, Dyke, Lavender, Mt. Hope, Beech, Silver, Spring and Vanns Creeks .
Springs - Cave Springs, (southwestern part of the county) has fresh water coming out of a cave in the center of the town.
Volume - of the springs - over 2,000,000 gallons a day.
Wetlands - either permanent or seasonal were near the Etowah and Oostanaula Rivers
In 1900's Some Wetlands were drained to expand. Seasonal flooding still happens near Rome.  :Topsoil - thin on hills and slopes, but the topsoil is deep and fertile within the Etowah and Oostanaula River Basins.
Drainage Etowah and Oostanaula Rivers drain Floyd county, flow from the SE and NE corners crossing the middle in Rome, GA downtown. Them Coosa flows West into Alabama eventually becoming the Mobile River , then flowing south to the Gulf of Mexico.


Protected Areas

Demographics

In 2000 there were 90,565 people in the county with a population density of 176 people/sq. mi. The racial makeup of the county was 81.34% White, 13.31% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.93% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 2.88% from other races, and 1.14% from two or more races. 5.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 2010 census showed 96,317 people with a population density of 188.9 people/sq. mi. The median income for a household in the county was $41,066 and the median income for a family was $49,310. The per capita income for the county was $20,640. About 13.3% of families and 18.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. [13]

  • Floyd County is located in northwest Georgia. It is part of the Rome, GA Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA.)
Berry College.
  • Berry College began in the late 1920's and early 1930's providing education. Modern education owes the county a debt of gratitude for its contributions.[3]

Notables

  • Ellen Axson Wilson -First Lady and first wife of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson
  • Martha Berry founder of Berry College
  • John H. Towers- naval aviation pioneer,World War II military strategist.honored in the Georgia Aviation Hall of Fame.

RESOURCES

  • Antioch Lake
  • Lake Conasauga
  • DeSoto Lake
  • Heath Lake
  • Lake Marvin
  • Powers Lake
  • Weiss Lake

Trails

    • Heritage Trail System
    • Kingfisher Trail
    • Silver Creek Trail
    • Simms Mountain Trail
    • Snow Loop
    • The Goat
    • Thornwood Trail
    • Viking Trail

Schools

  • 1873 Shorter College opened its doors to educate the people in the area and was unusual in the time period since it was not state funded and did not have a religious affiliation. A few years later Martha Berry began teaching the children of Possum Trot and changed education in Floyd County, North Georgia, and the entire state.[3]


    • Rome High School Plus 3 others in the county
      • 4 middle schools
        • many Elementary Schools
  • Bob Richards Youth Detention Center (RYDC)


Highways

  • US 27.svg U.S. Route 27
  • US 411.svg U.S. Route 411
  • Georgia 1.svg State Route 1
  • Georgia 1 Loop.svg State Route 1 Loop
  • Georgia 20.svg State Route 20
  • Georgia 53.svg State Route 53
  • Georgia 100.svg State Route 100
  • Georgia 101.svg State Route 101
  • Georgia 140.svg State Route 140
  • Georgia 156.svg State Route 156
  • Georgia 293.svg State Route 293

Cities

  • Cave Spring
  • Lindale
  • Livingston
  • Mount Berry
  • Rome
  • Shannon

Census

  • According to the 2010 U.S. census, Floyd County has a population of 96,317, an increase from the 2000 population of 90,565.

Cemeteries

Sources

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 https://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/counties-cities-neighborhoods/floyd-county Northwest
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 https://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/native-american-history-of-floyd-county-georgia.htm
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 http://roadsidegeorgia.com/county/floyd.html
  4. http://www.aboutnorthgeorgia.com/ang/Etowah_Indian_Mounds_State_Historic_Site
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floyd_County,_Georgia
  6. http://genealogytrails.com/geo/floyd/village-to-town.html
  7. http://genealogytrails.com/geo/floyd/village-to-town.html
  8. http://www.aboutnorthgeorgia.com/ang/Clock_Tower
  9. http://romegeorgia.org/civil-war/history/cave-spring/
  10. http://www.aboutnorthgeorgia.com/ang/Clock_Tower
  11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitecapping
  12. http://www.northwestgeorgianews.com/rome/update-worst-of-storms-appear-over/article_92bbd076-1795-57db-9abb-e5d20be6a37b.html
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floyd_County,_Georgia




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